Martin Gerber is a Swiss former professional ice hockey goaltender. He was drafted in the eighth round, as 232nd overall, by the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft. Before moving to the National Hockey League in 2002, Gerber played professionally in Switzerland and Sweden. Gerber played two seasons with the Mighty Ducks before spending time with the Carolina Hurricanes, with whom he won the Stanley Cup in 2006, the Ottawa Senators and the Toronto Maple Leafs. Gerber spent the 2009–10 season in the Kontinental Hockey League before signing with the Edmonton Oilers in 2010. Following the 2011–12 season, he played two years in the Elitserien before returning to the NLA. Gerber finished his playing career with the Kloten Flyers. Gerber began his career in his native Switzerland for SC Langnau. Playing in the Nationalliga B, Gerber and the Tigers won promotion to Nationalliga A in 1998. In 2001, he was drafted by the NHL's Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and spent the subsequent season in Sweden playing for Färjestads BK in the Elitserien.
He moved to the Ducks organization in 2002 and on 11 October of that year, Gerber played his first NHL game, a 4–2 loss to the Dallas Stars. He went on to play 22 regular season games that season, serving as back-up to Jean-Sébastien Giguère; that season, the Mighty Ducks made it to the Stanley Cup Finals, narrowly losing in seven games to the New Jersey Devils. Gerber continued his role as back-up and played 32 games for Anaheim in 2003–04. On 18 June 2004, Gerber was traded to the Carolina Hurricanes in exchange for Tomáš Malec and a third-round pick in the 2004 NHL Entry Draft. During the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Gerber returned to his former European teams, playing 20 games with the SCL Tigers and 30 with Färjestad BK. Gerber returned to the NHL for the 2005–06 season, it was a successful one for Gerber, who won 38 games and helped earn Carolina their third division championship. Gerber entered the 2006 Stanley Cup playoffs as the Hurricanes' starting goaltender, but he struggled in the team's opening series and was replaced by rookie Cam Ward, his back-up for most of the season.
Ward went on to backstop the team to its first Stanley Cup championship as the Hurricanes defeated the Edmonton Oilers in seven games in the Finals. Gerber, who earned 1 of Carolina's 16 playoff wins, became the second Swiss player in NHL history to win a Stanley Cup. On 1 July 2006, as a free agent, Gerber signed a contract with the Ottawa Senators. However, he was replaced as starting goaltender by Ray Emery; that season, Emery led the Senators to their first appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals, where they would lose to Gerber's former team, the Anaheim Ducks. It was Gerber's third appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals in five years. Gerber began the 2007–08 season as the Senators' starter when Emery was sidelined after off-season wrist surgery, his play was inconsistent and Emery resumed the starting job once he was healthy again. However, after the team suffered a rapid decline in the standings and head coach John Paddock was fired and replaced by general manager Bryan Murray, Murray declared Gerber as the starting goaltender for the remainder of the season.
Gerber entered the 2008–09 season in that role, but his uneven play continued and he was supplanted by the newly signed Alex Auld. On 22 January 2009, Gerber was placed on waivers after having been sent down to the Senators' then-American Hockey League affiliate, the Binghamton Senators. On 4 March 2009, Gerber was claimed off waivers by the Toronto Maple Leafs to replace goaltender Vesa Toskala, scheduled for season-ending surgery. During a game on 24 March against the Washington Capitals, Gerber was assessed a game-misconduct and suspended for three games for an incident with the on-ice officials, during which Gerber was arguing a call and proceeded to make contact with referee Mike Leggo and a linesman, attempting to restrain him. During the off-season, Gerber signed a contract with Atlant Moscow Oblast of the Kontinental Hockey League, coincidentally the same team that fellow former Senators goaltender Ray Emery played for the previous season before returning to the NHL in 2009. On 13 December 2009, while playing for Atlant, Gerber suffered an apparent fracture of the fourth vertebrae when an opposing forward slid into him.
Gerber's neck injury was thought to be a compression fracture of a cervical vertebra and it was believed that he would miss upwards of six months. However, after more comprehensive testing the following day, no fractures were found and it was diagnosed as a spinal contusion. On 6 August 2010, Gerber signed a one-year contract with the Edmonton Oilers, he was assigned to the Oklahoma City Barons. He was recalled on 18 November after Oilers' goaltender Nikolai Khabibulin was placed on injured reserve. Gerber made his first start for the Oilers on 25 November, recording a 3–2 victory over the visiting Colorado Avalanche, he drew an assist on the game-winning goal scored by Taylor Hall. Gerber started one more game, a 4–1 victory at Ottawa, before Khabibulin was re-activated and Gerber was returned to the Barons. Gerber was again re-called in late February after another injury to Khabibulin. Picking up where he left off in late November, Gerber stopped 34 shots in a 2–1 shootout win over the Nashville Predators on 1 March, improving to a 3–0 record with Edmonton.
Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. Grigori Sokolnikov was born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant in Romny on 15 August 1888, the son of a Jewish doctor employed by the railways, he moved to Moscow as a teenager and joined the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1905. In 1906-07, he was based in the Sokolniki district of Moscow as a Bolshevik propagandist until autumn 1907, when mass arrests crushed the district organization, he was detained for 18 months in solitary confinement in Butyrka prison, sentenced to lifelong exile in Siberia. Deported in February 1909, it took four months for him to reach his assigned destination, a village called Rybnoye, on the bank of the Angara River, six weeks to escape, via Moscow to Paris. In France, Sokolnikov obtained a doctorate in economics, he joined the ` conciliatior' Bolsheviks. During the war, he moved to Switzerland, contributed to the newspaper Nashe Slovo, edited by Trotsky.
In April 1917, Sokolnikov was a passenger in the famous sealed train that took Vladimir Lenin and other Bolsheviks across Germany to Russia. In April 1917, Sokolnikov was elected to the Moscow party committee, he backed Lenin's call for a second revolution. When Lenin was forced to go into hiding, in July, Sokolnikov moved to Petrograd, where he and Stalin were given joint control over Bolsheviks newspapers. Elected to the Central Committee in August 1917, he was selected in October as a member of the'Political Bureau', a forerunner of the Politburo, whose members were Lenin, Kamenev, Stalin and Bubnov, but the'bureau' never met. Trotsky said wrote that it was'completely impractical', with Lenin and Zinoviev in hiding, Zinoviev and Kamenev opposed to the planned Bolshevik insurrection. After the October Revolution, he was a member of the original delegation led by Joffe sent to Brest-Litovsk to sign a truce with Germany; when the truce broke down, the Germans was advancing through Latvia towards Petrograd, he backed Lenin's line that the soviet government would have to capitulate, though he saw this as a delaying tactic while they created a Red Army capable of conducting a'revolutionary war'.
When the decision was made, on 24 February 1918, no-one wanted to sign the surrender, Sokolnikov was instructed to lead the delegation, after he had tried in vain to nominate Zinoviev instead. He signed the final treaty and under protest, on 3 March, forecasting that German's expansionism would be short-lived; the German and Austrian diplomats complained that his outburst spoiled the final day of negotiations. Sokolnikov wrote that the division of labour in capitalist society was brilliantly expressed in this contrast of unceremonial plunder at the front and mannerly gentlemanliness at the green table. On 10 May, Sokolnikov told a meeting of the Central Committee that the Germans could not be trusted to honour the treaty, that it had been a mistake to sign it, it required a fierce rebuttal from Lenin to avert the threat of resuming the war. Despite his intervention, in June 1918, Sokolnikov led a delegation to Berlin to negotiate a trade treaty with Germany, but the talks were aborted after the assassination of the German ambassador in Moscow, Wilhelm von Mirbach in July.
After his return from Brest, late in 1917, Sokolnikov supervised the seizure of Russian banks, the creation of new centralised banking system. In March 1918, he was appointed an editor of Pravda, but he spent the entire Russian Civil War on the front line, firstly as Political commissar with the Second Army, responsible for putting down anti-Bolshevik rebellions on the western side of the Ural mountains, around Vyatka and Izhevsk. Two months after the rebellion had been crushed, he was transferred to the Southern Front, as commissar for the Ninth Army and the Thirteenth Army, for the campaign against the Don Cossacks, rebelled against Bolshevik rule, the White Army of General Denikin. Alongside Rosalia Zemlyachka, he became commissar of the Eighth army, using this position to order mass shootings during the Russian Civil War, he was for a time, military commander of the Eighth Army, despite a protest from Stalin's ally Sergo Ordzhonikidze, who wrote to Lenin demanding:"Where did the idea come from that Sokolnikov could command an army?...
Is it to protect Sokolnikov's pride that he has been allowed to play with a whole army?" In August 1920, Sokolnikov was posted to Central Asia as chairman of the government of Turkestan and commander of the Turkestan Front. He led the suppression of the Basmachi rebellion, he oversaw the introduction of a new currency, the introduction of tax in place of appropriation of surplus produce, the return of free trade, the return of land to Kirghiz, seized by Russian settlers, the revival of cotton production. Sokolnikov was appointed USSR Deputy People's Commissar of Finance on 10 January 1922. Since the People's Commissar, Nikolai Krestinsky had been appointed Ambassador to Germany, he was in fact in charge of Narkomfin from that time. In March 1922, he was re-elected to the Central Committee and in the autumn he was formally appointed as People's Commissar; this role made him central to the introduction of the New Economic Policy. More than anyone else, he is credited with introducing a stable currency to end the economic chaos of the civil war years.
He proposed the introduction of a new currency in the month. The'gold bank notes' or chervontsi were issued by the state bank in November 1922. During 1922, Sokolnikov argued
Ambassador Luis Fernando Carrera Castro is a Guatemalan economist, political analyst and diplomat. He served as Permanent Representative of Guatemala to the United Nations during the presidency of Otto Perez Molina. Before that, he was the Minister for Foreign Affairs, during the same administration, he is a Guatemalan economist, specializing in fiscal policies, a political analyst. He obtained his bachelor's degree in economics from Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica in 1990, he obtained an M. Phil. In Economics and Politics of Development, at Cambridge University in 1992. Luis Fernando Carrera Castro was born in Guatemala City. Son of José Roberto Carrera Bonilla and Judith Castro de Carrera, his father was from Guatemala City, his mother came from Tactic, Alta Verapaz. He began his studies in Guatemala City, but due to the political situation of the country, his father went into exile in 1971 and the rest of the family moved to Costa Rica in 1975, where he finishes primary and secondary school.
He finishes his undergraduate studies as Bachelor at the Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica in 1990, departs to England, to obtain his MPhil degree on Economics and Politics of Development at the University of Cambridge in 1992. He is married to economist Elizabeth Ugalde Miranda, Costa Rican, with whom he has two daughters, Amanda Isabel and Laura Beatriz. Between 1993 and 1994, he was the Research Director for the Latin American regional office of the International Cooperative Alliance, he was a consultant in rural development programs in El Salvador and Nicaragua, for several European NGO's. From 1994 to 2007, he worked for the United Nations Children's Fund in different capacities, from consultant in Costa Rica and Guatemala, to Deputy Representative in Ecuador, Representative in Cape Verde and Panama. From 2008 to 2010, he worked as Executive Director of the Instituto Centroamericano de Estudios Fiscales, ICEFI. From March 2010 until December 2011, he served as Executive Director for the Soros Foundation in Guatemala.
From 2008 through 2011 Carrera wrote a weekly op-ed in elPeriódico, a Guatemalan newspaper, his editorials were published by different media outlets in Central America and the United States. His analysis and comments have been broadcast on international TV networks, such as CNN, Al Jazeera and the Spanish Television, he has written technical abstracts in specialized publications of the United Nations. He has participated as a speaker in several international seminars and workshops in Europe, Latin America and the United States. During his international career, Carrera Castro collaborated in various public policy research and advocacy efforts, aiming to strengthen the capacities of government and civil society for the use of Fiscal Policy as a tool to foster human development. In this regard, he has sought to promote Human Rights compliance through an effective and strategic use of public budgets. Between 2011 and 2012, Carrera was appointed by Otto Perez Molina, President of Guatemala, as Secretary for Planning and Programming.
On January 14, 2013, Carrera was appointed Guatemala's Minister of Foreign Affairs by President Otto Pérez. On September 8, 2014, President Otto Pérez announced that Fernando Carrera was being removed from his post as Foreign Affairs Minister, transferred to the UN, where he served as the Guatemalan Ambassador at the Permanent Mission. Ambassador Carrera presented his credential letters to the UN Secretary General on September 19, 2014; because of the political turmoils in Guatemala, in 2015, Ambassador Carrera requested publicly for the resignation of president Perez Molina. After manifesting it in an opinion editorial, he presented his resignation to his post at the UN on August 25, 2015