Martin Waldseemüller was a German cartographer. He and Matthias Ringmann are credited with the first recorded usage of the word America, on the 1507 map Universalis Cosmographia in honour of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. Waldseemüller was born in Wolfenweiler near Freiburg im Breisgau and he studied at the University of Freiburg. On 25 April 1507, as a member of the Gymnasium Vosagense at Saint Diey in the Duchy of Lorraine, he produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map using the information from Columbus and Vespucci's travels, both bearing the first use of the name "America"; the globular and wall maps were accompanied by a book Cosmographiae Introductio, an introduction to cosmography. The book, first printed in the city of Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, includes in its second part, a translation to Latin of the Quattuor Americi Vespuccij navigationes, a letter written by Amerigo Vespucci, although some historians consider it to have been a forgery written by its supposed recipient in Italy.
In the seventh chapter of the Cosmographiæ Introduction, written by Matthias Ringmann, it is explained why the name America was proposed for the New World, or the Fourth Part of the World: Atque in sexto climate Antarcticum versus et pars extrema Africæ nuper reperta.... Et quarta orbis pars sitae sunt Translation: And in the sixth climate toward the Antarctic, the discovered farther part of Africa... and a fourth part of the world are situated In the ninth chapter of the same book the reasons for the name America are given in more detail: Nunc vero et hæ partes sunt latius lustratæ et alia quarta pars per Americum Vesputium inventa est, quam non video cur quis jure vetet ab Americo Inventore sagacis ingenii viro, Amerigen quasi Americi terram sive Americam dicendam. Translation: But now these parts have been more explored, another fourth part has been discovered by Amerigo Vespucci, I do not see why anyone should justifiably forbid it to be called Amerige, as if "Amerigo' Land", or America, from its discoverer Amerigo, a man of perceptive character.
These words echo the inscription on the Paris Green Globe, attributed to Waldseemüller and dated to 1506-1507: America ab inuentore nuncupata. In 1513, Waldseemüller appears to have had second thoughts about the name due to contemporary protests about Vespucci’s role in the discovery and naming of America, or just waiting for the official discovery of the whole northwestern coast of what is now called North America, as separated from East Asia. In his reworking of the Ptolemy atlas, the continent is labelled Terra Incognita. Despite the revision, 1,000 copies of the world maps had since been distributed, the original suggestion took hold. While North America was still called Indies in documents for some time, it was called America as well; the wall map was lost for a long time, but a copy was found in Schloss Wolfegg in southern Germany by Joseph Fischer in 1901. It is still the only copy known to survive, it was purchased by the United States Library of Congress in May 2003 after an agreement was reached in 2001.
Five copies of the globular map survive in the form of "gores": printed maps that were intended to be cut out and pasted onto a wooden globe. Only one of these lies in the Americas today, residing at the James Ford Bell Library University of Minnesota. Waldseemüller died intestate 16 March 1520 in Sankt Didel a canon of the collegiate Church of Saint-Dié. Waldseemüller map Naming of America Discoverer of the Americas Richard Amerike History of cartography List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics List of German inventors and discoverers Peter W. Dickson: "The Magellan Myth: Reflections on Columbus and the Waldseemueller Map of 1507", Printing Arts Press, 2007, 2009 John Hessler: The Naming of America: Martin Waldseemüller's 1507 World Map and the Cosmographiae Introductio, Library of Congress, 2007 Seymour Schwartz: Putting "America" on the Map, the Story of the Most Important Graphic Document in the History of the United States, Prometheus Books, New York, 2007 David Brown: 16th-Century Mapmaker's Intriguing Knowledge, in: Washington Post, 2008-11-17, p. A7 Toby Lester: Putting America on the Map, Volume 40, Number 9, p. 78, December 2009 Toby Lester: The Fourth Part of the World, The Epic Story of History's Greatest Map, Profile Books, London, 2009 Chet van Duzer and Benoît Larger: Martin Waldseemüller Death Date, Imago Mundi, Volume 63, Part 2: 219-221, 2011 The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller, via Google Books.
Joseph Fischer. "Martin Waldseemüller". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "16th-Century Mapmaker's Intriguing Knowledge", David Brown, The Washington Post. November 17, 2008. "You Are Here—The Library of Congress buys'America's birth certificate'.", John J. Miller, The Wall Street Journal. July 25, 2003. "The map that
John Douglas Arnold is an American billionaire, former hedge fund manager, former natural gas trader instrumental in the Enron scandal. His firm, Centaurus Advisors, LLC, was a Houston-based hedge fund, composed of former Enron traders, that specialized in trading energy products. Arnold announced his retirement from running the hedge fund on May 2, 2012. Arnold now focuses on his political activism through Arnold Ventures LLC Arnold was raised in Dallas, he was the younger of two sons, his mother would work as an accountant at Arnold's Centaurus. His father was a lawyer and died when Arnold was 17. A 1995 graduate of Vanderbilt University, he completed a degree in mathematics and economics in only three years, he is a member of Lambda Chi Alpha. After college, he began his career at Enron as an oil analyst, but soon was promoted to assistant trader. In 1996, he moved to the Natural Gas Desk upon the departure of Jeff Bussan, trading natural gas derivatives. Using their new Internet-based trading network, EnronOnline, he is credited with making three quarters of a billion dollars for Enron in 2001 and was rewarded with the largest bonus in Enron history, some $8 million, days before the company declared bankruptcy costing shareholders $74 billion.
His former colleagues dubbed him "king of natural gas." In the wake of the Enron scandal in 2002, he founded Centaurus with his previous year's bonus. According to Arnold, "After Enron collapsed, there was a general revaluation of credit risk among energy companies; the better credits were less willing to take on the lesser credits as counter parties. So the lesser credits found themselves with fewer counter parties willing to trade with them though they still needed to hedge the pricing risks in their business. Hedge funds had not been involved in the over-the-counter market, except for the largest, because the other participants were reluctant to grant credit to that type of entity."During the collapse of Amaranth Advisors, Centaurus is credited as being one of the major players on the other side of their position, returning as much as 150% in 2005. At an energy conference, Arnold stated that he looks "to place bets on a market that he determines is'biased'... we ask ourselves can we identify what is forcing a market to price a product at an unfair value, what will push it back to fair value."
Referring to the speculative trading taking place on the unregulated over-the-counter Intercontinental Exchange and NYMEX's Clearport Trading, he said: "Trading never went away... What has changed is the non-commercial type of interest... because of this there has never been as much investor interest as there is today."During August 2008, Centaurus acquired around 10% of the shares of National Coal Corporation. Arnold gave a public speech to the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, in which he opposed limits on financially settled trading positions but supported limits in the physical energy futures as they near expiration. Arnold said, "I try to buy things whenever they're trading below what analysis shows to be fair value and sell things whenever our analysis shows that the forward curve is higher than our analysis of fair value." The Laura and John Arnold Foundation was a private foundation founded by his wife Laura. The organization was founded in 2008, the same year that the Arnolds signed the Giving Pledge, a pledge by some high-net-worth individuals to donate a large fraction of their income to philanthropic causes during their lifetimes.
In October 2018, it was reported that Arnold had spent more than $100 million in health-care related grants since 2014, with a particular focus on reducing pharmaceutical drug costs. Arnold has been an influential supporter of Democrats’ efforts to pass a drug-price reform bill. Since 2008, the foundation has invested more than $1 billion, ostensibly in the areas of pension reform and criminal justice reform, prescription drug price reform, the quality of academic research, combating predatory higher education practices, the evaluation of social programs, school system governance reform, electoral reform. However, the organization has generated controversy with its algorithmic pretrial risk assessment tool, sued for leading to at least two murders. In 2016, the group funded unconstitutional aerial surveillance of Baltimore's historic neighborhoods. In 2019, the organization was transformed into a limited-liability company composed of the former foundation, a donor-advised fund, the Action Now Initiative advocacy organization - the new entity is known as Arnold Ventures LLC with the charter "to remove barriers between data and decisive action, working swiftly across the policy-change spectrum."
Arnold Ventures LLC is embroiled in controversy for "using a personal fortune to bend criminal justice and bail reform to one’s ideological worldview" by funding an pre-trial web tool, designed to help decide whether bail is necessary and how much. The tool is "scored without personal interview of the alleged offender and excludes input from arresting officers, attorneys or judges." The former foundation was sued over the initiative by the families of victims. John Arnold and his brother Matthew have raised the ire of architectural conservationists for tearing down historical homes in the River Oaks neighborhood of Houston. Arnold is married to Laura Elena Arnold, she is co-founder of Arnold Ventures LLC. She is a graduate of Harvard College, Yale Law School, has a Master of Philosophy degree in European Studies from the University of Cambridge, she was an attorney in Houston, Texas and an oil company executive. They have three children. Centaurus Energy We
Lakshmana or Lakshana is seventh of the Ashtabharya, the eight principal queen-consorts of Hindu god Krishna, an avatar of the god Vishnu and the king of Dwarka - in the Dwapara Yuga. The Bhagavata Purana mentions Lakshmana, endowed with good qualities, as the daughter of an unnamed ruler of the kingdom of Madra; the Padma Purana specifics the name of the king of Madra as Brihatsena. Lakshmana describes Brihatsena to be a good veena player in a dialogue; some texts give her the epithet Madraa. However, the Vishnu Purana includes Lakshmana in the Ashtabharya list, but mentions another queen Madri, explicitly mentioned as the princess of Madra; the lineage of Lakshmana is not alluded to in the text. The text calls her Charuhasini, one with a lovely smile; the Harivamsa calls her Charuhasini, but is not associated with Madra and another queen called Madri or Subhima is mentioned like the Vishnu Purana. Lakshmana's father had organized a Swayamvara ceremony, in which a bride chooses a groom from assembled suitors.
The Bhagavata Purana mentions that Krishna abducts Lakshmana from the swayamvara, just like the bird-man Garuda had stolen the jar of the elixir of life from the gods. Another tale describes; the kings Jarasandha and Duryodhana miss the target. The Pandava prince and Krishna's cousin Arjuna, described as the best archer at times, missed his aim at the target with the arrow so that Krishna could win the hand of Lakshmana. Arjuna's brother Bhima refused to participate in deference to Krishna. Krishna wins by hitting the target. Krishna and his queens once visited Hastinapur to meet their common wife Draupadi; the proud and shy Lakshmana tells Draupadi that her marriage was very exciting and narrates its tale. The Bhagavata Purana states that she had ten sons: Praghosha, Simha, Prabala, Mahashakti, Saha and Aparajita; the Vishnu Purana says. The Bhagavata Purana records the wailing of Krishna's queens and their subsequent leap in Krishna's funeral pyre immolating themselves; the Mausala Parva of the Hindu epic Mahabharata which describes the death of Krishna and end of his race declares that only four committed, others kill themselves by burning themselves alive after being attacked by robbers