The Marvel Cinematic Universe is an American media franchise and shared universe centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The franchise includes comic books, short films, television series, digital series; the shared universe, much like the original Marvel Universe in comic books, was established by crossing over common plot elements, settings and characters. The first MCU film was Iron Man, which began the first phase of films culminating in the crossover film The Avengers. Phase Two concluded with Ant-Man. Phase Three began with Captain America: Civil War and concluded with Spider-Man: Far From Home; the first three phases in the franchise are collectively known as "The Infinity Saga". Phase Four is set to conclude with Thor: Love and Thunder. Marvel Television expanded the universe to network television with Marvel's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D. On ABC in the 2013–14 television season, followed by online streaming with Marvel's Daredevil on Netflix in 2015 and Marvel's Runaways on Hulu in 2017, to cable television with Marvel's Cloak & Dagger on Freeform in 2018.
Marvel Television produced the digital series Marvel's Agents of S. H. I. E. L. D.: Slingshot. Marvel Studios expanded to online streaming with Disney+ for tie-in shows, starting with The Falcon and the Winter Soldier in 2020, along with Helstrom on Hulu, inherited from Marvel Television following its closure and folding into Marvel Studios. Soundtrack albums have been released for all the films and many of the television series, as well compilation albums containing existing music heard in the films; the MCU includes tie-in comics published by Marvel Comics, while Marvel Studios has produced a series of direct-to-video short films and a viral marketing campaign for its films and the universe with the faux news program WHIH Newsfront. The franchise has been commercially successful and has received a positive critical response, though some reviewers have found that some of its films and television series have suffered in service of the wider universe, it has inspired other film and television studios with comic book character adaptation rights to attempt to create similar shared universes.
The MCU has been the focus of other media, outside of the shared universe, including attractions at various Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, an attraction at Discovery Times Square, a Queensland Gallery of Modern Art exhibit, two television specials, guidebooks for each film, multiple tie-in video games, commercials. By 2005, Marvel Entertainment had begun planning to produce its own films independently and distribute them through Paramount Pictures. Marvel had co-produced several superhero films with Columbia Pictures, New Line Cinema and others, including a seven-year development deal with 20th Century Fox. Marvel made little profit from its licensing deals with other studios and wanted to get more money out of its films while maintaining artistic control of the projects and distribution. Avi Arad, head of Marvel's film division, was pleased with Sam Raimi's Spider-Man films at Sony, but was less pleased with others; as a result, Arad decided to form Marvel Studios, Hollywood's first major independent movie studio since DreamWorks.
Arad's second-in-command, Kevin Feige, realized that unlike Spider-Man and the X-Men, whose film rights were licensed to Sony and Fox Marvel still owned the rights to the core members of the Avengers. Feige, a self-described "fanboy", envisioned creating a shared universe, just as creators Stan Lee and Jack Kirby had done with their comic books in the early 1960s. To raise capital, the studio secured funding from a seven-year, $525 million revolving credit facility with Merrill Lynch. Marvel's plan was to release individual films for their main characters and merge them in a crossover film. Arad, who doubted the strategy yet insisted that it was his reputation that helped secure the initial financing, resigned the following year. In 2007, at 33 years old, Feige was named studio chief. In order to preserve its artistic integrity, Marvel Studios formed a creative committee of six people familiar with its comic book lore: Feige, Marvel Studios co-president Louis D'Esposito, Marvel Comics' president of publishing Dan Buckley, Marvel's chief creative officer Joe Quesada, writer Brian Michael Bendis, Marvel Entertainment president Alan Fine, who oversaw the committee.
Feige referred to the shared narrative continuity of these films as the "Marvel Cinema Universe", but used the term "Marvel Cinematic Universe". Since the franchise expanded to other media, this phrase has been used by some to refer to the feature films only. Marvel designated the Marvel Cinematic Universe as Earth-199999 within the continuity of the company's comic multiverse, a collection of fictional alternate universes. In November 2013, Feige said that "in an ideal world" releases each year would include one film based on an existing character and one featuring a new character, saying it's "a nice rhythm" in that format. While not always the case, as evident by the 2013 releases of Iron Man 3 and Thor: The Dark World, he said it is "certainly something to aim for". Feige expanded on this in July 2014, saying, "I don't know that we'll keep to every year, but we're doing that in 2014 and 2015, so I think it would be fun to continue that sort of thing". In February 2014, Feige stated that Marvel Studios wants to mimic the "rhythm" that the comic books have developed, by having the characters appear in their own films, come together, much like "a big event or crossove
Shepshed Dynamo Football Club is an English football club based in the small town of Shepshed in the north west of Leicestershire, England. Founded as Shepshed Albion towards the end of the 19th century, the team played for the majority of their early history in the Leicestershire Senior League before a series of league wins and promotions the late 1970s and early 1980s, when they were known as Shepshed Charterhouse, took them within two promotions of The Football League; the club encountered financial difficulties in 1994 and reformed under the new name in recognition of the help provided by local side Loughborough Dynamo. They play in the United Counties League Premier Division at the ninth tier of the English football league system. Football emerged in Shepshed in the late 19th century and records exist of a violent encounter between the Albion club and Loughborough Corinthians in 1899, but it was not until 1907 that the club joined the Leicestershire Senior League. Albion had immediate success, winning the League in 1911 and again in 1921.
They remained in the Leicestershire Senior League for the next 60 years, being promoted and relegated between its two divisions numerous times. Having been taken over and given significant financial backing by Maurice Clayton, the founder and managing director of Charterhouse Holdings plc, the club became Shepshed Charterhouse in the summer of 1975; the club won the LSL Second Division in 1977–78 following that with three successive LSL First Division titles in 1978–79, 1979–80 and 1980–81, were admitted to the Midland League for the first time in 1981. Charterhouse won the Midland League title at the first attempt and when this league merged with the Yorkshire League to form the Northern Counties East League in 1982, they were placed in the NCEL Premier Division, they won their sixth successive league title to earn promotion to the Southern Football League Midland Division for the 1983–84 season. This season gleaned success in cup competitions, with Charterhouse winning the NCEL Cup as well as negotiating the Qualifying Rounds of the FA Cup to reach the First Round Proper, where they lost 5–1 to Preston North End at Deepdale on the 20 November 1982.
A fourth successive promotion was secured with a second-place finish in the Southern League Midland Division in 1983–84. It is erroneously stated that Charterhouse gained seven successive promotions during this period, due to the club achieving six successive first-place finishes, followed by a second place. However, the non-league pyramid was not as formalised at the time as it has subsequently become, the club won the LSL Premier Division three seasons running. Playing in the Southern League Premier Division for the first time, the club were able to secure four safe mid-table finishes, finishing as high as seventh in 1985–86. However, they struggled to replicate that form after being transferred to the Northern Premier League Premier Division in 1988, despite appointing arguably their most famous manager, former Nottingham Forest player Martin O'Neill, in July 1989. O'Neill would only be at the club for a few months before going on to forge a successful managerial career with Leicester City and Celtic amongst others.
Charterhouse however would find no such success, finishing bottom of the league in 1990–91 and 1991–92 resulting in relegation to the NPL Division One. Following relegation, the club changed their name back to Shepshed Albion in 1992, but a year they were relegated again, to the Midland Football Combination. Despite their single season in the Combination being successful, finishing fourth in the 22 team league, off-field problems saw the future of the club in doubt. With help from local side Loughborough Dynamo the club were able to restructure and chose to signal a new era by adopting the name Shepshed Dynamo; the club were performed strongly. The 1995–96 season started with an impressive 23 game unbeaten start; the club went on to win the league by eight points and were promoted to the Southern League Division One Midland for the 1996–97 season. Promotion brought its own difficulties and Shepshed were forced to seek financial help from Charnwood Borough Council to complete the necessary improvements to the club's facilities to allow them to take their place in the Southern League.
Their first season back in the Southern League resulted in a safe mid-table position, but it was in the FA Cup that they caused their fans the most excitement. Having seen off Stratford Town, Sandwell Borough, Solihull Borough, Knypersley Victoria and Bromsgrove Rovers, the club visited Carlisle United in the First Round Proper going down 6–0 to the Football League side. A re-organisation of the Southern League for the start of the 1999–2000 season saw Shepshed moved to Division One West. A poor season spent fighting relegation resulted in a final position of 18th. Shepshed finished bottom of the Southern League Division One West in 2003–04. However, due to the expansion of the English Football Conference to three divisions, the subsequent reorganisation of the National League System Shepshed avoided demotion to a regional division and found themselves placed in the Northern Premier League Division One for the 2004–05 season, now at step eight of the pyramid. Further reorganisation of the lower leagues in 2007 left the club in the new Northern Premier League Division One South.
The 2010–11 season finished with Shepshed in the relegation places. However, they were reprieved from relegation to the Midland Football Alliance at the end of the 2010–11 season due to Rushden and Diamonds being expelled from the Football Conference; the previous seasons reprieve from relegation did not last long, wi
Cordaid is the Catholic Organization for Relief and Development Aid. It is one of the biggest international development organizations, with a network of hundreds of partner organizations in 31 countries in Africa and Latin America, has a disposable annual budget of around 115 million euros. Cordaid directly employs 400 people, amongst them 182 are based in the Netherlands and the rest are stationed all over the world. Cordaid is known under the names of the funds it manages: Cordaid Memisa, Cordaid Mensen in Nood, Cordaid Bond Zonder Naam, Cordaid Kinderstem. Cordaid was founded in 1999 in The Hague, with the aim of helping people in distress and fighting structural poverty, it is a merge of three Dutch Catholic development organizations: Memisa Medicus Mundi, Mensen in Nood and Lenten Campaign/Bilance. The history of these organizations goes back to the beginning of the 20th century when they were active in the area of shelter and care for refugees, providing direct aid in the event of disasters, medical care and direct improvement of the social and economic position of poor people.
The merger allowed the newly created NGO to benefit from broader resources, rationalized management and organization and aimed at coordinating actions and projects. Each organization became a fund with Kinderstem being part of Mensen in Nood, until October 2004, when Cordaid's General Assembly voted the creation of a separate fund focusing on aid to children living in slums. Cordaid Microcredit was formed in October 2006, following the tenth anniversary of the microfinance activities. On 1 January 2007, the Dutch NGO Bond Zonder Naam joined Cordaid. Since 2012 the campaigning cooperation with the Lenten Campaign Foundation has ended. In the beginning of 2018, Cordaid continues its activities under the brand name Cordaid; the different funds continue to exist as topics: humanitarian aid, health care, education and poverty in The Netherlands. Cordaid works on three main topics: Humanitarian aid Development aid Poverty in The NetherlandsDevelopment aid consists of the following sub-topics: Healthcare Education Resilience InvestmentsPartner organizations supported by Cordaid in developing countries work on various themes, including participation, emergency aid and reconstruction and well-being and entrepreneurship.
Each year, around 115 million euros is spent on initiatives in the South, of which over 30 million euros is available for emergency aid. A small part is spent in the Netherlands on public support and awareness-raising. Cordaid runs programs for the following issues: Minorities which focus on people who are not considered full citizens and have to deal with discrimination and poverty. Slum dwellers. Women and Violence, including rape and other forms of abuse. Disaster Prevention and Relief. In areas with a high-risk residents, should be prepared to limit damage and suffering. Cordaid helps developing emergency procedures. Reconciliation and Reconstruction in post-conflict countries, social connections and infrastructures have to be rebuilt. Access to healthcare. Care of Vulnerable groups of people, those groups include children, chronically poor, people with disabilities and elderly people whose lack access to health care and education. HIV/AIDS. Small producers who need land and cheap loans, but knowledge and expertise.
Microfinance. Cordaid is represented in three international Catholic networks: CIDSE, Caritas International, Medicus Mundi International. Cordaid is working with national and international NGOs, such as Darfur Emergency Response, Faith-Based Network, Pax Christi, STOP AIDS NOW!, Impunity Watch and United Civilians for Peace. Worldwide Cordaid works together with 264 partners for project funding. Cordaid