James Roosevelt Bayley
James Roosevelt Bayley was an American prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as the eighth Archbishop of Baltimore. Bayley was born to Guy Carlton Bayley and Grace Roosevelt, his father was the son of Dr. Richard Bayley, a professor at Columbia College who created New York's quarantine system, the brother of Elizabeth Ann Seton, canonized in 1975 as the first American-born Roman Catholic saint, his mother was the daughter of Maria Eliza Walton. The eldest of four children, he had two brothers and William, a sister, Maria Eliza, he was distantly related to President Theodore Roosevelt and President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Bayley received his early education at the Mount Pleasant Classical Institute in Amherst, Massachusetts, he once considered a career on the sea, hoping to become a midshipman in the U. S. Navy, but abandoned these plans, he attended Washington College in Hartford, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1835. Raised as a Protestant, he decided to enter the Episcopal ministry and studied under the Rev. Samuel Farmar Jarvis in Middletown.
Bayley was ordained a priest in the Episcopal Church on February 14, 1840. He served as rector of St. Andrew's Church in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City. While serving at St. Andrew's, Bayley became acquainted with a Catholic priest named John McCloskey, who would become Archbishop of New York and the first American cardinal, became drawn to Catholicism, he served as rector of St. John's Church in Hagerstown, before traveling to Rome, where he was received into the Catholic Church, he received a conditional baptism on April 19, 1842, received Confirmation and First Communion on the following April 28. Bayley traveled throughout Europe for over a year following his conversion and entered the Seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris in August 1843, he returned to New York and there completed his studies at St. John's College in Fordham. On March 2, 1844, Bayley was ordained a Catholic priest by Bishop John Hughes at St. Patrick's Cathedral, his maternal grandfather, who had made Bayley heir of his large fortune, removed him from his will after his ordination.
He was appointed vice-president of St. John's College, where he served as professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres, he was acting president in 1846 and served as a pastor in New Brighton, Staten Island. From 1848 to 1853, he was private secretary to Bishop Hughes, he published "A Brief Sketch of the Early History of the Catholic Church on the Island of New York" in 1853. On October 30, 1853, Bayley was consecrated the first bishop of the Diocese of Newark. Bayley's mission for the fledgling Diocese was to establish Catholic education, as he said: "In our present position, the schoolhouse has become second in importance to the House of God itself.... Every Catholic child in the state in a Catholic school." Bayley realized that in order to be effective in his mission he needed the help of a Diocesan community. In 1857 a group of Benedictine Sisters arrived from Pennsylvania and in the following year, Bayley sent five women to train with the Sisters of Charity. Many other communities of religious men and women joined the Diocese in the next decades.
When the Diocese of Newark was established he was named its first bishop and consecrated October 30, 1853, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, by Archbishop Gaetano Bedini, the Apostolic Nuncio to Brazil, en route to Rome; the Bishops of Brooklyn and Burlington—whose dioceses were erected in 1853—were consecrated at the same time, the first occurrence of such an elaborate ceremony in the United States. Bayley's work of organizing the new diocese was not easy, he had more than 40,000 Catholics of Irish and German extraction, with only twenty-five priests to minister to them. There was not a single diocesan institution, no funds, poverty on all sides. He, applied for help to the Association of the Propagation of the Faith of Lyons, to the Leopoldine Association of Vienna and from both received material assistance. Bayley saw need for a Catholic college, on September 1, 1856, the need was filled by the opening of Chegary Academy in Madison. In 1860 the school moved to its present location in South Orange and was incorporated into a college by the state of New Jersey in 1861.
The College had a seminary, necessary for educating new priests. Despite the original need, the number of new recruits exceeded the abilities of the seminary. Bayley was instrumental in the founding of the North American College in Rome at the request of Pope Pius IX, where he sent a young seminarian by the name of Michael Corrigan. In a letter Bayley wrote on April 10, 1865, reviewing the condition of the diocese after his first ten years there he says: I find that while the Catholic population has increased a third, the churches and priests have doubled in number. In 1854 there was no religious community. Now we have a monastery of Benedictines, another of Passionists, a mother-house of Sisters of Charity, conducting seventeen different establishments. In 1854 there was no institution of learning. In addition to these he introduced the Jesuits and the Sisters of St. Joseph and of St. Dom
Lebanon is a home rule-class city in Marion County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 6,331 at the 2010 census, it is the seat of its county. Lebanon is located in southeast of Louisville. A national cemetery is located nearby. Lebanon is renowned for its Ham Days Festival and Tractor Show, held during the last weekend of September. In the 1960s and early 1970s, it was known as an entertainment hotspot, as nationally known acts appeared at Club 68 and the Golden Horseshoe nightclubs. Lebanon is located at 37°34′14″N 85°15′23″W, it is 30 miles from Danville and 20 miles north of Campbellsville. It is located at the junction of US 68 and Ky. 55, Ky. 52, Ky. 49. Ky. 84 intersects Ky. 52 just west of town. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,718 people, 2,332 households, 1,476 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,296.6 per square mile. There were 2,555 housing units at an average density of 579.3 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 77.88% White, 19.92% African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.47% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population. There were 2,332 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 20.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,860, the median income for a family was $26,552.
Males had a median income of $25,889 versus $18,680 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,311. About 26.7% of families and 30.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.8% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over. In historical context, it is important to note that prior to the establishment of the city now known as Lebanon, the nearby town of Georgetown was named "Lebanon" during its first few years of establishment, it was renamed in 1790 in honor of President George Washington. Present-day Lebanon was established in 1814 and named for the Biblical Lebanon because of its abundant cedar trees; the founding community traces back to the Hardin's Creek Meeting House, built by Presbyterians from Virginia. It was incorporated as a city on January 28, 1815, became the county seat of Marion County in 1835; because of its style and businesses, Lebanon had the reputation of being Kentucky's Philadelphia and was considered for the site of the state capitol.
In the 19th century, Lebanon was one of the stops along the National Turnpike from Maysville to Nashville. In 1819, Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson met here after having crossed paths on their journeys. Many of its brick homes date from the antebellum period, including Hollyhill and Myrtledene Bed and Breakfast. Much of Lebanon's downtown business district was placed on the National Historic Register. A branch of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad was built to Lebanon in 1857, but growth of the town was halted by the Civil War. Three battles were fought nearby, control over the railroad branch passed between Union and Confederate hands several times. After the death of his brother Tom during a local battle, Confederate John Hunt Morgan's cavalry burned the railroad depot, a hotel, several residences on July 5, 1863 during the Battle of Lebanon. Lebanon's Historic Homes and Landmarks Tour is part of the Kentucky's Civil War Heritage Trail and includes twenty-four listings. On the Civil War Discovery Trail, three landmarks stand out.
The Commissary Building, the old Sunnyside Dispensary Building, was in place during the Civil War and supplied dry goods and food stuffs to the Union Garrison here. The Shuck building, now Henning's Restaurant, was the office of General George H. Thomas, when he gathered an army of several thousand to go to Mill Springs to defend the Cumberland Valley. Myrtledene Bed and Breakfast was where General John Hunt Morgan rode his horse in the house and started up the stairs. General Morgan used the property as his headquarters. On the southern limits of Lebanon is the National Cemetery, where many of the Union Soldiers who fell in the 1862 Battle of Perryville were laid to rest; the cemetery hosts annual Memorial Day celebrations. The town rebounded after the war and became a trade center, but declined as railroads became less important to commerce in the 1900s; the tracks were abandoned eventually removed by CSX Transportation in the mid-1980s. In the 1950s, 1960s, early 1970s, Lebanon was known as an entertainment hotspot, as nationally known acts appeared at The Plantation, Club Cherry, Club 68, the Golden Horseshoe nightclubs.
The clubs hosted famous acts such as Ike and Tina Turner, Nat King Cole, Jerry Lee Lewis, Credence Clearwater Revival, The Platters, the Amazing Rhythm Aces, Otis Redding, Jimi Hendrix, Little Richard, Bo Diddley, Jackie Wilson, The Supremes, Ray Charles, James Brown, Chuck Berry, Fats Domino and Dave, Wilson Pickett, B. B. King, Percy Sledge, Bobby Blue
St. Peter's Basilica
The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican, or St. Peter's Basilica, is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and the largest church in the world. While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church nor the cathedral of the Diocese of Rome, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines, it has been described as "holding a unique position in the Christian world" and as "the greatest of all churches of Christendom". Catholic tradition holds that the Basilica is the burial site of Saint Peter, chief among Jesus's Apostles and the first Bishop of Rome. Saint Peter's tomb is directly below the high altar of the Basilica. For this reason, many Popes have been interred at St. Peter's since the Early Christian period, there has been a church on this site since the time of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great.
Construction of the present basilica, which would replace Old St. Peter's Basilica from the 4th century AD, began on 18 April 1506 and was completed on 18 November 1626. St. Peter's is famous for its liturgical functions; the Pope presides at a number of liturgies throughout the year, drawing audiences of 15,000 to over 80,000 people, either within the Basilica or the adjoining St. Peter's Square. St. Peter's has many historical associations, with the Early Christian Church, the Papacy, the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-reformation and numerous artists Michelangelo; as a work of architecture, it is regarded as the greatest building of its age. St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of Major Basilica, all four of which are in Rome. Contrary to popular misconception, it is not a cathedral. St. Peter's is a church built in the Renaissance style located in the Vatican City west of the River Tiber and near the Janiculum Hill and Hadrian's Mausoleum, its central dome dominates the skyline of Rome.
The basilica is approached via St. Peter's Square, a forecourt in two sections, both surrounded by tall colonnades; the first space is the second trapezoid. The façade of the basilica, with a giant order of columns, stretches across the end of the square and is approached by steps on which stand two 5.55 metres statues of the 1st-century apostles to Rome, Saints Peter and Paul. The basilica is cruciform in shape, with an elongated nave in the Latin cross form but the early designs were for a centrally planned structure and this is still in evidence in the architecture; the central space is dominated both externally and internally by one of the largest domes in the world. The entrance is through entrance hall, which stretches across the building. One of the decorated bronze doors leading from the narthex is the Holy Door, only opened during jubilees; the interior is of vast dimensions. One author wrote: "Only does it dawn upon us – as we watch people draw near to this or that monument, strangely they appear to shrink.
This in its turn overwhelms us."The nave which leads to the central dome is in three bays, with piers supporting a barrel-vault, the highest of any church. The nave is framed by wide aisles. There are chapels surrounding the dome. Moving around the basilica in a clockwise direction they are: The Baptistery, the Chapel of the Presentation of the Virgin, the larger Choir Chapel, the altar of the Transfiguration, the Clementine Chapel with the altar of Saint Gregory, the Sacristy Entrance, the Altar of the Lie, the left transept with altars to the Crucifixion of Saint Peter, Saint Joseph and Saint Thomas, the altar of the Sacred Heart, the Chapel of the Madonna of Column, the altar of Saint Peter and the Paralytic, the apse with the Chair of Saint Peter, the altar of Saint Peter raising Tabitha, the altar of St. Petronilla, the altar of the Archangel Michael, the altar of the Navicella, the right transept with altars of Saint Erasmus, Saints Processo and Martiniano, Saint Wenceslas, the altar of St. Jerome, the altar of Saint Basil, the Gregorian Chapel with the altar of the Madonna of Succour, the larger Chapel of the Holy Sacrament, the Chapel of Saint Sebastian and the Chapel of the Pietà.
At the heart of the basilica, beneath the high altar, is the Confessio or Chapel of the Confession, in reference to the confession of faith by St. Peter, which led to his martyrdom. Two curving marble staircases lead to this underground chapel at the level of the Constantinian church and above the purported burial place of Saint Peter; the entire interior of St. Peter's is lavishly decorated with marble, architectural sculpture and gilding; the basilica contains a large number of tombs of popes and other notable people, many of which are considered outstanding artworks. There are a number of sculptures in niches and chapels, including Michelangelo's Pietà; the central feature is a baldachin, or canopy over the Papal Altar, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. The apse culminates in a sculptural ensemble by Bernini, containing the symbolic Chair of Saint Peter. One observer wrote: "St Peter's Basilica is the reason why Rome is still the center of the civilized world. For religious and architectural reasons it by itself justifies a journey to Rome, its interior offers a palimpsest of artistic styles at the
Saint Peter's tomb
Saint Peter's tomb is a site under St. Peter's Basilica that includes several graves and a structure said by Vatican authorities to have been built to memorialize the location of Saint Peter's grave. St. Peter's tomb is near the west end of a complex of mausoleums that date between about AD 130 and AD 300; the complex was torn down and filled with earth to provide a foundation for the building of the first St. Peter's Basilica during the reign of Constantine I in about AD 330. Though many bones have been found at the site of the 2nd-century shrine, as the result of two campaigns of archaeological excavation, Pope Pius XII stated in December 1950 that none could be confirmed to be Saint Peter's with absolute certainty. Following the discovery of bones, transferred from a second tomb under the monument, on June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI claimed that the relics of Saint Peter had been identified in a manner considered convincing; the grave claimed by the Church to be that of Saint Peter lies at the foot of the aedicula beneath the floor.
The remains of four individuals and several farm animals were found in this grave. In 1953, after the initial archeological efforts had been completed, another set of bones were found that were said to have been removed without the archeologists' knowledge from a niche in the north side of a wall that abuts the red wall on the right of the aedicula. Subsequent testing indicated. Margherita Guarducci argued that these were the remains of Saint Peter and that they had been moved into a niche in the graffiti wall from the grave under the aedicula "at the time of Constantine, after the peace of the church". Antonio Ferrua, the archaeologist who headed the excavation that uncovered what is known as Saint Peter's Tomb, said that he wasn't convinced that the bones that were found were those of Saint Peter; the upper image shows the area of the lower floor of St. Peter's Basilica that lies above the site of Saint Peter's tomb. A portion of the aedicula, part of Peter's tomb rose above level of this floor and was made into the Niche of the Pallium which can be seen in the center of the image.
The earliest reference to Saint Peter's death is in a letter of Clement, bishop of Rome, to the Corinthians. The historian Eusebius, a contemporary of Constantine, wrote that Peter "came to Rome, was crucified with his head downwards," attributing this information to the much earlier theologian Origen, who died c. 254 AD. St. Peter's martyrdom is traditionally depicted in religious iconography as crucifixion with his head pointed downward. Peter's place and manner of death are mentioned by Tertullian in Scorpiace, where the death is said to take place during the Christian persecutions by Nero. Tacitus describes the persecution of Christians in his Annals, though he does not mention Peter. "They were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt." Furthermore, Tertullian says these events took place in the imperial gardens near the Circus of Nero. No other area would have been available for public persecutions after the Great Fire of Rome destroyed the Circus Maximus and most of the rest of the city in the year 64 AD.
This account is supported by other sources. In The Passion of Peter and Paul, dating to the fifth century, the crucifixion of Peter is recounted. While the stories themselves are apocryphal, they were based on earlier material, helpful for topographical reasons, it reads, "Holy men... took down his body secretly and put it under the terebinth tree near the Naumachia, in the place, called the Vatican." The place called Naumachia would be an artificial lake within the Circus of Nero where naval battles were reenacted for an audience. The place called Vatican was at the time a hill next to the complex and next to the Tiber River, featuring a cemetery of both Christian and pagan tombs. Dionysius of Corinth mentions the burial place of Peter as Rome when he wrote to the Church of Rome in the time of the Pope Soter, thanking the Romans for their financial help. "You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and taught us in our Corinth.
And they taught together in like manner in Italy, suffered martyrdom at the same time." Catholic tradition holds that the bereaved Christians followed their usual custom in burying him as near as possible to the scene of his suffering. According to Catholic lore, he was laid in ground that belonged to Christian proprietors, by the side of a well-known road leading out of the city, the Via Cornelia on the hill called Vaticanus; the actual tomb was an underground vault, approached from the road by a descending staircase, the body reposed in a sarcophagus of stone in the center of this vault. The Book of Popes mentions that Pope Anacletus built a "sepulchral monument" over the underground tomb of Saint Peter shortly after his death; this was a small chamber or oratory over the tomb, where three or four persons could kneel and pray over the grave. The pagan Roman Emperor, Julian the Apostate, mentions in 363 A. D. in his work Three Books Against the Galileans that the tomb of Saint Peter was a place of worship, albeit secretly.
There is evidence of the existence of the tomb at the beginning of the 3rd century, in the words of the presbyter Caius refuting the Montanist traditions of a certain Proclus: "But I can show the trophies of the Apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican, or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Louisville
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Louisville consists of twenty-four counties in the central American state of Kentucky, covering 8,124 square miles. It is the seat of the Metropolitan Province of Louisville, which comprises the states of Kentucky and Tennessee; the cathedral church of the archdiocese is the Cathedral of the Assumption. The Diocese began in 1808 when the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bardstown centered in Bardstown, a thriving frontier settlement, it was established along with the dioceses of Boston, New York, Philadelphia by Pope Pius VII, out of the territory of the Diocese of Baltimore, the first Catholic diocese in the United States, first "erected" in 1789 with the first bishop in the U. S. A. John Carroll, ordained/consecrated in Britain in 1790. Pope Benedict XVI's visit to the U. S. in April 2008 celebrated the 200th anniversary of the creation of these wider dioceses and the elevation of Baltimore to an archdiocese. When founded, the Bardstown Diocese included most of the new states of Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana and Michigan—the western territories of America to the Mississippi River and the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
While Louisville is the oldest inland diocese in the United States, it is not the oldest west of the Appalachians. That distinction belongs to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans founded under Spanish rule in 1793, which territory as part of the Louisiana Purchase became a part of the U. S. A. in 1803, Louisiana admitted as a state in 1812. Benedict Joseph Flaget was the first Bishop of Bardstown; the historic Basilica of Saint Joseph Proto-Cathedral, the former cathedral of the Diocese of Bardstown, is now a parish church, a national historic site. While the French may have had initial influence in the formation of the Roman Catholic community in the Louisville area immigrants from Germany comprised the bulk of the Archdiocese's communicant strength in the mid-19th century in the city of Louisville. However, much of the Catholic population in areas southeast of Louisville is of English extraction, consisting of descendants of recusants who settled in Maryland in colonial times. In 1841, the diocese was moved from Bardstown to Louisville.
The Diocese of Louisville was elevated in 1937 to become the Archdiocese of Louisville, the "metropolitan" province for all the dioceses in Kentucky and Tennessee with an Archbishop of Louisville. There are three deaneries: Elizabethtown and Bardstown; as of 2018, the archdiocese contains 200,000 Catholics in 66,000 households, served by one hundred twenty-two parishes and missions. One half of all Catholics in the Commonwealth reside within the bounds of the Archdiocese of Louisville, seventy-nine percent of all Catholics in the archdiocese reside in the Louisville Metro area. There are fifty-nine Catholic high schools serving more than 23,400 students; the archdiocese is home to one hundred sixty-six diocesan priests, one hundred twelve permanent deacons, fifty-two religious institute priests, seventy-seven religious brothers, nine hundred forty-four religious sisters. The archdiocese serves more than 220,000 persons in Catholic hospitals, health care centers, homes for the aged, specialized homes.
Services, mother-infant care program, senior social services, rural ministries services. The lists of bishops and their years of service: Benedict Joseph Flaget, S. S. John Baptist Mary David, S. S. Benedict Joseph Flaget, S. S. Martin John Spalding, appointed Archbishop of Baltimore Peter Joseph Lavialle William George McCloskey Denis O'Donaghue John A. Floersh John A. Floersh Thomas Joseph McDonough Thomas Cajetan Kelly, O. P Joseph Edward Kurtz John Baptist Mary David, S. S. Guy Ignatius Chabrat, S. S. Charles Garrett Maloney John McGill, appointed Bishop of Richmond John Lancaster Spalding, appointed Bishop of Peoria Michael Heiss, appointed Bishop of La Cross and Archbishop of Milwaukee James Ryan, appointed Bishop of Alton Theodore Henry Reverman, appointed Bishop of Superior Francis Ridgley Cotton, appointed Bishop of Owensboro James Kendrick Williams, appointed Bishop Lexington William Francis Medley, appointed Bishop of Owensboro Charles Coleman Thompson, appointed Bishop of Evansville and Archbishop of Indianapolis J. Mark Spalding, appointed Bishop of Nashville Ten Catholic secondary schools serve more than 6,300 students.
Eight of the schools are located in one in Nelson County. Four of the schools enroll only girls, three enroll only boys, two are coeducational. Covington Catholic High School, Park Hills St. Francis DeSales High School, Louisville St. Xavier High School, Louisville Trinity High School, St. Matthews Assumption High School, Louisville Mercy Academy, Louisville Presentation Academy, Louisville Sacred Heart Academy, Louisville Bethlehem High School, Bardstown Holy Cross High School, Louisville Pitt Academy, Louisville Forty Catholic parish and special elementary schools serve more than 15,500 students in seven counties of the Archdiocese of Louisville. Saint Mary Academy, began in 2007 as a merger of Mother of Good Counsel Elementary School and Immaculate Conception SchoolSt. Andrew Academy was established in 2005 following the regionalization of three parish schools in Southwest Jefferson County; the three parish schools that united to combine St. Andrew were
Pope Pius IX
Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, was head of the Catholic Church from 16 June 1846 to his death on 7 February 1878. He was the longest-reigning elected pope in the history of the Catholic Church, serving for over 31 years. During his pontificate, Pius IX convened the First Vatican Council, which decreed papal infallibility, but the council was cut short owing to the loss of the Papal States. Europe, including the Italian peninsula, was in the midst of considerable political ferment when the bishop of Imola, Giovanni Maria Cardinal Mastai-Ferretti, was elected pope, he took the name Pius, after his generous patron and the long-suffering prisoner of Napoleon, Pius VII. He had been elected by the faction of cardinals sympathetic to the political liberalization coursing across Europe, his initial governance of the Papal States gives evidence of his own moderate sympathies. A series of terrorist acts sponsored by Italian liberals and nationalists, which included the assassination of his Minister of the Interior, Pellegrino Rossi, which forced Pius himself to flee Rome in 1848, along with widespread revolutions in Europe, led to his growing skepticism towards the liberal, nationalist agenda.
Through the 1850s and 1860s, Italian nationalists made military gains against the Papal States, which culminated in the seizure of the city of Rome in 1870 and the dissolution of the Papal States. Thereafter, Pius IX refused to accept the Law of Guarantees from the Italian government, which would have made the Holy See dependent on legislation that the Italian parliament could modify at any time. Pius refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican", his ecclesiastical policies towards other countries, such as Russia, Germany or France, were not always successful, owing in part to changing secular institutions and internal developments within these countries. However, concordats were concluded with numerous states such as Austria-Hungary, Spain, Tuscany, Venezuela, Honduras, El Salvador, Haiti. Pius was a Marian pope. In 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin.
He conferred the title Our Mother of Perpetual Help on a famous Byzantine icon from Crete entrusted to the Redemptorists. In 1862, he convened 300 bishops to the Vatican for the canonization of Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan, his 1864 Syllabus of Errors stands as a strong condemnation against liberalism, moral relativism and separation of church and state. Pius definitively reaffirmed Catholic teaching in favor of the establishment of the Catholic faith as the state religion in nations where the majority of the population is Catholic. However, his most important legacy is the First Vatican Council, convened in 1869, which defined the dogma of papal infallibility, but was interrupted as Italian nationalist troops threatened Rome; the council is considered to have contributed to a centralization of the church in the Vatican, while clearly defining the Pope's doctrinal authority. Many recent ecclesiastical historians and journalists question his approaches, his appeal for public worldwide support of the Holy See after he became "the prisoner of the Vatican" resulted in the revival and spread to the whole Catholic Church of Peter's Pence, used today to enable the Pope "to respond to those who are suffering as a result of war, natural disaster, disease".
After his death in 1878, his canonization process was opened on 11 February 1907 by Pope Pius X, it drew considerable controversy over the years. It was closed on several occasions during the pontificates of Pope Benedict XV and Pope Pius XI. Pope Pius XII re-opened the cause on 7 December 1954, Pope John Paul II proclaimed him Venerable on 6 July 1985, he was beatified on 3 September 2000 after the recognition of a miracle. Pius IX was assigned the liturgical feast day of the date of his death. Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti was born on 13 May 1792 in Senigallia, he was the ninth child born into the noble family of Girolamo dei conti Ferretti, was baptized on the same day of his birth with the name of Giovanni Maria Giambattista Pietro Pellegrino Isidoro. He was educated in Rome; as a young man in the Guardia Nobile the young Count Mastai was engaged to be married to an Irishwoman, Miss Foster, arrangements were made for the wedding to take place in the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi. Mastai's parents opposed the marriage and, in the event, he did not appear at the church on the appointed day.
As a theology student in his hometown Sinigaglia, in 1814 he met Pope Pius VII, who had returned from French captivity. In 1815, he was soon dismissed after an epileptic seizure, he threw himself at the feet of Pius VII, who elevated him and supported his continued theological studies. The pope insisted that another priest should assist Mastai during Holy Mass, a stipulation, rescinded, after the seizure attacks became less frequent. Mastai was ordained a priest on 10 April 1819, he worked as the rector of the Tata Giovanni Institute in Rome. Shortly before his death, Pius VII sent him as Auditor to Chile and Peru in 1823 and 1825 to assist the Apostolic Nuncio, Monsignore Giovanni Muzi and Monsignore Bradley Kane, in the first mission to post-revolutionary South America; the mission had the o
Benedict Joseph Flaget
Benedict Joseph Flaget was a French-born Catholic bishop in the United States. He served as the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bardstown between 1808 and 1839; when the see was transferred to Louisville in 1839, he became Bishop of the Diocese of Louisville where he served from 1839 to 1850. Flaget was born on November 7, 1763 in Contournat, now part of the commune of Saint-Julien-de-Coppel, in the ancient Province of Auvergne in the center of the Kingdom of France. Orphaned at an early age, he and his siblings were raised by his maternal aunt, assisted by his paternal uncle, a canon at the collegiate church of Billom. At the age of 17 he entered the Society of Saint-Sulpice at Clermont-Ferrand, he was ordained a priest on June 1, 1788. Flaget taught theology for two years at the University of Nantes, soon held the same post at the seminary at Angers, until those institutions were closed by the French Revolution. In January 1792 Flaget sailed from Bordeaux, accompanied by fellow Sulpician John Baptist Mary David, the secular deacon Stephen Badin whose studies for the priesthood had been interrupted by the Revolution.
They reached Philadelphia on March 26 and proceeded to Baltimore, arriving on March 29. After only two months in America, the Bishop of Baltimore, John Carroll, sent him to Fort Vincennes in the Indiana Territory to staff the Church of St. Francis Xavier, founded by Jesuit missionaries in 1748, before their Suppression and expulsion by British forces in 1763. There was a considerable number of French settlers and the mission which had gone without the presence of a resident priest for decades. Flaget journeyed west in a wagon headed through the Allegheny Mountains to Fort Pitt, the area now known as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. A letter of introduction from Bishop Carroll provided an introduction to General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. Travel was to be by flatboat down the Ohio River, but due to low water conditions he stayed at Fort Pitt for a few months. While there he learned English and tended to those afflicted by an outbreak of smallpox in the area. Flaget left Pittsburgh in November and traveled down the Ohio River to the Falls of the Ohio, where he continued on his journey to Fort Vincennes with George Rogers Clark.
They reached the fort on December 21, 1792. At Vincennes, in addition to his pastoral work, Flaget founded a school and library in the church, the oldest educational institutions in Indiana. At Vincennes he ministered to the Catholics at the small parish. Here he nursed the sick when in 1793 smallpox broke out among the settlers and the nearby Miami tribe. Flaget himself became ill, but recovered. Flaget was recalled by his superiors to Baltimore and on April 23, 1795 traveled to Kaskaskia and down the river to New Orleans and from there sailed to Baltimore, he taught geography and French at Georgetown College for the next three years. One of his students was the future bishop of Benedict Joseph Fenwick. Flaget left Baltimore with two colleagues in 1798 bound for Cuba as part of a Sulpician mission to establish a college on that island, they were met with opposition from the local diocesan administrators and were not able to celebrate Mass in Havana. During that stay, he contracted yellow fever and was left behind when the other Sulpicians decided to return to the United States.
He acted as a tutor to the son of a wealthy Spaniard. After the death of the Archbishop of Havana, the Dean of he Cathedral granted him permission to celebrate Mass at the church of the Capuchin friars. Flaget learned Spanish during his stay. While he was in Cuba, Louis Phillippe of France and his two brothers had arrived there on their journey in exile; the refugee aristocrats were befriended by their fellow Frenchman, Flaget, in 1800. This was a kindness which Louis Phillippe remembered and returned when he ascended the throne of France as King. Flaget returned to Baltimore in November 1801, he brought with him 23 young Spaniards. He spent the next several years in various posts at that school. Flaget was appointed by the Holy See as the first Bishop of the newly established Diocese of Bardstown on April 8, 1808; this was the largest diocese formed in the United States and comprised an area now covering 10 modern states, including Kentucky, Tennessee, Michigan and others. Today this area includes 35 dioceses.
Flaget, vigorously opposed the appointment and traveled to France in an effort to have it reversed. He was unsuccessful in this effort. On his return trip to the United States, Flaget brought other early Sulpician missionaries to America: Simon Bruté, Guy Ignatius Chabrat, Anthony Deydier, James Derigaud and Julian Romeuf; the first two became bishops in America. Upon his arrival, Flaget was consecrated a bishop by now-Archbishop Carroll on November 4, 1810 in a ceremony at the Baltimore Cathedral, now a basilica. Upon taking office the following year, Flaget found himself charged with the pastoral care of the western frontier of the United States, having the assistance of seven priests, he went on to build St. Joseph Cathedral in Bardstown as the center of the diocese and a seminary to train the clergy needed to carry out the work of the diocese, he was one of only two bishops of Bardstown, since the diocese was removed to Louisville, Bardstown remained a titular see. By 1817 Flaget was able to supply clergy to care for the French and Native American peoples living around the Great Lakes.
He began to establish parishes in Indiana and Michigan. In 1819 he proposed to the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (which oversaw the American Church as a missionary