Ede & Ravenscroft
Ede & Ravenscroft are the oldest tailors in London, established in 1689. They have three London premises, in Gracechurch Street, Chancery Lane and Burlington Gardens close to the famous Savile Row, they make and hire out legal gowns and wigs, clerical dress and municipal robes, academic dress and other ceremonial and formal dress, have shops in Oxford and Edinburgh. The main outlet and offices are at 93 Chancery Lane which, due to its proximity to the Inns of Court and the country's main civil and criminal law courts, is the company's main outlet for legal dress; the company was founded in 1689 by Martha Shudall. The present name dates from 1902 and is a result of the inheriting of the business by Joseph Ede and merging with wig-maker Ravenscroft; the company holds royal warrants as "Purveyors to the British Royal Family". The company has warrants as robemakers to Queen Elizabeth II, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales, the Queen Mother; as the Queen Mother's warrants expired five years after her death in 2002, Ede & Ravenscroft hold three warrants.
In addition to clothing and robes, Ede & Ravenscroft supply photography at ceremonial events such as graduations and as tailor to the Bullingdon Club at the University of Oxford. Campbell, Una. Robes of the Realm: 300 Years of Ceremonial Dress. Ede and Ravenscroft. ISBN 0948397616. Woodcock, Thomas. Legal Habits: a Brief Sartorial History of Wig and Gown. Good Books. ISBN 0946555567. Official website "Archival material relating to Ede & Ravenscroft". UK National Archives
Noilly Prat is a brand of vermouth from France, owned by the Italian company Martini & Rossi. "White" Noilly Prat is the archetype of straw-coloured French vermouth. Noilly Prat now makes Red and Ambre vermouths as well, introduced in the 1960s and 1980s, but they are less known. Noilly Prat Dry is 18% alcohol by volume; the Noilly Prat company is based in Marseillan, in the Hérault département of southern France, is a subsidiary of Bacardi-Martini. Joseph Noilly, a herbalist, developed the first formula in 1813, it has long been known. Wine, transported long distances in barrels and exposed to the weather became darker in colour and fuller-flavoured, it was to mimic this natural process that Joseph Noilly, in 1813, designed a process that made France's first vermouth. In 1855, his son Louis Noilly and son-in-law Claudius Prat set up the company that became Noilly Prat, moving the business to Marseillan where it remains to this day; the brand was acquired by its Italian competitor Martini & Rossi in 1971, merged into the Bacardi-Martini family of brands in 1992.
The process used today is unchanged since the 1850s. Noilly Prat is made from white grape varieties grown in the Marseillan area, principally Picpoul de Pinet and Clairette; these produce light, fruity wines which are matured in massive Canadian oak casks inside the original storerooms. The wine stays in these casks for 8 months and absorbing the flavour of the wood, before being transferred to smaller oak barrels which are taken outside and left for a year. Here they are exposed to the sun and low winter temperatures, while the wine is changing; the result is a wine, dry, full-bodied and amber coloured, similar to Madeira or Sherry. During the year outside, 6 to 8% of the volume is lost to evaporation, the "angels' share". Brought back inside and left to rest for a few months, the wines are blended together into oak casks. A small quantity of Mistelle is added to the wines in order to soften them, along with a dash of fruit essence to accentuate their flavour. In the oak casks, a process of maceration unique to Noilly Prat, takes place over a period of three weeks.
A blend of some twenty herbs and spices is added by hand every day. The exact mix of herbs and spices that goes into Noilly Prat is a guarded secret, but includes camomile, bitter orange peel, centaury and cloves. After a further six weeks, the finished product is ready for bottling and is shipped in tankers to Beaucaire, where it is bottled by Martini & Rossi; the vast bulk of Noilly Prat wine is the Original French Dry vermouth. It is enjoyed in Martini Cocktails. However, three special variants have been made: Red Noilly Prat is made in the same way, but with the addition of 30 flavourings, which produce the rich red colour, it is not sold in France, except from the Noilly Prat shop in Marseillan, being produced for export, principally to the USA. Ambre Noilly Prat is available for purchase from the Noilly Prat shop in Marseillan and specialised stores. Extra Dry Noilly Prat is a less complex wine formulated for the American extra-dry martini cocktail. Extra Dry is only shipped to North America, where it was available from 1979 until 2009.
It returned late in 2012. It has supplanted the French Dry, now unavailable in much of the United States. Noilly Prat is used in cocktails, the most common and well-known of, the Martini, consisting of one part Noilly Prat to one or more parts gin or vodka, with a dash of orange bitters, twist of lemon, or olive garnish. Over the years, the American preference for "extra dry" martinis led to the switch from gin to vodka, to drastically reducing the flavour and quantity of the vermouth employed. However, in 2009, the extra-dry Noilly recipe exported to the USA was replaced by the original dry formula used worldwide; the change in recipe was accompanied by a change in the bottle's design. Some recipes substituted a vermouth from Dolin instead of Noilly Prat for making martinis, said to be "every bit as good as, although not by any means identical to, the old Noilly"; the Algonquin cocktail is named for the Algonquin Hotel, composed of rye whiskey, Noilly Prat and pineapple juice. Noilly Prat is used in cooking, extensively used for sauces to accompany fish.
In his BBC TV series French Odyssey, Rick Stein described Noilly Prat as a "true flavour from the Languedoc" and said, "I've done lots of experiments with white wines for fish sauces and I've come to the conclusion that Noilly Prat is the best. The Provençal herbs and spices used to flavour Noilly Prat seem to add flavour to the reduction." The Noilly Prat cellars are open to the public from March for a small charge. Tour guides explain the whole process, finish by giving visitors a taste of each of the three varieties of Noilly Prat produced. A major draw for visitors to the area, Noilly Prat attracts more than 80,000 tourists every year. Noilly Prat website Green Guide: Languedoc, Tarn Gorges Michelin & Cie, p 337 ISBN 2-06-136602-3
Chieri is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin, located about 11 kilometres southeast of Turin, 15 km by rail and 13 km by road. It borders the following municipalities: Baldissero Torinese, Montaldo Torinese, Pino Torinese, Andezeno, Pecetto Torinese, Riva presso Chieri, Santena, Poirino. Between the Neolithic and the Iron Age, the original inhabitants of this part of the Italian peninsula were the Ligures; the Ligures living in this area of the Po river plain belonged to the Taurini tribe. The location of Chieri is within the Taurini tribe's territory, in the belt of hills which surround Turin; the original settlement was most founded by them, being sited on a prominent hill and which grew to be the geographical focus of the city centre. Its original name would have been Karreum or a variant thereof e.g. Karreo/Karrea/Carrea: this is based on the root kar, which means "stone", reflecting the typical Ligurian settlement layout of a stone edifice at the centre of a grouping of other habitations within a village, which would have been the original layout of Chieri.
Sometime around 400 BCE, Celtic tribes settled the Po river plain. These peoples mingled with the original Ligures, either through conquest or peaceful cohabitation, gave rise to a Celto-Ligurian people, inhabiting the region which the Romans would call Cisalpine Gaul, i.e. "Gaul this side of the Alps". The Romans, over the two centuries between 400-200 BCE, conducted a prolonged counter-offensive to conquer all of the northern Italian peninsula in response to successive invasions, starting with Gauls led by king Brennus in 391 BCE, the Carthaginians under the great general Hannibal Barca in 218 BCE, it is sometime after 176 BCE that Cisalpine Gaul was subdued by Roman legions, this would have included the village of Karreum itself. This was under the command of Roman consul Caius Claudius Pulcrus, leading a military response to a rebellion the year before by the Ligures. Following this Roman conquest in the 2nd Century BCE, the village became known as the Roman settlement of Carreum Potentia: the Latin name Potentia being added as a cognomen to the original Ligurian name.
It is that, following similar examples elsewhere, at Carreum Potentia the Roman settlement was built alongside the pre-Roman one, the Roman part built on lower ground in the plain, alongside the Rio Tepice stream and at the base of the original native hill-top settlement. It would appear the Forum and the main Temple were located in the area where the Cathedral and the piazza around it stand, with a wall around it. Roman historian Pliny the Elder referenced "Carreum quod Potentia cognominatur", in his Naturalis Historia, naming it within a list of fortified settlements which abounded in the section of Cisalpine Gaul between the River Po and the Ligurian Apennines: the city was portrayed as a prosperous Roman walled city, surrounded by cultivated farmlands and scattered agricultural settlements. By the 1st Century AD, Carreum Potentia was indeed referred to as a Roman municipium, i.e. a seat of local government for the surrounding area. The city underwent conversion to Christianity sometime in the 5th century, as recorded on a funeral slab dated from June 488 AD for a little girl called Genesia who died at the age of two.
No further historical records exist regarding Chieri until the 10th century, when it came under feudal subjection to the Bishop of Turin. During the first half of the 11th century the city had an encircling defensive wall erected around the San Giorgio Hill, under the direction of Bishop Landulf: these long-demolished Mura Landolfiane still trace the outline of the pattern of narrow streets around the hill; the work included a strengthening of the fortifications and tower atop the hill, now incorporated into the Church of San Giorgio which occupies the hilltop and overlooks the city. Outside the walls, on the plains surrounding the city, a church was erected dedicated to the Virgin Mary: this site was that of an earlier and more primitive Church dating from the 4th century, which had itself replaced the earlier Roman Temple to Minerva; this period experienced the construction of numerous quadrilateral towers, inside the perimeter of the walls, by the powerful families of the city, hence it became known as Città delle Cento Torri: a handful of these Towers still survive to this day.
During the 12th century the city allied itself with the more powerful city of Asti in fighting against the marquis William V of Montferrat, himself allied to Emperor Frederick Barbarossa: in revenge for this rebel alliance, Barbarossa besieged the city and in January 1155 conquered it, decimating its towers and fortifications, as well as massacring a significant portion of the population. Popular legend has it that its present-day name was given by Barbarossa who, upon departing the city after ransacking it, looked back upon its ruins and asked Ma tu, chi eri? - although this story is most apocryphal. Over the remainder of the 12th century, the city gained independence from the rule and authority of the Bishop of Turin, this resulted in the emergence of the free Republic of Chieri, which grew to have its own autonomous judicial and administrative institutions, similar to the numerous other Italian free communes whi
Alessandro Martini was an Italian businessman, founder of one of the most important vermouth companies in the world, Martini & Rossi, which produces the Martini vermouth. In 1830 he purchased a small wine company situated close to Turin. In 1847 several Italian businessmen started producing wine and vermouth for the Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino of Turin. Thanks to the Risorgimento, the economic prospects were bright and the organization soon began to turn a profit. A few years Alessandro Martini joined the small team, becoming the director in 1863 along with Luigi Rossi and Teofilo Sola. During this early period the Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino kept on growing and a several subsidiaries were created in Genoa and Narbonne thanks to the protection of the King of Piedmont. In 1863, which can be considered one of the most important dates in the company's history, Martini and Rossi changed the name of the company to "Martini, Sola & Cia", they started exporting the bottles of vermouth around the world.
New York city was given its first crates in 1867. At the same time the firm was awarded a good many prizes, which are still proudly recorded on the bottles: Dublin, Paris and Philadelphia. Just thirty years after its creation, Martini was drunk in the United States, Argentina, Portugal, Belgium and other countries. In 1879 Sola died, his sons sold all their shares in the company; the firm decided to change its name to Martini & Rossi, the name seen today on the bottles sold in the United States. Between 1870 and 1880 the company diversified and the two directors launched Vino Canelli Spumante. One of their successes was to build upon the traditions of the late 19th-century European courts' fondness for vermouth. In 1868 the company was authorized by King Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy to put the symbols of the royal family on their packaging. King Louis of Portugal, the Queen of Austria and the British Parliament did the same; the symbols of Melbourne and Mendoza followed. When Alessandro Martini died in 1905, the three sons of Luigi Rossi inherited the company.
They had launched Martini Extra Dry and Martini Bianco before his death, had created subsidiaries around the world. In 1922 the company became known as Martini, except in the United States where they were compelled to keep Martini & Rossi because Martini was an American cocktail
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. While the phrase refers to champagne, EU countries reserve that term for products produced in the Champagne region of France. Sparkling wine is either white or rosé, but there are examples of red sparkling wines such as the Italian Brachetto and Lambrusco, Australian sparkling Shiraz, Azerbaijani "Pearl of Azerbaijan" made from Madrasa grapes; the sweetness of sparkling wine can range from dry brut styles to sweeter doux varieties. The sparkling quality of these wines comes from its carbon dioxide content and may be the result of natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the traditional method, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved, or as a result of simple carbon dioxide injection in some cheaper sparkling wines. In EU countries, the word "champagne" is reserved by law only for sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France; the French terms Mousseux and Crémant refer to sparkling wine not made in the Champagne region, such as Blanquette de Limoux produced in Southern France.
Sparkling wines are produced around the world, are referred to by their local name or region, such as Espumante from Portugal, Cava from Catalonia, Franciacorta, Trento DOC, Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico and Asti from Italy, Cap Classique from South Africa. Sparkling wines have been produced in Eastern Europe since the early 19th-century. "Champagne" was further popularised in the region, late in the century, when József Törley started production in Hungary using French methods, learned as an apprentice in Reims. Törley has since become one of the largest European producers of sparkling wine; the United States is a significant producer of sparkling wine today, with producers in numerous states. Production of sparkling wine has re-started in the United Kingdom after a long hiatus. Effervescence has been observed in wine throughout history and has been noted by Ancient Greek and Roman writers, but the cause of this mysterious appearance of bubbles was not understood. Over time it has been attributed to phases of the moon as well as both evil spirits.
The tendency of still wine from the Champagne region to sparkle was noted in the Middle Ages but this was considered a wine fault and was disdained in early Champagne winemaking although it made the pride of other historic sparkling wine production areas like Limoux. Dom Pérignon was charged by his superiors at the Abbey of Hautvillers to get rid of the bubbles since the pressure in the bottles caused many of them to burst in the cellar; when deliberate sparkling wine production increased in the early 18th century, cellar workers would still have to wear a heavy iron mask that resembled a baseball catcher's mask to prevent injury from spontaneously bursting bottles. The disturbance caused by one bottle's disintegration could cause a chain reaction, with it being routine for cellars to lose 20–90% of their bottles to instability; the mysterious circumstance surrounding the unknown process of fermentation and carbonic gas caused some critics to call the sparkling creations "The Devil's Wine".
The British were the first to see the tendency of wines from Champagne to sparkle as a desirable trait and tried to understand why it produced bubbles. Wine was transported to England in wooden wine barrels where merchant houses would bottle the wine for sale. During the 17th century, English glass production used coal-fueled ovens and produced stronger, more durable glass bottles than the wood-fired French glass; the English rediscovered the use of cork stoppers, once used by the Romans but forgotten for centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the cold winters of the Champagne region, temperatures would drop so low that the fermentation process was prematurely halted—leaving some residual sugar and dormant yeast; when the wine was shipped to and bottled in England, the fermentation process would restart when the weather warmed and the cork-stoppered wine would begin to build pressure from carbon dioxide gas. When the wine was opened, it would be bubbly. In 1662, the English scientist Christopher Merret presented a paper detailing how the presence of sugar in a wine led to it sparkling and that by adding sugar to a wine before bottling it, nearly any wine could be made to sparkle.
This is one of the first known accounts of understanding the process of sparkling wine and suggests that British merchants were producing "sparkling Champagne" before the French Champenois were deliberately making it. Sparkling wines, such as Champagne, are sold with 5 to 6 atmospheres of pressure in the bottle; this is nearly twice the pressure found in an automobile tire. European Union regulations define a sparkling wine as any wine with an excess of 3 atmospheres in pressure; these include Spanish Espumoso, Italian Spumante and French Crémant or Mousseux wines. Semi-sparkling wines are defined as those with between 1 and 2.5 atmospheres of pressures and include German spritzig, Italian frizzante and French pétillant wines. The amount of pressure in the wine is determined by the amount of sugar added during the tirage stage at the beginning of the secondary fermentation with more sugar producing increased amount of carbon dioxide gas and thus pressure in the wine. While the majority of sparkling wines are white or rosé, Australia and Moldova each have a sizable production of red sparkling wines.
Of these, Italy has the longest tradition in red sparkling wine-making, with notable wines including Brachetto and semi spar
Martini is a brand of Italian vermouth, named after the Martini & Rossi Distilleria Nazionale di Spirito di Vino, in Turin. Clemente Michel, Carlo Re, Carlo Agnelli and Eligio Baudino started the company in 1847, as a vermouth bottling plant in Pessione. A few years Alessandro Martini joined the team, becoming the director in 1863 along with Teofilo Sola and Luigi Rossi. In 1863 they changed the company name to Sola & Cia, they started exporting bottles of vermouth around the world. New York city was given its first crates in 1867. At the time the firm was awarded several prizes, which are still recorded on the bottles: Dublin, Paris and Philadelphia. Just thirty years after its creation, Martini was available in the United States, Argentina, Portugal, Belgium and other countries. In 1879 the Sola family sold its interests to the remaining partners, who renamed the company Martini & Rossi, as it stands today; the brand may have given the American martini vermouth and gin cocktail its name, though other speculations on the cocktail's etymology exist.
In 1892 the business was taken over by Rossi's four sons. In 1929 the Martini Ball & Bar logo was registered for the first time. Restructuring was carried out in 1977 resulting in the creation of the General Beverage Corporation. In 1992 Martini & Rossi merged with Bacardi. “Martini is the world's fourth most powerful ‘spirit’ brand” according to a survey of the market in 2006. In 1970 and 1971 Martini together with Rossi supported the so-called "Ladies Football World Championships"; these tournaments were independent from FIFA and the common national soccer associations. They were held in Mexico. Martini is made from four ingredients: wine, botanicals and alcohol Martini Rosso - 1863 Martini Extra Dry - This was launched on New Year's Day 1900 Martini Bianco - 1910 Martini Rosato - 1980 Martini D’Oro - 1998 Martini Fiero -1998 - New 2017 Martini Soda Martini Riserva Montelera Martini Bitter 1872 Martini Brut Martini Rosé demi sec 2009 Martini Dolce Martini Prosecco Martini Asti Martini Gold by Dolce&Gabbana 2010 Martini Royale 2012 Martini Gran Lusso Limited Edition 150 years 2013 Martini Riserva Speciale Ambrato 2015 Martini Riserva Speciale Rubino 2015 Martini Riserva Speciale Bitter 2017 Martini Official website
DHL International GmbH is an American-founded company, now the international courier and express mail division of the German logistics company Deutsche Post DHL. Deutsche Post DHL is the world's largest logistics company in sea and air mail; the company delivers over 1.3 billion parcels per year. The company was founded in the United States in 1969 and expanded its service throughout the world by the late 1970s; the company was interested in offshore and intercontinental deliveries, but the success of FedEx prompted their own intra-US expansion starting in 1983. In 1998, Deutsche Post began to acquire shares in DHL, it reached controlling interest in 2001, acquired all outstanding shares by December 2002. The company absorbed DHL into its Express division, while expanding the use of the DHL brand to other Deutsche Post divisions, business units, subsidiaries. Today, DHL Express shares its DHL brand with business units such as DHL Global Forwarding and DHL Supply Chain, it gained a foothold in the United States.
The DHL Express financial results are published in the Deutsche Post AG annual report. In 2016, this division's revenue increased by 2.7 per cent to €14 billion. The earnings before interest and taxes increased by 11.3% over 2015 to €1.5 billion. While Larry Hillblom was studying law at University of California, Berkeley's Boalt Hall School of Law in the late 1960s, he accepted a job as a courier for the insurance company Michael's, Poe & Associates, he started running courier duty between Oakland International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport, picking up packages for the last flight of the day, returning on the first flight the next morning, up to five times a week. After he graduated, Hillblom met with MPA salesman Adrian Dalsey and they planned to expand MPA's concept of fast delivery to other business enterprises, they flew between Honolulu and Los Angeles, transporting bills of lading for their first client, Seatrain Lines. Hillblom put up a portion of his student loans to start the company, bringing in his two friends Adrian Dalsey and Robert Lynn as partners, with their combined initials of their surnames as the company name.
They shared a Plymouth Duster that they drove around San Francisco to pick up the documents in suitcases rushed to the airport to book flights using another new invention, the corporate credit card. As the business took off, they started hiring new couriers to join the company, their first hires were Max and Blanche Kroll, whose apartment in Hawaii became a makeshift flophouse for their couriers. In the 1970s, DHL was an international delivery company, the only one offering overnight service; the only major competitor in the overnight market was Federal Express, which did not open its first international service until 1981, expanding to Toronto, Canada. The domestic market was profitable, DHL was the third largest courier behind FedEx and UPS. Deutsche Post began to acquire shares in DHL in 1998, acquiring controlling interest in 2001. By the end of 2002, Deutsche Post had acquired all of DHL's remaining stock, absorbed the operation into its Express division; the DHL brand was expanded to business units and subsidiaries.
Today, DHL Express shares its DHL brand with other Deutsche Post business units, such as DHL Global Forwarding, DHL Freight, DHL Supply Chain, DHL Global Mail. All US domestic flights were handled by DHL Airways, Inc. which in 2003 was renamed ASTAR Air Cargo following a management buyout. DHL's first airline still remains with over 550 pilots in service, as of October 2008. 2001: Deutsche Post acquires a majority of DHL's shares, the remaining 49% in 2002. The new DHL is launched by merging the old DHL, Securicor Omega Euro Express. 2001: The Packstation, an automated delivery booth, is introduced as a pilot project in Dortmund and Mainz. 2002: Bashkirian Airlines Flight 2937, a Tupolev Tu-154 passenger jet, collides with DHL Flight 611, a Boeing 757-200 cargo jet, at 35,000 ft over Überlingen, Germany. The 69 people aboard the Tupolev and the two pilots of the Boeing were killed. December 2002: Introduces red and yellow new color scheme and logo. August 2003: Deutsche Post acquires Airborne Express, begins to integrate it into DHL.
The Airborne Express Airline named ABX Air is to provide contract ACMI service until 2011. 22 November 2003: DHL shootdown incident in Baghdad wherein Iraqi insurgents fire an SA-7 "Grail" surface-to-air missile at a European Air Transport Airbus A300 operating on behalf of DHL. The aircraft takes off from Baghdad airport and the missile strikes the left wing, disabling all three hydraulic systems and setting the wing on fire; the aircraft begins a dangerous phugoid but the crew manages to land safely at the airport, despite being able to control the aircraft only by adjusting the engine thrust. September 2004: a planned expansion by DHL at Brussels Airport creates a political crisis in Belgium. 21 October 2004: DHL Express announces that it will move its European hub from Brussels to Leipzig, Germany. DHL's unions call a strike in response. 8 November 2004: DHL Express invests €120 million in Indian domestic courier Blue Dart and becomes the majority shareholder in the company. September 2005: Deutsche Post makes an offer to buy contract logistics company Exel plc, which had just acquired Tibbett & Britten Group.
On 14 December 2005, Deutsche Post announces the completion of the acquisition of Exel plc. When integrating Exel into its Logistics division, it adds its well-known DHL brand acquired with th