The Holy Bible (album)
The Holy Bible is the third studio album by Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers. It was released on 30 August 1994 by record label Epic. At the time the album was written and recorded and rhythm guitarist Richey Edwards was struggling with severe depression, alcohol abuse, self-harm and anorexia nervosa, its contents are considered by many sources to reflect his mental state; the songs focus on themes relating to human suffering. The Holy Bible was the band's last album released before Edwards' disappearance on 1 February 1995. Although it reached number 6 on the UK Albums Chart global sales were disappointing compared to previous albums and the record did not chart in mainland Europe or North America, it was promoted with tours and festival appearances in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and Thailand – in part without Edwards. The Holy Bible has sold over half a million copies worldwide as of 2014 and over the years it received significant critical acclaim; the album has been featured and listed on lists of the best albums of all time by British music publications such as Melody Maker, NME and Q.
According to drummer Sean Moore, the band felt they had been "going a bit astray" with their previous album, 1993's Gold Against the Soul, so the approach to the follow-up was for the band to go back to their "grass roots" and rediscover "a little bit of Britishness that we lacked". Singer and guitarist James Dean Bradfield recalls the band feeling they had become "a bit too rockist we had lost our direction"; the band stopped listening to American rock music and returned to influences that had inspired them when they first formed, including Magazine, Skids, PiL, Gang of Four, Joy Division, Siouxsie and the Banshees. Epic Records had proposed that the album be recorded in Barbados, but the band had wanted to avoid what Bradfield called "all that decadent rockstar rubbish", it was bassist Nicky Wire's idea, says Bradfield, that the band "should not use everything at its disposal" in recording the album. Instead, recording began with sound engineer Alex Silva at the low-rent, "absolutely tiny" Sound Space Studios in Cardiff.
The album was mixed by Mark Freegard, who had worked with The Breeders. "She Is Suffering" was produced by Steve Brown. The recording took four weeks. Bradfield has described the recording of the album as preventing him from having a social life and Alex Silva attributes the break-up of his relationship with his girlfriend at the time to the long hours involved in the recording. Guitarist Richey Edwards attended recording sessions but would, according to Wire, "collapse on the settee and have a snooze" while the other band members did all the recording, he was drinking and crying. "Inevitably", says Bradfield, "the day would start with a'schhht!'. Whereas lyric-writing on the two previous albums was split evenly between Richey Edwards and Nicky Wire, the lyrics on The Holy Bible were 70-75% written by Edwards, according to James Dean Bradfield. At the time of the album's 10th anniversary reissue Wire claimed to be responsible for "This Is Yesterday" and "Ifwhiteamericatoldthetruthforonedayit'sworldwouldfallapart", contributing only titles to some of the other songs.
However, on reinspecting his notebooks, Wire was surprised to find he had contributed more lyrics than he had remembered, having written significant portions of "Of Walking Abortion" and "Mausoleum" and a number of lines from "Faster", now believing himself to be responsible for around 30% of the words on the album. The album's lyrics deal with subjects including prostitution, American consumerism, British imperialism, freedom of speech, the Holocaust, self-starvation, serial killers, the death penalty, political revolution, childhood and suicide. According to Q: "the tone of the album is by turns bleak and resigned"; the same magazine commented in 1994 that "even a cursory glance at the titles will confirm that this is not the new Gloria Estefan album". Sean Moore has described the content of the lyrics as being "as far as Richey's character could go". According to Bradfield: "Some of the lyrics confused me; some were voyeuristic and some were coming from personal experience I remember getting the lyrics to'Yes' and thinking'You crazy fucker, how do I write music for this?'".
Critic Simon Price notes that the potential radio-friendliness of the song is undermined by its focus on the subject of prostitution and the recurrence of sexual swearing in the lyric. Interviewed at the time of the album's release, Nicky Wire said that the track "Ifwhiteamericatoldthetruthforonedayit'sworldwouldfallapart" was "not a anti-American song", but instead was about "how the most empty culture in the world can dominate in such a total sense". "Of Walking Abortion" is about right-wing totalitarianism, of which Wire commented: "there's a worm in human nature that makes us want to be dominated". "Archives of Pain", dealing with the glorification of serial killers and advocating capital punishment, he said "was the song that me and Richey worried about most the song isn't a right wing statement, it's just against this fascination with people who kill". In 1994, Bradfield described the song as "one of the most important things we've done" but said it was "very right-wing" and "miscalculated".
Wire described "Revol" as being about Edwards' idea that "relationships in politics, relationships in general, are failures". "P. C. P.", he said, was about how "PC followers take up the idea of being liberal but end up being quite the
Franz Kafka was a German-speaking Bohemian Jewish novelist and short-story writer regarded as one of the major figures of 20th-century literature. His work, which fuses elements of realism and the fantastic features isolated protagonists facing bizarre or surrealistic predicaments and incomprehensible socio-bureaucratic powers, has been interpreted as exploring themes of alienation, existential anxiety and absurdity, his best known works include "Die Verwandlung", Der Process, Das Schloss. The term Kafkaesque has entered the English language to describe situations like those found in his writing. Kafka was born into a middle-class, German-speaking Jewish family in Prague, the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, today the capital of the Czech Republic, he trained as a lawyer, after completing his legal education, was employed full-time by an insurance company, forcing him to relegate writing to his spare time. Over the course of his life, Kafka wrote hundreds of letters to family and close friends, including his father, with whom he had a strained and formal relationship.
He became engaged to several women but never married. He died in 1924 at the age of 40 from tuberculosis. Few of Kafka's works were published during his lifetime: the story collections Betrachtung and Ein Landarzt, individual stories were published in literary magazines but received little public attention. In his will, Kafka instructed his executor and friend Max Brod to destroy his unfinished works, including his novels Der Process, Das Schloss and Der Verschollene, but Brod ignored these instructions, his work has influenced a vast range of writers, critics and philosophers during the 20th and 21st centuries. Kafka was born near the Old Town Square in Prague part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, his family were German-speaking middle-class Ashkenazi Jews. His father, Hermann Kafka, was the fourth child of Jakob Kafka, a shochet or ritual slaughterer in Osek, a Czech village with a large Jewish population located near Strakonice in southern Bohemia. Hermann brought the Kafka family to Prague.
After working as a travelling sales representative, he became a fashion retailer who employed up to 15 people and used the image of a jackdaw as his business logo. Kafka's mother, was the daughter of Jakob Löwy, a prosperous retail merchant in Poděbrady, was better educated than her husband. Kafka's parents spoke a German influenced by Yiddish, sometimes pejoratively called Mauscheldeutsch, but, as the German language was considered the vehicle of social mobility, they encouraged their children to speak Standard German. Hermann and Julie had six children. Franz's two brothers and Heinrich, died in infancy before Franz was seven. All three died during the Holocaust of World War II. Valli was deported to the Łódź Ghetto in occupied Poland in 1942, but, the last documentation of her. Ottilie was Kafka's favourite sister. Hermann is described by the biographer Stanley Corngold as a "huge, overbearing businessman" and by Franz Kafka as "a true Kafka in strength, appetite, loudness of voice, self-satisfaction, worldly dominance, presence of mind, knowledge of human nature".
On business days, both parents were absent from the home, with Julie Kafka working as many as 12 hours each day helping to manage the family business. Kafka's childhood was somewhat lonely, the children were reared by a series of governesses and servants. Kafka's troubled relationship with his father is evident in his Brief an den Vater of more than 100 pages, in which he complains of being profoundly affected by his father's authoritarian and demanding character; the dominating figure of Kafka's father had a significant influence on Kafka's writing. The Kafka family had a servant girl living with them in a cramped apartment. Franz's room was cold. In November 1913 the family moved into a bigger apartment, although Ellie and Valli had married and moved out of the first apartment. In early August 1914, just after World War I began, the sisters did not know where their husbands were in the military and moved back in with the family in this larger apartment. Both Ellie and Valli had children. Franz at age 31 moved into Valli's former apartment, quiet by contrast, lived by himself for the first time.
From 1889 to 1893, Kafka attended the Deutsche Knabenschule German boys' elementary school at the Masný trh/Fleischmarkt, now known as Masná Street. His Jewish education ended with his Bar Mitzvah celebration at the age of 13. Kafka never enjoyed attending the synagogue and went with his father only on four high holidays a year. After leaving elementary school in 1893, Kafka was admitted to the rigorous classics-oriented state gymnasium, Altstädter Deutsches Gymnasium, an academic secondary school at Old Town Square, within the Kinský Palace. German was the language of instruction, but Kafka spoke and wrote in Czech, he studied the latter at the gymnasium for eight years. Although Kafka received compliments for his Czech, he never considered himself fluent in Czech, though he spoke German with a Czech accent, he completed his Matura exams in 1901. Admitted to the Deutsche Karl-Ferdinands-Universität of Pra
Dortmund is, with a population of 586,600, the third largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany's eighth largest city. It is the largest city of the Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area with some 5.1 million inhabitants, as well as the largest city of Westphalia. On the Emscher and Ruhr rivers, it lies in the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region and is considered the administrative and cultural centre of the eastern Ruhr. Founded around 882, Dortmund became an Imperial Free City. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. During the Thirty Years' War, the city was destroyed and decreased in significance until the onset of industrialization; the city became one of Germany's most important coal and beer centres. Dortmund was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II; the devastating bombing raids of 12 March 1945 destroyed 98% of buildings in the inner city center.
These bombing raids, with more than 1,110 aircraft, hold the record to a single target in World War II. The region has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and coal industries and shifted to high-technology biomedical technology, micro systems technology and services. In 2009, Dortmund was classified as a Node city in the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow and is the most sustainable and digital city in Germany. Dortmund is home to many cultural and educational institutions, including the Technical University of Dortmund and Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, International School of Management and other educational and administrative facilities with over 49,000 students, many museums, such as Museum Ostwall, Museum of Art and Cultural History, German Football Museum, as well as theatres and music venues like the Konzerthaus or the Opera House of Dortmund; the city is known as Westphalia's "green metropolis". Nearly half the municipal territory consists of waterways, woodland and green spaces with spacious parks such as Westfalenpark and Rombergpark.
This stands in a stark contrast with nearly a hundred years of extensive coal mining and steel milling in the past. Dortmund is home to Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e. V. Dortmund known as Borussia Dortmund, a successful club in German football; the Sigiburg was a Saxon hillfort in the South of present-day Dortmund, overlooking the River Ruhr near its confluence with the River Lenne. The ruins of the Hohensyburg castle now stand on the site of the Sigiburg; the hillfort was raised ca. 700 by Westphalian Saxons. During the Saxon Wars, it was taken by the Franks under Charlemagne in 772, retaken by the Saxons in 774, taken again and refortified by Charlemagne in 775. Archaeological evidence suggests the Sigiburg site was occupied in the Neolithic era; the first time Dortmund was mentioned in official documents was around 882 as Throtmanni – In throtmanni liber homo arnold viii den nob soluit. In 1005 the "Ecclesiastical council" and in 1016 the"Imperial diet" meets in Dortmund. After it was destroyed by a fire, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I had the town rebuilt in 1152 and resided there for two years.
In 1267 St. Mary's Church and three years in 1270 St. Reinold's Church first mentioned; the combination of crossroad, market place, administrative centre – town hall, made Dortmund an important centre in Westphalia. It became an Imperial Free City and one of the first cities in Europe with an official Brewing right in 1293. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. After 1320, the city appeared in writing as "Dorpmunde". In the years leading up to 1344, the English King borrowed money from well-heeled Dortmund merchant families Berswordt and Klepping, offering the regal crown as security. In 1388, Count von Mark joined forces with the Archbishop of Cologne and issued declarations of a feud against the town. Following a major siege lasting 18 months, peace negotiations took place and Dortmund emerged victorious. In 1400 the seat of the first Vehmic court was in Dortmund, in a square between two linden trees, one of, known as the Femelinde.
With the growing influence of Cologne during the 15th century, the seat was moved to Arnsberg in 1437. After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War, Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle; this favors the founding of one of the oldest schools in Europe in 1543 - Stadtgymnasium Dortmund. The 1661 earthquake made the Reinoldikirche collapse. With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss resolution in 1803, Dortmund was added to the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda, with as a result that it was no longer a free imperial city. William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau did not want stolen areas and therefore let his son Prince Willem Frederik take possession of the city and the principality; this prince held its entry on 30 June 1806, as such the County of Dortmund became part of the principality. On 12 July 1806, most of the Nassau principalities were deprived of their sovereign rights by means of the Rhine treaty. In October of the same year, the County of Dortmund was occupied by French troops and was added to the Grand Duchy of Berg on 1 March 1808.
It is the capital of the Ruhr department. In 1808 Dortmund becomes capital of French satellite Ruhr. At the C
Manic Street Preachers
Manic Street Preachers are a Welsh rock band formed in Blackwood in 1986. The band consists of cousins James Dean Bradfield, Sean Moore, plus Nicky Wire, they are colloquially known as "the Manics". Following the release of their debut single "Suicide Alley", the band was joined by Richey Edwards as co-lyricist and rhythm guitarist; the band's early albums were in a punk vein broadening to a greater alternative rock sound, whilst retaining a leftist political outlook. Their early combination of androgynous glam imagery and lyrics about "culture, alienation and despair" has gained them a loyal following and cult status. With their debut album, Generation Terrorists, the Manic Street Preachers proclaimed it would be the "greatest rock album ever", as well as hoping to sell "sixteen million copies" around the world, after which they would split up. Despite the album's failure to meet this level of success, the band carried on with their career; the group became a trio after Richey Edwards disappeared in February 1995.
The band went on to gain commercial success in spite of his absence. Edwards was "presumed dead" in 2008. Throughout their career, the Manics have headlined several festivals including Glastonbury, T in the Park, V Festival and Reading, won eleven NME Awards, eight Q Awards and four BRIT Awards, they have been nominated for the Mercury Prize in 1996 and 1999, have had one nomination for the MTV Europe Music Awards. The group has reached number 1 in the UK charts three times: in 1998, with the album This Is My Truth Tell Me Yours and the single "If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next", again in 2000 with the single "The Masses Against the Classes", they have sold more than ten million albums worldwide. Manic Street Preachers formed in 1986 at Oakdale Comprehensive School, South Wales, which all the band members attended. Bradfield and the older Moore are cousins, shared bunkbeds in the Bradfield family home after Moore's parents divorced. During the band's early years, alongside the classically trained Moore wrote the music while Wire focused on the lyrics.
The origin of the band's name remains unclear, but the most often-told story relates that Bradfield, while busking one day in Cardiff, got into an altercation with someone who asked him "What are you, some kind of manic street preacher?"Original bassist Flicker left the band in early 1988 because he believed that the band were moving away from their punk roots. The band continued as a three-piece, with Wire switching from guitar to bass, in 1988 they released their first single, "Suicide Alley". Despite its recording quality, this punk ode to youthful escape provides an early insight into both Bradfield's guitar work and Moore's live drumming, the latter of which would be absent from the band's first LP; the Manics intended to restore revolution to rock and roll at a time when Britain was dominated by shoegaze and acid house. The NME gave "Suicide Alley" an enthusiastic review, citing a press release by Richey Edwards: "We are as far away from anything in the'80s as possible."After the release of "Suicide Alley," Edwards joined the band on rhythm guitar and contributed to lyrics alongside Wire. Edwards designed record sleeves and artwork, drove the band to and from gigs.
In 1990 the Manic Street Preachers signed a deal with label Damaged Goods Records for one EP. The four-track New Art Riot E. P. attracted as much media interest for its attacks on fellow musicians as for the actual music. With the help of Hall or Nothing management, the Manics signed to indie label Heavenly Records; the band recorded their first single for the label, entitled "Motown Junk". Their next single, "You Love Us", sampled Krzysztof Penderecki's "Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima" as well as Iggy Pop; the video featured Nicky Wire in drag as Marilyn Monroe and contained visual references to the film Betty Blue and to Aleister Crowley. In an interview with then-NME journalist Steve Lamacq, Edwards carved the phrase "4REAL" into his arm with a razor blade to prove their sincerity, he received seventeen stitches. NME subsequently ran a full page story on the incident, including a phone interview with Richey on his motivations for doing it. A recording of the editorial meeting discussing whether or not they could publish the image was included as a b-side on the band's 1992 charity single Theme from M.
A. S. H. Featuring Lamacq, then-editor of NME Danny Kelly and James Brown; as a result of their controversial behaviour, the Manics became favourites of the British music press, which helped them build a rabidly dedicated following. Columbia Records of Sony Music UK signed the band shortly afterwards and they began work on their debut album; the band's debut album, Generation Terrorists, was released in 1992 on the Columbia Records imprint. The liner notes contained a literary quote for each of the album's eighteen songs and the album lasted just over seventy minutes; the album's lyrics are politicised like those of the Clash and Public Enemy, with the album's songs switching from a critical focus on global capitalism to more personal tales of despair and the struggles of youth. About the musical style of the album Pitchfork writer Joe Tangari wrote that Generation Terrorists "walked a weird line between agit-punk, cock rock, romantic melodicism and glam, was so patterned after the Clash's London Calling that it was kind of cute."Other tracks combine personal and political themes, implicating a connection between global capitalism and p
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s most-visited attraction pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.
The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.
Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.
The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 to provides an upper access route.
The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyra
The Raft of the Medusa
The Raft of the Medusa – titled Scène de Naufrage – is an oil painting of 1818–19 by the French Romantic painter and lithographer Théodore Géricault. Completed when the artist was 27, the work has become an icon of French Romanticism. At 491 cm × 716 cm, it is an over-life-size painting that depicts a moment from the aftermath of the wreck of the French naval frigate Méduse, which ran aground off the coast of today's Mauritania on 2 July 1816. On 5 July 1816, at least 147 people were set adrift on a hurriedly constructed raft; the event became an international scandal, in part because its cause was attributed to the incompetence of the French captain. Géricault chose to depict this event in order to launch his career with a large-scale uncommissioned work on a subject that had generated great public interest; the event fascinated him, before he began work on the final painting, he undertook extensive research and produced many preparatory sketches. He constructed a detailed scale model of the raft.
He visited hospitals and morgues where he could view, first-hand, the colour and texture of the flesh of the dying and dead. As he had anticipated, the painting proved controversial at its first appearance in the 1819 Paris Salon, attracting passionate praise and condemnation in equal measure. However, it established his international reputation, today is seen as seminal in the early history of the Romantic movement in French painting. Although The Raft of the Medusa retains elements of the traditions of history painting, in both its choice of subject matter and its dramatic presentation, it represents a break from the calm and order of the prevailing Neoclassical school. Géricault's work attracted wide attention from its first showing and was exhibited in London; the Louvre acquired it soon after the artist's death at the age of 32. The painting's influence can be seen in the works of Eugène Delacroix, J. M. W. Turner, Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet. In June 1816, the French frigate Méduse departed from Rochefort, bound for the Senegalese port of Saint-Louis.
She headed a convoy of three other ships: the brig Argus and the corvette Écho. Viscount Hugues Duroy de Chaumereys had been appointed captain of the frigate despite having scarcely sailed in 20 years. After the wreck, public outrage mistakenly attributed responsibility for his appointment to Louis XVIII, though his was a routine naval appointment made within the Ministry of the Navy and far outside the concerns of the monarch; the frigate's mission was to accept the British return of Senegal under the terms of France's acceptance of the Peace of Paris. The appointed French governor of Senegal, Colonel Julien-Désiré Schmaltz, his wife and daughter were among the passengers. In an effort to make good time, the Méduse overtook the other ships, but due to poor navigation it drifted 100 miles off course. On 2 July, it ran aground on a sandbank near today's Mauritania; the collision was blamed on the incompetence of De Chaumereys, a returned émigré who lacked experience and ability, but had been granted his commission as a result of an act of political preferment.
Efforts to free the ship failed, so, on 5 July, the frightened passengers and crew started an attempt to travel the 60 miles to the African coast in the frigate's six boats. Although the Méduse was carrying 400 people, including 160 crew, there was space for only about 250 in the boats; the remainder of the ship's complement and half of a contingent of marine infantrymen intended to garrison Senegal - at least 146 men and one woman - were piled onto a hastily built raft, that submerged once it was loaded. Seventeen crew members opted to stay aboard the grounded Méduse; the captain and crew aboard the other boats intended to tow the raft, but after only a few miles the raft was turned loose. For sustenance the crew of the raft had only a bag of ship's biscuit, two casks of water and six casks of wine. According to critic Jonathan Miles, the raft carried the survivors "to the frontiers of human experience. Crazed and starved, they slaughtered mutineers, ate their dead companions and killed the weakest."
After 13 days, on 17 July 1816, the raft was rescued by the Argus by chance—no particular search effort was made by the French for the raft. By this time only 15 men were still alive; the incident became a huge public embarrassment for the French monarchy, only restored to power after Napoleon's defeat in 1815. The Raft of the Medusa portrays the moment when, after 13 days adrift on the raft, the remaining 15 survivors view a ship approaching from a distance. According to an early British reviewer, the work is set at a moment when "the ruin of the raft may be said to be complete"; the painting is on a monumental scale of 491 × 716 cm, so that most of the figures rendered are life-sized and those in the foreground twice life-size, pushed close to the picture plane and crowding onto the viewer, drawn into the physical action as a participant. The makeshift raft is shown as seaworthy as it rides the deep waves, while the men are rendered as broken and in utter despair. One old man holds the corpse of his son at his knees.
A number of bodies litter the foreground, waiting to be
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1