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Martok, son of Urthog is a recurring character in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, played by actor J. G. Hertzler. Martok is a high-ranking Klingon leader at the Federation-Bajoran space station in the late 2300s. J. G. Hertzler made his first appearance in the franchise in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine pilot episode, "Emissary", as a Vulcan Captain, killed when his vessel is destroyed. Following this, he made his first appearance as a Klingon in the video game Star Trek: Klingon, directed by Jonathan Frakes and starring Robert O'Reilly as Chancellor Gowron; when the producers of Deep Space Nine were casting Martok, Herzler auditioned after not considering the role but found himself getting angry during the interview due to a comment from the director which he felt was insulting. But this response led to him gaining the role, it was included as a character trait for Martok, it took around three hours each day for the make-up to be applied to Hertzler by David Quashnick, the "specialist" who did both Hertzler and O'Reilly's Klingon make-up.

Hertzler did not mind the process, but stated that having the prostheses block the sight in his left side could sometimes make filming difficult as he couldn't see when turning that way. However he felt it was important to the character to remind him of the time spent on the Dominion prison world, turned down the opportunity to have Martok's sight restored when it was suggested by executive producer Ira Steven Behr. In particular, Hertzler felt it gave the same air to Martok as Christopher Plummer's character in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country. Little backstory is given regarding the early life of Martok, except for a brief history sketched by himself in the Deep Space Nine episode "Once More Unto the Breach", it is known that he was born into a Klingon house, not part of the aristocracy and was raised in the Ket'ha lowlands on the Klingon homeworld of Qo'noS. This area is considered a wasteland by the Klingons, his family had been reputable soldiers and had loyally served the empire for 15 generations, although not as officers.

It had long been the wish of his father Urthog to have young Martok become an officer and so he enlisted the aid of officers he had earned the respect of and was able to get one to sponsor his son to the Klingon academy. Believing its approval was a mere formality, the application was submitted to the Oversight Committee but was rejected by one member, due to the elitist views of the legendary Klingon warrior regarding the honor and prestige of the "great houses". With a rejection on his record from such a legendary officer, Martok could no longer serve as a common soldier, he opted to serve and spent five years as a civilian laborer on General ShiVang's flagship. During his service the General's ship came under surprise attack by the Romulans, they attempted to board the ship at which time Martok took up arms and defended his General repelling the invasion. His performance and bravery in battle caught the eye of General ShiVang, who granted him a battlefield commission as an officer. Martok earned the rank of Lieutenant after the Battle of Tcha'voth, which earned him a spot as tactical officer aboard the Klingon Cruiser Gothspar, captained by Kultan.

At Martok's introduction to the series, he had attained the rank of General. Around 2371, Martok was replaced with a shapeshifter; the exact date of this is unclear. The shapeshifter was successful at beginning the war with the Cardassians but inadvertently revealed himself to Odo at a Klingon award ceremony, was killed by the Klingons attending the ceremony. Martok spent two years in a Dominion internment camp, forced to fight Jem'Hadar soldiers daily in hand-to-hand combat for training purposes, it was during one of these fights that his left eye was gouged out. During his confinement, Martok came to respect the indomitable character and fighting qualities of Worf. In the episode "By Inferno's Light", Martok escapes and returns to the Alpha Quadrant with Elim Garak and Julian Bashir, is made commander of the Klingon forces on Deep Space Nine. Weeks after this new assignment, Martok took command of a Klingon Bird-of-Prey, the Rotarran, made it his personal flagship; the Rotarran's crew were beaten and fatalistic, a fact, made worse by Martok's apparent reluctance to engage Jem'Hadar forces on their first mission.

A confrontation between Martok and Worf helped rally both the crew's warrior spirit as well as Martok's. The mission would conclude with the Rotarran engaging and destroying a Jem'Hadar vessel and rescuing thirty-five crewmen from a disabled Klingon ship. A grateful Martok would invite Worf to join Martok's house. Martok is portrayed as an excellent judge of character, caring about those under his command. This, in turn, earned him great respect among fellow Klingons, since while they have a love for battle and conquest, they have a low opinion of those who wantonly throw soldiers into battle with little regard for their safety or well-being; these traits, along with his courage and leadership skills, would serve him well in the Dominion War, during which he fought in several battles, including the battle to retake Deep Space Nine, the First and Second Battle of Chin'toka. Despite his humble background, or because of it, Martok would become popular among other Klingon warriors and the civilian population, because he climbed his way up the ranks honorably, though Martok himself stated he had no interest in politics

John Bennett (English barrister)

Sir John Bennett, of Essex Buildings, Essex Street, was a British lawyer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 to 1710. Bennett was the eldest son of John Bennett of St Paul’s, Covent Garden and Witham, Essex and his wife Sarah. In 1670, he succeeded his father, he was admitted at Greys Inn in 1675 and was called to the bar in 1683. On 9 January 1683 he married Anne Dudson, widow of Thomas Dudson, woollen-draper, of St Benet’s, Gracechurch Street and daughter of Sir Joseph Brand of Edwardstone, Suffolk. Bennett received as succession of legal posts in the Duchy of Lancaster, which he owed to Henry Bennett Earl of Arlington. For the Duchy, he was attorney for the court in 1678, deputy south auditor from 1678 to 168, clerk of council from 1678 to 1685, clerk of revenue from 1685 onwards, he was steward for Essex and Middlesex from 1697, judge of Marshalsea court from 1699 and bailiff, Salford hundred from 1699, all for the rest of his life. In 1705 became serjeant-at-law.

He was knighted on 10 July 1706. Bennett was returned unopposed as Whig Member of Parliament for Morpeth at the 1708 British general election on the interest of the 2nd Lord Ossulston, he supported the naturalization of the Palatines in 1709 and voted for the impeachment of Dr Sacheverell in 1710, but was otherwise an inactive Member. He did not stand after. Bennett's wife died in 1722, he died on 21 December 1723 and was buried at Witham nine days later, they had two daughters, one of whom predeceased him. He was succeeded by his eldest son, his sons followed him into the law but not into Parliament. Two of his sons became masters of chancery, one of them was appointed clerk of the custodies in 1714, his only surviving daughter married John Vaughan, 2nd Viscount Lisburne MP

Plague doctor costume

The term plague doctor costume refers to the clothing worn by plague doctors, intended to protect them from airborne diseases. The costume, used in France and Italy in the 17th century, consisted of an ankle length overcoat and a bird-like beak mask filled with sweet or strong smelling substances, along with gloves, boots, a wide-brimmed hat, an outer over-clothing garment; the mask had glass openings in the eyes and a curved beak shaped like a bird's beak with straps that held the beak in front of the doctor's nose. The mask was a type of respirator which contained aromatic items; the beak could hold dried flowers, spices, camphor, or a vinegar sponge. The purpose of the mask was to keep away bad smells, known as miasma, which were thought to be the principal cause of the disease, before it was disproved by germ theory. Doctors believed the herbs would counter the "evil" smells of the plague and prevent them from becoming infected; the beak doctor costume worn by plague doctors had a wide-brimmed leather hat to indicate their profession.

They used wooden canes in order to point out areas needing attention and to examine patients without touching them. The canes were used to keep people away, to remove clothing from plague victims without having to touch them, to take a patient's pulse. Medical historians have attributed the invention of the "beak doctor" costume to Charles de Lorme, who adopted in 1619 the idea of a full head-to-toe protective garment, modeled after a soldier's armor; this consisted of a bird-like mask with spectacles, a long leather or waxed-canvas gown which went from the neck to the ankle. The over-clothing garment, as well as leggings, boots, a hat, were made of waxed leather; the garment was impregnated with similar fragrant items as the beak mask. Lorme wrote that the mask had a "nose half a foot long, shaped like a beak, filled with perfume with only two holes, one on each side near the nostrils, but that can suffice to breathe and to carry along with the air one breathes the impression of the drugs enclosed further along in the beak".

The Genevese physician Jean-Jacques Manget, in his 1721 work Treatise on the Plague written just after the Great Plague of Marseille, describes the costume worn by plague doctors at Nijmegen in 1636–1637. The costume forms the frontispiece of Manget's 1721 work; the plague doctors of Nijmegen wore beaked masks. Their robes, leggings and gloves were made of Morocco leather; this costume was worn by plague doctors during the Plague of 1656, which killed 145,000 people in Rome and 300,000 in Naples. The costume terrified people. Plague doctors wore these protective costumes in accordance with their agreements when they attended their plague patients; the costume is associated with a commedia dell'arte character called Il Medico della Peste, who wears a distinctive plague doctor's mask. The Venetian mask was white, consisting of a hollow beak and round eye-holes covered with clear glass, is one of the distinctive masks worn during the Carnival of Venice. Hazmat suit Debunking Popular Misconceptions about Plague Doctor Costumes and How They Were Used Media related to Plague doctors at Wikimedia Commons

Lucky Star (Madonna song)

"Lucky Star" is a song written and recorded by American singer Madonna for her eponymous debut album Madonna. Sire Records released it as the fourth single from the album on September 8, 1983; the song was produced by Reggie Lucas. She called her then-boyfriend John "Jellybean" Benitez. "Lucky Star" is a medium-paced dance track and combines the heavy beats of a drum with the sounds of a guitar played in a high riff. The lyrics juxtapose the male body with the heavenly stars in the sky. Music critics praised the song. In the United States, "Lucky Star" was released after the success of "Borderline", it peaked at number four on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming the first single in her record-breaking string of 16 consecutive top-five hits. It topped the Dance Club Songs chart with "Holiday". Internationally, "Lucky Star" reached the top ten in Canada, the top twenty in Ireland and the United Kingdom; the music video portrayed Madonna dancing in front of a white background, accompanied by her dancers.

After the video was released, Madonna's style and mannerisms became a fashion trend among the younger generation. Scholars noted that in the video, Madonna portrayed herself as narcissistic and an ambiguous character, she referred to herself unlike the lyrical meaning of the song. Madonna has performed the song in a number of live appearances, most at the Rebel Heart Tour, it has been covered by a number of artists. In 1983, Madonna was recording her first studio album with Warner Music producer Reggie Lucas and her boyfriend John "Jellybean" Benitez. However, she did not have enough new material to ensure a full LP album. Lucas produced a number of songs for the album, namely "Borderline", "Burning Up", "Physical Attraction", "I Know It", "Think of Me" and lastly "Lucky Star"; the song was written by Madonna for DJ Mark Kamins, who promised to play the track at his club Danceteria, where he worked as a DJ. However, the track was instead used by Madonna for her debut album, which she planned to call Lucky Star.

She believed that "Lucky Star" song, along with "Borderline", were the perfect foundation for her album. But problems arose after recording the song. Madonna was unhappy with the way. According to her, Lucas did not consider her ideas for the songs; this led to a dispute between the two and after finishing the album, Lucas left the project without altering the songs to Madonna's specifications. Hence, Madonna brought Benitez to remix "Borderline" and "Lucky Star", along with some of the other recorded tracks. In a interview, Benitez reflected back on the recording sessions and commented, "She was unhappy with the whole damn thing, so I went in and sweetened up a lot of music for her, adding some guitars to'Lucky Star', some voices, some magic. I just wanted to do the best job; when we would play back'Holiday' or'Lucky Star', you could see that she was overwhelmed by how great it all sounded. You wanted to help her, you know? As much as she could be a bitch, when you were in groove with her, it was cool creative."

"Lucky Star" was decided to be released as the third single from the album, but "Holiday" had become a dance-hit in the United States. Hence it was released as the fourth single from the album. Music executive Jeff Ayeroff, instrumental in green-lighting Madonna's career, recalled how Madonna didn't want to release "Lucky Star" as a single, he says that around that time Madonna was getting sued and needed money, so he told her "Let me release'Lucky Star', I guarantee that you'll sell enough records to pay that off." According to Ayeroff, he was right because "'Lucky Star' broke the first album wide open."Musically a medium-paced dance track, "Lucky Star" starts off with a sparkle of synth note and is followed by heavy beats of electronic drum and handclaps. A guitar is played in high riff and a bubbling bass synth is produced to accompany the guitar sound; the song revolves around the "star light, star bright" hook for more than a minute, before going to the chorus. According to author Rikky Rooksby, the lyrics are repetitive and inane and revolves around the transparent ambiguity of the stars and juxtaposition of the male character with being a heavenly body in the sky.

"Lucky Star" is set in the time signature of common time with a moderate dance tempo of 108 beats per minute. It is set in the key of G major with Madonna's voice spanning from the tonal nodes of G3 to F♯5; the song has a basic sequence of G–A–B♭–D–E♭–F♯ as its basic chord progression. Author J. Randy Taraborrelli, in his biography of Madonna, called the song as "fluffy, dance-able, but forgettable." However he noted the song's ingenuity which he credited to come from its simplicity and dance-music nature. Author Rikky Rooksby noted that Madonna had a "cutesy" voice in the song and compared her vocals with those of Cyndi Lauper. Author Simon Gage of the book Queer noted that the song was a "happy disco number"; the song was appreciated by authors Santiago Fouz-Hernández and Freya Jarman-Ivens, who complimented it in their book Madonna's Drowned Worlds. They noted that with songs like "Lucky Star" and "Burning Up", Madonna introduced a "style of upbeat dance music that would prove appealing to future gay audiences."English tenor and academic John Potter, in his book The Cambridge companion to singing, commented that "Lucky Star" is a soft-soul, disco-influenced style song but criticized the song's reverb and double tracking which he believed made the song "de-personalized".

Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine commented that the tra

John Alexander Johnston

John Alexander Johnston was an American military officer born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. He served as a Brigadier General during World War I. Johnston graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1879, graduating twenty-third out of sixty seven, he was commissioned into the cavalry and performed frontier duty in Texas from 1879 to 1882. In 1883, he was an honor graduate from the Infantry and Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth, after which he became an instructor there, instructing on the art of war and engineering until 1885. In 1886, Johnston was promoted to First Lieutenant and would alternate between frontier duty in South Dakota multiple times, from 1886-1887, 1891-1893 and 1895-1897. Between his tours of frontier duty in South Dakota, Johnston taught history and tactics at the U. S. Military Academy from 1887-1891, horsemanship at the Jefferson Barracks Cavalry Depot, from 1893-1895. Johnston would spend the remainder of his career in the Adjutant General's Department in Washington D.

C. mustering in and out all the volunteers of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection, being promoted to Brigadier General in 1901 and resigning on January 15th, 1903. Johnston would remain in Washington D. C. after his resignation, working as a commissioner for the District of Columbia from 1910-1913. On August 5th, 1917, Johnston was promoted to Brigadier General and placed in command of the Northeastern Department in Boston. In October 1918, he was placed in command of the 34th Infantry Division, receiving the Distinguished Service Medal before being honorably discharged the following year. Johnston married Henrietta V. Vandergrift in 1888, he died on January 5th, 1940, at the age of 81. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery

Sabayon Linux

Sabayon Linux or Sabayon, is a Gentoo-based Italian Linux distribution created by Fabio Erculiani and the Sabayon development team. Sabayon follows the "out of the box" philosophy, aiming to give the user a wide number of applications ready to use and a self-configured operating system. Sabayon Linux features a rolling release cycle, its own software repository and a package management system called Entropy. Sabayon is available in both x86 and AMD64 distributions and there is support for ARMv7 in development for the BeagleBone, it is named after an Italian dessert, made from eggs. Sabayon's logo is an impression of a chicken foot. Since version 4.1, Sabayon has been released in two different flavors featuring either the GNOME or KDE desktop environments, with the ultralight Fluxbox environment included as well.. Since Sabayon's initial release, additional versions of Sabayon have added other X environments, including Xfce and LXDE. A CoreCD edition which featured a minimal install of Sabayon was released to allow the creation of spins of the Sabayon operating system.

A ServerBase edition was released which features a server-optimized kernel and a small footprint, but this was discontinued and integrated into the "Sabayon Minimal". Daily build images are available to the Sabayon testers, but are released weekly to the public on the system mirrors containing stable releases. Official releases are DAILY versions which have received deeper testing; the adoption of Molecule led the team to change the naming system for releases. Available versions are: Derivatives Additional X window managers may be installed from the Sabayon repositories, such as Cinnamon and Razor-qt. Sabayon uses the same core components as the Gentoo Linux distribution. Sabayon now uses systemd. All of the Gentoo configuration tools, such as etc-update and eselect are functional. Sabayon includes additional tools for automatic configuration of various system components such as OpenGL. Sabayon provides proprietary video drivers for both ATI hardware; these are enabled. Because of the automatic driver configuration, the compositing window manager Compiz Fusion and KWin are used for the GNOME and KDE editions, respectively.

The discovery and configuration of network cards, wireless cards, webcams is automatic. Most printers are detected automatically but require specific manual configuration through the CUPS interface. Sabayon Linux relies on two package managers. Portage is inherited from Gentoo, while Entropy was developed for Sabayon by Fabio Erculiani and others. Portage downloads source-code and compiles it for the target system, whereas Entropy manages binary files from servers; the binary tarball packages are precompiled using the Gentoo Linux unstable tree. Entropy clients pull these tarballs and perform the various post- and pre-compilation calls of the Gentoo ebuild to set up a package correctly; this means the system is binary-compatible with a Gentoo system using the same build configuration. The adoption of two package managers allows expert users to access the full flexibility of the Gentoo system and others to and manage software applications and updates; the Entropy software features the ability of allowing users to help generate relevant content by voting and by attaching images and web links to a package.

Rigo application browser is a new GUI front end to Entropy, the successor to Sulfur. Taking on a "less is more" approach, Rigo is designed to be fast. During an interview with Fabio Erculiani he described Rigo as a ”Google-like” Applications Management UI. Rigo handles system updates, package searching, install/removal of packages, up/down voting of packages, many other common Entropy tasks. Rigo is available in the sabayon weekly repository; the number of applications installed by default is higher for DVD editions than for editions small enough to fit on a CD. Their selection is tailored to the choice between GNOME, KDE, MATE; the XBMC environment can be run without loading the full desktop environment. The following table summarizes the software included in GNOME, KDE, MATE versions: Considerable software is available in the main repository. Many Microsoft Windows executables are automatically run in Wine. Other applications include Adobe Reader, Clementine, aMSN, Eclipse, FileZilla, GnuCash, Google Earth, Kdenlive, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla Sunbird, Mozilla Thunderbird, Nero Burning ROM, Picasa, Teamviewer, VirtualBox and Wireshark.

Games include Doom 3, Eternal Lands, OpenArena, Quake 2, Quake 3, Quake 4, The Battle for Wesnoth, Unreal, Unreal Tournament, Urban Terror, Vendetta Online, Warzone 2100, Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory, World of Padman and Xonotic. Gentoo's installation is not recommended for beginners because its package management system requires users to compile source code to install packages. Compiling larger programs and the base operating system can take several hours. Sabayon is considered easier to install than "pure Gentoo" because it uses both the Portage package management system and its own Entropy package management, which allows the user the option of using precompiled binary files during installation. Although the distribution is a L