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Martinique

Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres and a population of 376,480 inhabitants as of January 2016. Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, northwest of Barbados and south of Dominica; as one of the eighteen regions of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, its currency is the euro. The entire population speaks both French, the official language, Antillean Creole, it is thought that Martinique is a corruption of the native name for the island, as relayed to Christopher Columbus when he visited the island in 1502. According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called "Jouanacaëra" by the Caribs, which means "the island of iguanas"; the island was occupied first by Arawaks by Caribs. The Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1201 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts.

Martinique was charted by Columbus in 1493. Christopher Columbus landed on 15 June 1502, after a 21-day trade wind passage, his fastest ocean voyage, he spent three days there refilling his water casks and washing laundry. On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbour of St. Pierre with 80-150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French King Louis XIII and the French "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique", established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre. D'Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique in the hands of his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, who in 1637, became governor of the island. In 1636, in the first of many skirmishes, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island; the French repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region known as the Capesterre.

When the Carib revolted against French rule in 1658, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; some Carib had fled to St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace. After the death of du Parquet his widow took over the running of the island, however dislike of her rule led King Louis XIV to take over sovereignty of Martinique in 1658. Meanwhile, Dutch Jews, expelled from Portuguese Brazil, introduced sugar to the island in 1654. Large numbers of slaves were imported from Africa to work these plantations. In 1667 the Second Anglo-Dutch War spilled out into the Caribbean, with Britain attacking the pro-Dutch French fleet in Martinique destroying it and further cementing British pre-eminence in the region. In 1674 the Dutch were repulsed; because there were few Catholic priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots who sought greater religious freedom than what they could experience in mainland France.

Others were transported there as a punishment for refusing to convert to Catholicism, many of them dying en route. Those that survived were quite industrious and over time prospered, though the less fortunate were reduced to status of indentured servants. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court came to the islands to suppress the Protestant "heretics", these were ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's Edict of Revocation in 1685; as many of the planters on Martinique were themselves Huguenot, who were sharing in the suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by the Catholics who looked forward to their departure and the opportunities for seizing their property. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant countries in Europe; the policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonisation by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the region, which however left the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.

Under Governor of the Antilles Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac, Martinique served as a home port for French pirates including Captain Crapeau, Etienne de Montauban, Mathurin Desmarestz. In years pirate Bartholomew Roberts styled his jolly roger as a black flag depicting a pirate standing on two skulls labeled "ABH" and "AMH" for "A Barbadian's Head" and "A Martinican's Head", after Governors of those two islands sent warships to capture Roberts. Martinique was attacked or occupied several times by the British, including in 1693, 1759, 1762 and 1779. Excepting a period from 1802–1809 following signing of the Treaty of Amiens, Britain controlled the island for most of the time from 1794–1815, when it was traded back to France at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. Martinique has remained a French possession since then. Despite the introduction of successful coffee plantations in the 1720s, with Martinique being the first area in the Western hemisphere where coffee was introduced, as sugar prices declined in the early 1800s, the planter class lost political influence.

Slave rebellions in 1789, 1815 and 1822, pl

Nassau Stakes

The Nassau Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to fillies and mares aged three years or older. It is run at Goodwood over a distance of 1 mile, 1 furlong and 197 yards, it is scheduled to take place each year in late July or early August; the title of the event acknowledges the friendship between the 5th Duke of Richmond, a former owner of Goodwood Racecourse, the House of Orange-Nassau. The race was established in 1840, it was restricted to three-year-old fillies. During the early part of its history it was contested over a distance of 1 mile, it was extended to 1½ miles in 1900, shortened to its present length in 1911. The Nassau Stakes was opened to fillies and mares aged four or older in 1975. For a period it was classed at Group 2 level, it was promoted to Group 1 status in 1999; the race is held on the third day of the five-day Glorious Goodwood meeting. Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018, 2019galopp-sieger.de – Nassau Stakes.

Ifhaonline.org – International Federation of Horseracing Authorities – Nassau Stakes. Pedigreequery.com – Nassau Stakes – Goodwood. Abelson, Edward; the Breedon Book of Horse Racing Records. Breedon Books. Pp. 144–146. ISBN 1-873626-15-0

German torpedo boat T5

The German torpedo boat T5 was one of a dozen Type 35 torpedo boats built for the Kriegsmarine during the late 1930s. Completed in 1940, she was assigned escort duties in June–July before she was tasked to escort minelayers as they laid their minefields in the North Sea and English Channel in August and September. T5 was transferred to Norway by November and escorted minelaying missions and supported operations in the Baltic Sea after the start of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941. T5 returned to France at the end of the year and escorted a pair of battleships and a heavy cruiser through the Channel back to Germany in early 1942 in the Channel Dash; the boat was transferred back to Norway upon her return and resumed her escort duties there before beginning a refit. Upon its completion T5 was assigned to escort convoys in the Baltic Sea until she was transferred back to France in early 1943 where she helped to escort blockade runners and U-boats through the Bay of Biscay and lay minefields; the boat returned to Germany and was assigned to the Torpedo School in mid-1943.

She returned to active duty in late 1944 and escorted German ships as they bombarded Soviet positions. T5 sank with few casualties; the Type 35 was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kriegsmarine to design a fast, ocean-going torpedo boat that did not exceed the 600-long-ton displacement limit of the London Naval Treaty for ships that counted against the national tonnage limit. The boats were 82.2 meters long at the waterline. After the bow was rebuilt in 1941 to improve seaworthiness, the overall length increased to 87.1 meters. The ships had a beam of 8.62 meters, a mean draft of 2.83 meters at deep load and displaced 859 metric tons at standard load and 1,108 metric tons at deep load. Their crew numbered 119 sailors, their pair of geared steam turbine sets, each driving one propeller, were designed to produce 31,000 shaft horsepower using steam from four high-pressure water-tube boilers which would propel the boats at 35 knots. They carried enough fuel oil to give them a range of 1,200 nautical miles at 19 knots.

As built, the Type 35 class mounted a single 10.5 cm SK C/32 gun on the stern. Anti-aircraft defense was provided by a single 3.7 cm SK C/30 anti-aircraft gun superfiring over the 10.5 cm gun and a pair of 2 cm C/30 guns on the bridge wings. They carried six above-water 533 mm torpedo tubes in two triple mounts and could carry 30 mines. Many boats exchanged the 3.7 cm gun for another 2 cm gun, depth charges and minesweeping paravanes before completion. Late-war additions were limited to the installation of radar, radar detectors and additional AA guns at the expense of the aft torpedo tube mount. T5 was ordered on 15 January 1936 from DeSchiMAG, laid down at their Bremen shipyard on 30 December 1936 as yard number 934, launched on 22 November 1937 and commissioned on 23 January 1940; the boat was working up until June when she was transferred to the Skaggerak for convoy escort duties. From 25–28 July, T5 was one of the escorts for the badly damaged battleship Gneisenau from Trondheim, Norway to Kiel, Germany.

By 31 August T5 was assigned to the 2nd Torpedo Boat Flotilla with her sister ships T6, T7 and T8 as the flotilla escorted minelayers as they laid minefields in the southwestern part of the North Sea from 31 August to 2 September. The flotilla escorted a minelaying mission in the English Channel on 5–6 September and laid minefields itself on 8–9 and 15–16 September in the Straits of Dover. By November the 1st and 2nd Torpedo Boat Flotillas had transferred to Stavanger, Norway and T5 was one of the escorts for a minelaying mission off Stavanger on the night of 27/28 January 1941 together with her sisters T9 and T12 and the minesweepers M15 and M22. T5 began a refit in March in Bremen. Along with her sisters T2, T8 and T11, the boat supported German forces invading the Estonian islands of Ösel, Dagö and Muhu in mid-September. T2, T5, T7, T8 and T11 were among the escorts for the Baltic Fleet, a temporary formation built around the battleship Tirpitz, as it sortied into the Sea of Åland on 23–29 September to forestall any attempt by the Soviet Red Banner Baltic Fleet to breakout from the Gulf of Finland.

Dagö was captured on 12 -- 13 October. She rejoined the 2nd Torpedo Boat Flotilla. On the morning of 12 February, the 2nd and 3rd Torpedo Boat Flotillas rendezvoused with the battleships Gneisenau and Scharnhorst and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen to escort them through the Channel to Germany in the Channel Dash. After arriving in Germany, T5 and T12 were transferred to Norway for escort duties. On 6 March they screened Tirpitz as she searched for the Russia-bound Convoy PQ 12. T5 and T7 escorted the heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer and the replenishment oiler Dithmarschen from Trondheim to Narvik on 9–10 May. T5 was refitted in East Prussia from August to November and remained in the Baltic Sea on escort duties until March 1943, she was transferred to France the following month. Although escorted by T2, T5, the torpedo boats Kondor, T22 and T23, the Italian blockade runner Himalaya failed in her attempt to break through the Bay of Biscay when she was spotted by British aircraft and forced to return by heavy aerial attacks on 9–11 April.

On 5–8 May, the 2nd Torpedo Boat Flotilla with T2, T5 and the torpedo boats T18 and T22 la