Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is the condition of an individual or group. A high level of well-being means that in some sense the individual's or group's condition is positive. According to Naci and Ioannidis, Wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical and social well-being that extend beyond the traditional definition of health, it includes choices and activities aimed at achieving physical vitality, mental alacrity, social satisfaction, a sense of accomplishment, personal fulfillment. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entry for "well-being" identifies ways in which terms related to happiness differ. According to the SEP, the terms "happy", "wellness", "satisfaction", "pleasure" or "well-being" can refer to a series of possible states: reflection on past events moment-to-moment evaluations of happiness by oneself, or with another person inferred from neuroimaging inferred from sensory input inferred from cognitive structure inferred from virtue duration of the experience effect on other factors repetitiveness objectivity whether the experience is altruistic or egoistic, whether happiness reflects an emotional state whether happiness reflects a cognitive judgement The affective and life-satisfaction views of happiness differ meaningfully when it comes to certain topics such as the relationship between income and happiness: "Surveying large numbers of Americans in one case, what is claimed to be the first globally representative sample of humanity in the other, these studies found that income does indeed correlate at all levels, with life satisfaction—strictly speaking, a “life evaluation” measure that asks respondents to rate their lives without saying whether they are satisfied.
Yet the correlation of household income with the affect measures is far weaker: globally.17 for positive affect, –.09 for negative affect. If the results hold up, the upshot appears to be that income is pretty related to life satisfaction, but weakly related to emotional well-being, at least above a certain threshold."There are weaknesses to the self-report method of elicitation for happiness: The lay conception of emotions is that they are discrete. It is typical, in everyday language, just as in research, to use research protocols that accept answers such as: "I am happy or I am sad, but not both simultaneously", or "I am 7 on a 1-10 scale of happiness". Three subdisciplines in psychology are critical for the study of psychological well-being: Developmental psychology, in which psychological well-being may be analyzed in terms of a pattern of growth across the lifespan. Personality psychology, in which it is possible to apply Maslow's concept of self-actualization, Rogers' concept of the functioning person, Jung's concept of individuation, Allport's concept of maturity to account for psychological well-being.
Clinical psychology, in which it may be asserted that the absence of mental illness constitutes psychological well-being. There are two approaches taken to understand psychological well-being: Distinguishing positive and negative effects, defining optimal psychological well-being and happiness as a balance between the two. Emphasizes life satisfaction as the key indicator of psychological well-being. According to Guttman and Levy well-being is "...a special case of attitude". This approach serves two purposes in the study of well-being: "developing and testing a theory for the structure of among varieties of well-being, integration of well-being theory with the ongoing cumulative theory development in the fields of attitude of related research". Many different models have developed. Diener's tripartite model of subjective well-being is one of the most comprehensive models of well-being in psychology, it was synthesized by Diener in 1984, positing "three distinct but related components of wellbeing: frequent positive affect, infrequent negative affect, cognitive evaluations such as life satisfaction".
Cognitive and contextual factors contribute to subjective well-being. According to Diener and Suh, subjective well-being is "...based on the idea that how each person thinks and feels about his or her life is important". Carol Ryff's multidimensional model of psychological well-being postulated six factors which are key for well-being: Self-acceptance Personal growth Purpose in life Environmental mastery Autonomy Positive relations with others According to Corey Keyes, who collaborated with Carol Ryff, mental well-being has three components, namely emotional or subjective well-being, psychological well-being, social well-being. Emotional well-being concerns subjective aspects of well-being, in concreto, feeling well, whereas psychological and social well-being concerns skills and psychological and social functioning. Keyes model of mental well-being has received extensive empirical support across cultures. Well-being is a central concept in positive psychology. Positive psychology is concerned with eudaimonia, "the good life", reflection about what holds the greatest value in life – the factors that contribute the most to a well-lived and fulfilling life.
While not attempting a strict definition of the good life, positive psychologists agree that one must live a happy and meaningful life in order to
A mnemonic device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention or retrieval in the human memory. Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, imagery as specific tools to encode any given information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval. Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful—which, in turn, provides better retention of the information. Encountered mnemonics are used for lists and in auditory form, such as short poems, acronyms, or memorable phrases, but mnemonics can be used for other types of information and in visual or kinesthetic forms, their use is based on the observation that the human mind more remembers spatial, surprising, sexual, humorous, or otherwise "relatable" information, rather than more abstract or impersonal forms of information. The word "mnemonic" is derived from the Ancient Greek word μνημονικός, meaning "of memory, or relating to memory" and is related to Mnemosyne, the name of the goddess of memory in Greek mythology.
Both of these words are derived from μνήμη, "remembrance, memory". Mnemonics in antiquity were most considered in the context of what is today known as the art of memory. Ancient Greeks and Romans distinguished between two types of memory: the "natural" memory and the "artificial" memory; the former is inborn, is the one that everyone uses instinctively. The latter in contrast has to be trained and developed through the learning and practice of a variety of mnemonic techniques. Mnemonic systems are strategies consciously used to improve memory, they help use information stored in long-term memory to make memorisation an easier task. The general name of mnemonics, or memoria technica, was the name applied to devices for aiding the memory, to enable the mind to reproduce a unfamiliar idea, a series of dissociated ideas, by connecting it, or them, in some artificial whole, the parts of which are mutually suggestive. Mnemonic devices were much cultivated by Greek sophists and philosophers and are referred to by Plato and Aristotle.
In times the poet Simonides was credited for development of these techniques for no reason other than that the power of his memory was famous. Cicero, who attaches considerable importance to the art, but more to the principle of order as the best help to memory, speaks of Carneades of Athens and Metrodorus of Scepsis as distinguished examples of people who used well-ordered images to aid the memory; the Romans valued. The Greek and the Roman system of mnemonics was founded on the use of mental places and signs or pictures, known as "topical" mnemonics; the most usual method was to choose a large house, of which the apartments, windows, furniture, etc. were each associated with certain names, events or ideas, by means of symbolic pictures. To recall these, an individual had only to search over the apartments of the house until discovering the places where images had been placed by the imagination. In accordance with said system, if it were desired to fix a historic date in memory, it was localised in an imaginary town divided into a certain number of districts, each of with ten houses, each house with ten rooms, each room with a hundred quadrates or memory-places on the floor on the four walls on the roof.
Therefore, if it were desired to fix in the memory the date of the invention of printing, an imaginary book, or some other symbol of printing, would be placed in the thirty-sixth quadrate or memory-place of the fourth room of the first house of the historic district of the town. Except that the rules of mnemonics are referred to by Martianus Capella, nothing further is known regarding the practice until the 13th century. Among the voluminous writings of Roger Bacon is a tractate De arte memorativa. Ramon Llull devoted special attention to mnemonics in connection with his ars generalis; the first important modification of the method of the Romans was that invented by the German poet Konrad Celtes, who, in his Epitoma in utramque Ciceronis rhetoricam cum arte memorativa nova, used letters of the alphabet for associations, rather than places. About the end of the 15th century, Petrus de Ravenna provoked such astonishment in Italy by his mnemonic feats that he was believed by many to be a necromancer.
His Phoenix artis memoriae went through as many as nine editions, the seventh being published at Cologne in 1608. About the end of the 16th century, Lambert Schenkel, who taught mnemonics in France and Germany surprised people with his memory, he was denounced as a sorcerer by the University of Louvain, but in 1593 he published his tractate De memoria at Douai with the sanction of that celebrated theological faculty. The most complete account of his system is given in two works by his pupil Martin Sommer, published in Venice in 1619. In 1618 John Willis published Mnemonica. Giordano Bruno included a memoria technica in his treatise De umbris idearum, as part of his study of the ars generalis of Llull. Other writers of this period are the Florentine Publicius. Porta, Ars reminiscendi. In 1648 Stanislaus Mink von Wennsshein revealed what he called the "most fertile secret" in mnemonics — using consonants for figures, thus expressing numbers by words, i
In positive psychology, a flow state known colloquially as being in the zone, is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does, a resulting loss in one's sense of space and time. Named by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi in 1975, the concept has been referred to across a variety of fields, though the concept has existed for thousands of years under other names, notably in some Eastern religions, for example Buddhism; the flow state shares many characteristics with hyperfocus. However, hyperfocus is not always described in a positive light; some examples include spending "too much" time playing video games or spending too much time on watching tv, getting side-tracked and pleasurably absorbed by one aspect of an assignment or task to the detriment of the overall assignment. In some cases, hyperfocus can "capture" a person causing them to appear unfocused or to start several projects, but complete few.
Jeanne Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi identify the following six factors as encompassing an experience of flow: Intense and focused concentration on the present moment Merging of action and awareness A loss of reflective self-consciousness A sense of personal control or agency over the situation or activity A distortion of temporal experience, one's subjective experience of time is altered Experience of the activity as intrinsically rewarding referred to as autotelic experienceThose aspects can appear independently of each other, but only in combination do they constitute a so-called flow experience. Additionally, psychology writer Kendra Cherry has mentioned three other components that Csíkszentmihályi lists as being a part of the flow experience: "Immediate feedback" Feeling that you have the potential to succeed Feeling so engrossed in the experience, that other needs become negligibleJust as with the conditions listed above, these conditions can be independent of one another. Flow is so named because during Csíkszentmihályi's 1975 interviews several people described their "flow" experiences using the metaphor of a water current carrying them along.
Flow science dates back to the early 1900s, when researchers like Harvard’s William James began documenting the ways the brain can alter consciousness to improve performance, legendary physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon, James’ student, discovered a link between mind and body—the fight-or-flight response—that helped explain this amplified performance. Mihaly Csikszentmihályi and fellow researchers began researching flow after Csikszentmihályi became fascinated by artists who would get "lost" in their work. Artists painters, got so immersed in their work that they would disregard their need for food and sleep. Thus, the origin of research on the theory of flow came about when Csikszentmihályi tried to understand this phenomenon experienced by these artists. Flow research became prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s, with Csikszentmihályi and his colleagues in Italy still at the forefront. Researchers interested in optimal experiences and emphasizing positive experiences in places such as schools and the business world began studying the theory of flow at this time.
The theory of flow was used in the theories of Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers in their development of the humanistic tradition of psychology. Ideas similar to flow have been recognized across cultures; the teachings of Buddhism and of Taoism speak of a state of mind known as the "action of inaction" or "doing without doing" that resembles the idea of flow. Hindu texts on Advaita philosophy such as Ashtavakra Gita and the Yoga of Knowledge such as Bhagavad-Gita refer to a similar state. In any given moment, there is a great deal of information made available to each individual. Psychologists have found that one's mind can attend to only a certain amount of information at a time. According to Csikszentmihályi's 2004 TED talk, that number is about "110 bits of information per second"; that may seem like a lot of information. Just decoding speech takes about 60 bits of information per second; that is. For the most part, people are able to decide. However, when one is in the flow state, they are engrossed with the one task at hand and, without making the conscious decision to do so, lose awareness of all other things: time, people and basic bodily needs.
This occurs. The flow state has been described by Csikszentmihályi as the "optimal experience" in that one gets to a level of high gratification from the experience. Achieving this experience is considered to be personal and "depends on the ability" of the individual. One's capacity and desire to overcome challenges in order to achieve their ultimate goals not only leads to the optimal experience, but to a sense of life satisfaction overall. There are three common ways to measure flow experiences: the flow questionnaire, the experience sampling method, the "standardized scales of the componential approach"; the FQ requires individuals to identify definitions of flow and situations in which they believe that they have experienced flow, followed by
Uppsala University is a research university in Uppsala, is the oldest university in Sweden and all of the Nordic countries still in operation, founded in 1477. It ranks among the world's 100 best universities in several high-profile international rankings; the university embraces natural sciences. The university rose to pronounced significance during the rise of Sweden as a great power at the end of the 16th century and was given a relative financial stability with the large donation of King Gustavus Adolphus in the early 17th century. Uppsala has an important historical place in Swedish national culture and for the Swedish establishment: in historiography, literature and music. Many aspects of Swedish academic culture in general, such as the white student cap, originated in Uppsala, it shares some peculiarities, such as the student nation system, with Lund University and the University of Helsinki. Uppsala belongs to the Coimbra Group of European universities and to the Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities.
The university has nine faculties distributed over three "disciplinary domains". It has 2,300 doctoral students, it has a teaching staff of 1,800 out of a total of 6,900 employees. Twenty-eight per cent of the 716 professors at the university are women. Of its turnover of SEK 6.6 billion in 2016, 29% was spent on education at Bachelor's and Master's level, while 70% was spent on research and research programs. Architecturally, Uppsala University has traditionally had a strong presence in Fjärdingen, the neighbourhood around the cathedral on the western side of the River Fyris. Despite some more contemporary building developments further away from the centre, Uppsala's historic centre continues to be dominated by the presence of the university; as with most medieval universities, Uppsala University grew out of an ecclesiastical center. The archbishopric of Uppsala had been one of the most important sees in Sweden proper since Christianity first spread to this region in the ninth century. Uppsala had long been a hub for regional trade, had contained settlements dating back into the deep Middle Ages.
As was the case with most medieval universities, Uppsala had been chartered through a papal bull. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, was issued by Pope Sixtus IV in 1477, established a number of provisions. Among the most important of these was that the university was given the same freedoms and privileges as the University of Bologna; this included the right to establish the four traditional faculties of theology, law and philosophy, to award the bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees. The archbishop of Uppsala was named as the university's Chancellor, was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members; the turbulent period of the reformation of King Gustavus Vasa resulted in a drop in the relatively insignificant number of students in Uppsala, seen as a center of Catholicism and of potential disloyalty to the Crown. Swedish students travelled to one of the Protestant universities in Germany Wittenberg. There is some evidence of academic studies in Uppsala during the 16th century.
At the end of the century the situation had changed, Uppsala became a bastion of Lutheranism, which Duke Charles, the third of the sons of Gustavus Vasa to become king used to consolidate his power and oust his nephew Sigismund from the throne. The Meeting of Uppsala in 1593 established Lutheran orthodoxy in Sweden, Charles and the Council of state gave new privileges to the university on 1 August of the same year. Theology still had precedence, but in the privileges of 1593, the importance of a university to educate secular servants of the state was emphasized. Three of the seven professorial chairs which were established were in Theology. A fourth chair was given to Ericus Jacobi Skinnerus, appointed rector, but whose discipline was not mentioned in the charter. Of the professors, several were taken over from the Collegium Regium in Stockholm, functioning for a few years but closed in 1593. An eighth chair, in Medicine, received no appointee for several years. In 1599 the number of students was 150.
In 1600 the first post-reformation conferment of degrees took place. In the same year, the antiquarian and mystic Johannes Bureus designed and engraved the seal of the university, today used as part of the logotype; the medieval university had been a school for theology. The aspirations of the emergent new great power of Sweden demanded a different kind of learning. Sweden both grew through conquests and went through a complete overhaul of its administrative structure, it required a much larger class of civil educators than before. Preparatory schools, were founded during this period in various cathedral towns, notably Västerås in 1623. Beside Uppsala, new universities were founded in more distant parts of the Swedish Realm, the University of Dorpat in Estonia and the University of Åbo in Finland. Af
Character Strengths and Virtues
Character Strengths and Virtues is a book by Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman that attempts to present a measure of humanist ideals of virtue in an empirical, rigorously scientific manner. In the same way that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is used to assess and facilitate research on mental disorders, CSV is intended to provide a theoretical framework to assist in developing practical applications for positive psychology. CSV identifies 6 classes of virtue, made up of 26 measurable "character strengths": The organization of the 6 virtues and 26 strengths is as follows: Wisdom and Knowledge: creativity, open-mindedness, love of learning, innovation Courage: bravery, integrity, zest Humanity: love, social intelligence Justice: citizenship, leadership Temperance: forgiveness and mercy, prudence, self control Transcendence: appreciation of beauty and excellence, hope, spiritualityCSV defined character strengths as satisfying most of the ten following criteria.
Character strengths are fulfilling. The introduction of CSV suggests that these six virtues are considered good by the vast majority of cultures and throughout history and that these traits lead to increased happiness when practiced. Notwithstanding numerous cautions and caveats, this suggestion of universality hints that in addition to trying to broaden the scope of psychological research to include mental wellness, the leaders of the positive psychology movement are challenging moral relativism and suggesting that virtue has a biological basis; these arguments are in line with the science of morality. Each of the 26 character traits is defined behaviorally, with psychometric evidence demonstrating that it can be reliably measured; the book shows that "empirically minded humanists can measure character strengths and virtues in a rigorous scientific manner."Practical applications of positive psychology include helping individuals and organizations identify their strengths and use them to increase and sustain their respective levels of well-being.
Each trait "provides one of many alternative paths to virtue and well-being." Therapists, counselors and various other psychological professionals can use the new methods and techniques to build and broaden the lives of individuals who are not suffering from mental illness or disorder. Other researchers have advocated grouping the 26 identified character traits into just four classes of strength or just three classes. Not only is this easier to remember, but additionally there is evidence that these adequately capture the components of the 26 original traits. Perspective and wisdom: the coordination of "knowledge and experience" and "its deliberate use to improve wellbeing." Many, but not all, studies find that adults' self-ratings of perspective/wisdom do not depend on age. This stands in contrast to the popular notion; the virtues presented to some extent mirror the cardinal virtues and theological virtues of Aristotle and Aquinas: hope, charity, justice and temperance, their respective parts.
Appreciative inquiry Positive psychology Science of morality Value —the principles, standards, or quality which guides human actions Values in Action Inventory of Strengths Strengths and weaknesses Virtue ethics Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics Aquinas's Summa Theologica Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification Values in Action website authentichappiness.com for VIA online strengths diagnosis questionnaire
Social support is the perception and actuality that one is cared for, has assistance available from other people, most popularly, that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive resources can be informational, or companionship. Social support can be measured as the perception that one has assistance available, the actual received assistance, or the degree to which a person is integrated in a social network. Support can come from many sources, such as family, pets, coworkers, etc. Government-provided social support may be referred to as public aid in some nations. Social support is studied across a wide range of disciplines including psychology, sociology, public health, education and social work. Social support has been linked to many benefits for both physical and mental health, but "social support" is not always beneficial. Social support theories and models were prevalent as intensive academic studies in the 1980s and 1990s, are linked to the development of caregiving and payment models, community delivery systems in the US and around the world.
Two main models have been proposed to describe the link between social support and health: the buffering hypothesis and the direct effects hypothesis. Gender and cultural differences in social support have been found in fields such as education "which may not control for age, disability and social status and racial, or other significant factors". Social support can be measured in several different ways. There are four common functions of social support: Emotional support is the offering of empathy, affection, trust, intimacy, encouragement, or caring, it is the nurturance provided by sources of social support. Providing emotional support can let the individual know that he or she is valued, it is referred to as "esteem support" or "appraisal support." Tangible support is the provision of material goods, or services. Called instrumental support, this form of social support encompasses the concrete, direct ways people assist others. Informational support is the provision of advice, suggestions, or useful information to someone.
This type of information has the potential to help others problem-solve. Companionship support is the type of support; this can be seen as the presence of companions to engage in shared social activities. Researchers commonly make a distinction between perceived and received support. Perceived support refers to a recipient’s subjective judgment that providers will offer effective help during times of need. Received support refers to specific supportive actions offered by providers during times of need. Furthermore, social support can be measured in terms of structural functional support. Structural support refers to the extent to which a recipient is connected within a social network, like the number of social ties or how integrated a person is within his or her social network. Family relationships and membership in clubs and organizations contribute to social integration. Functional support looks at the specific functions that members in this social network can provide, such as the emotional, instrumental and companionship support listed above.
Data suggests that emotional support may play a more significant role in protecting individuals from the deleterious effects of stress than structural means of support, such as social involvement or activity. These different types of social support have different patterns of correlations with health and personal relationships. For example, perceived support is linked to better mental health whereas received support and social integration are not. In fact, research indicates that perceived social support, untapped can be more effective and beneficial than utilized social support; some have suggested that invisible support, a form of support where the person has support without his or her awareness, may be the most beneficial. Social support can come from a variety of sources, including: family, romantic partners, community ties, coworkers. Sources of support can be more formal; the source of the social support is an important determinant of its effectiveness as a coping strategy. Support from a romantic partner is associated with health benefits for men.
However, one study has found that although support from spouses buffered the negative effects of work stress, it did not buffer the relationship between marital and parental stresses, because the spouses were implicated in these situations. However, work-family specific support worked more to alleviate work-family stress that feeds into marital and parental stress. Employee humor is negatively associated with burnout, positively with, stress and stress coping effectiveness. Additionally, social support from friends did provide a buffer in response to marital stress, because they were less implicated in the marital dynamic. Early familial social support has been shown to be important in children’s abilities to develop social competencies, supportive parental relationships have had benefits for college-aged students. Teacher and school personnel support have been shown to be stronger than other relationshi