Washington Boulevard (Los Angeles)
Washington Boulevard is an east-west arterial road in Los Angeles County, California spanning a total of. Its western terminus is the Pacific Ocean just west of Pacific Avenue and straddling the border of the Venice Beach and Marina Peninsula neighborhoods of Los Angeles; the Boulevard extends eastbound to the city of Whittier, at Whittier Boulevard. It is south of Venice Boulevard for most of its length. At Wade Street, Washington Place is formed adjacent and parallel and lasts until just east of Sepulveda Boulevard, where it merges back into Washington Boulevard. Washington merges into Culver Boulevard but forms back into its own street at Canfield Avenue. Washington Boulevard, four lanes passes through locations in the mid southern portion of Los Angeles County; the communities to the west include affluent areas such as Ladera Heights. Further east it passes between Crestview and Culver City and through Mid City, Arlington Heights, Pico Union, City of Commerce, Pico Rivera, Los Nietos and Whittier.
Washington Boulevard is the dividing line between Venice and the Los Angeles neighborhood of Marina Peninsula which sits south of the Boulevard from the Pacific Ocean to Via Marina drive. East of Via Marina is the unincorporated area of Marina del Rey. In 1905, when the road was known as Washington Street, it boasted the headquarters of the local horse driving club, for a mile west of Western Avenue. "The road is not of the best," reported the Los Angeles Times, "and automobiles are usurping it... but it is the nearest approach to a speedway the reinsmen have, they therefore make the most of it." Mayor Owen McAleer "has set aside that stretch of the highway to those drivers who delight in vying with each other off the racetrack, policemen have been given to understand that some latitude is to be allowed horsemen there." Washington Boulevard provides bus service between Venice Beach and West LA Transit Center by Culver City Transit line 1, between West LA Transit Center and Downtown by Metro Local line 35, east of Downtown by Montebello Transit line 50.
A portion of the Metro Blue line runs along Washington Boulevard, from Flower Street to Long Beach Avenue, while the Metro Expo Line serves a rail station near the intersection with National Boulevard. The entire route is in Los Angeles County. There are no postmiles because the street is maintained by not Caltrans. Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery LA Trade Tech College is located at Grand Avenue near the Blue Line station of the same name; the RPM International building is located on the corner of Westmorland Blvd. and Washington Blvd., dedicated as the "Ray Charles Square". The Ray Charles Post Office at La Brea Avenue. Government center named after Jr.. City Council member, 1973–87 West Adams Preparatory High School is located on Vermont Avenue and Washington Blvd
Marina del Rey, California
Marina del Rey is an unincorporated seaside community in Los Angeles County, with a marina, a major boating and water recreation destination of the greater Los Angeles area. The marina is North America's largest man-made small-craft harbor and is home to 5,000 boats; the area is a popular tourism destination for water activities such as paddle board and kayak rentals, dining cruises, yacht charters. This Westside locale is 4 miles south of Santa Monica, 4 miles north of Los Angeles International Airport; the harbor is owned by Los Angeles County and is operated by the County's Department of Beaches and Harbors. The population was 8,866 at the 2010 census. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined Marina del Rey as a census-designated place; the census definition of the area may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. The Los Angeles Times said in a 1997 editorial that the harbor is "perhaps the county's most valuable resource". Prior to its development as a small craft harbor, the land occupied by Marina del Rey was a salt marsh fed by fresh water from Ballona Creek, frequented by duck hunters and few others.
Burton W. Chace, a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, referred to the area as mud flats, though today the area would more properly be referred to as wetlands. In the mid-19th century, Moye C. Wicks thought of turning this Playa del Rey estuary into a commercial port, he formed the Ballona Development Company in 1888 to develop the area, but three years the company went bankrupt. Port Ballona made by Louis Mesmer and Moye Wicks was sold to Moses Sherman. Sherman purchased 1,000 acres of land around the Ballona lagoon and Port Ballona in 1902 under the name the Beach Land Company. Sherman and Clark renamed the land "Del Rey". Port Ballona was renamed Playa Del Rey; the port was serviced by the California Central Railway opened in September 1887, this line became the Santa Fe Railway, that became the Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad. The rail line ran from the port to Redondo junction. A street car tram line was made to the Port by the Redondo and Hermosa Beach Railroad company, that had incorporated on February 21, 1901.
This company was part of the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad owned by Sherman. The tram line opened December 1902 departed downtown at Broadway. In 1916, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers revisited the idea of a commercial harbor, but declared it economically impractical. In 1936 the U. S. Congress ordered a re-evaluation of that determination, the Army Corps of Engineers returned with a more favorable determination. In 1953, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors authorized a $2 million loan to fund construction of the marina. Since the loan only covered about half the cost, the U. S. Congress passed and President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Public Law 780 making construction possible. Ground breaking began shortly after. With construction complete, the marina was put in danger in 1962–1963 due to a winter storm; the storm caused millions of dollars in damage to both the marina and the few small boats anchored there. A plan was put into effect to build a breakwater at the mouth of the marina, the L.
A. County Board of Supervisors appropriated $2.1 million to build it. On April 10, 1965 Marina del Rey was formally dedicated; the total cost of the marina was $36.25 million for land and initial operation. Los Angeles County solicited bids for the marina's development, selling 60 year leaseholds to willing developers. Real estate developer Abraham M. Lurie was the single largest leaseholder responsible for the building of three hotels, two apartment complexes, 1,000 boat slips, several shopping centers, restaurants, he ran into cash flow problems and sold a 49.9% interest to Saudi Arabian Sheik Abdul Aziz al Ibrahim, a brother of Waleed bin Ibrahim Al Ibrahim and a brother-in-law of King Fahd. Marina del Rey falls within unincorporated Los Angeles County and is southeast of the L. A. City community of Venice and north of the L. A. City community of Playa del Rey, near the mouth of Ballona Creek, it is located four miles north of Los Angeles International Airport. It is bounded on all sides by the City of Los Angeles.
The beach-style homes, the strip of land against the beach, the beach itself, west of the harbor, are within the City of Los Angeles limits, but share the same zip code as Marina del Rey. The name of this strip is the Marina Peninsula. Via Dolce and the southern portion of Via Marina are the boundaries between L. A. City and the unincorporated area. According to the United States Census Bureau, Marina del Rey has an area of 1.5 square miles. Nine-tenths of a square mile is land and 0.6 square miles is water. The marina itself, a specially designed harbor with moorings for pleasure craft and small boats, is surrounded by high-rise condos, apartments and restaurants; the area includes the University of Southern California Information Sciences Institute, the UCLA Marina Aquatic Center, the Loyola Marymount University boathouse. The community is served by the three-mile-long Marina Freeway, which links Marina del Rey directly to Interstate 405 and nearby Culver City; the area codes of Marina del
El Porto Beach
El Porto Beach is a California beach located on Santa Monica Bay beside El Porto, now part of the City of Manhattan Beach, between the beaches of El Segundo Beach and Manhattan Beach, is protected under the state park system. The entrance to El Porto's large parking lot, which has meters, is at the west end of 45th Street from Highland Avenue. El Porto is one of the most popular beaches in the South Bay area with surfers from near and far because of an underwater canyon that creates waves larger than those at neighboring beaches; these swells have lefts and rights that break over sandbars and are big when other beaches are flat. The breaks can hold waves up to double overhead. El Porto is close to the Chevron oil refinery and the Hyperion sewage treatment plant. Volleyball courts are located throughout the El Porto beach area. Roller skates and bicycles are rented out at the snack bar for recreation along the bike trail. There are restrooms with showers located throughout. No fires are permitted on the beach.
List of beaches in California List of California state parks El Porto Beach El Porto Beach at RockCityNews.com
The Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct is a system of canals and pipelines that conveys water collected from the Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys of Northern and Central California to Southern California. Named after California Governor Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. the over 400-mile aqueduct is the principal feature of the California State Water Project. The aqueduct begins at the Clifton Court Forebay at the southwestern corner of the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta; the aqueduct heads south splitting into three branches: the Coastal Branch, ending at Lake Cachuma in Santa Barbara County. The Department of Water Resources operates and maintains the California Aqueduct, including one pumped-storage hydroelectric plant, Gianelli Power Plant. Gianelli is located at the base of San Luis Dam, which forms San Luis Reservoir, the largest offstream reservoir in the United States; the Castaic Power Plant, while similar and, owned and operated by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, is located on the northern end of Castaic Lake, while Castaic Dam is located at the southern end.
The aqueduct begins at the San Joaquin-Sacramento River Delta at the Banks Pumping Plant, which pumps from the Clifton Court Forebay. Water is pumped by the Banks Pumping Plant to the Bethany Reservoir; the reservoir serves as a forebay for the South Bay Aqueduct via the South Bay Pumping Plant. From the Bethany Reservoir, the aqueduct flows by gravity 60 mi to the O'Neill Forebay at the San Luis Reservoir. From the O'Neill Forebay, it flows 16 mi to the Dos Amigos Pumping Plant. After Dos Amigos, the aqueduct flows about 95 mi to where the Coastal Branch splits from the "main line"; the split is 16 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City. After the coastal branch, the line continues by gravity another 66 mi to the Buena Vista Pumping Plant. From the Buena Vista, it flows 27 mi to the Teerink Pumping Plant. After Teerink it flows about 2.5 mi to the Chrisman Pumping Plant. Chrisman is the last pumping plant before Edmonston Pumping Plant, 13 mi from Chrisman. South of the plant the west branch splits off in a southwesterly direction to serve the Los Angeles Basin.
At Edmonston Pumping Plant it is pumped 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. Water flows through the aqueduct in a series of abrupt rises and gradual falls; the water flows down a long segment, built at a slight grade, arrives at a pumping station powered by Path 66 or Path 15. The pumping station raises the water, where it again flows downhill to the next station. However, where there are substantial drops, the water's potential energy is recaptured by hydroelectric plants; the initial pumping station fed by the Sacramento River Delta raises the water 240 ft, while a series of pumps culminating at the Edmonston Pumping Plant raises the water 1,926 ft over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Edmonston Pumping station requires so much power that several power lines off of Path 15 and Path 26 are needed to ensure proper operation of the pumps. A typical section has a concrete-lined channel 40 feet at the base and an average water depth of about 30 ft; the widest section of the aqueduct is 110 feet and the deepest is 32 feet.
Channel capacity is 13,100 cubic feet per second and the largest pumping plant capacity at Dos Amigos is 15,450 cubic feet per second. From its beginning until its first branch, the aqueduct passes through parts of Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Merced and Kings counties; the aqueduct divides into three branches: the Coastal Branch in the Central Valley, the East and West Branches after passing over the Tehachapi Mountains. The Coastal Branch splits from the main line 11.3 mi south-southeast of Kettleman City transiting Kings County, Kern County, San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County to deliver water to the coastal cities of San Luis Obispo, Santa Maria, Santa Barbara. Coastal Branch is 116 mi and five pump stations. Phase I, an above ground aqueduct totals 15 mi from where it branches from the California Aqueduct, was completed in 1968. With construction beginning in 1994, Phase II consists of 101 mi of a 42–57-inch diameter buried pipeline extending from the Devils Den Pump Plant, terminates at Tank 5 on Vandenberg Air Force Base in Santa Barbara County.
The Central Coast Water Authority extension, completed in 1997, is a diameter pipeline that travels 42 mi from Vandenberg through Vandenberg Village, Lompoc and Solvang where it terminates at Lake Cachuma in Los Padres National Forest. Las Perillas Pumping Plant Badger Hill Pumping Plant Devil's Den Pumping Plant Bluestone Pumping Plant Polonia Pass Pumping Plant Polonio Pass Water Treatment Plant Cuesta Tunnel Santa Ynez Pumping Facility The aqueduct splits off into the East Branch and West Branch in extreme southern Kern County, north of the Los Angeles County line; the East Branch supplies Lake Palmdale and terminates at Lake Perris, in the area of the San Gorgonio Pass. It passes through parts of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside counties. Pearblossom Pumping Plant Alamo Power Plant Mojave Siphon Power Plant San Bernardino Tunnel Devil Canyon Power Plant Greenspot Pump Station Crafton Hills Reservoir Crafton Hills Pump Station Cherry Valley Pump Station The West Branch continues to head towards its terminus at Pyramid Lake and Castaic Lake in the Angeles National Forest to supply the western
Santa Monica State Beach
Santa Monica State Beach is a California State Park operated by the city of Santa Monica. The beach is located along Pacific Coast Highway in Santa Monica, it is 3.5 miles long and has parks, picnic areas, restrooms, as well as manned lifeguard stations, the original Muscle Beach, bike rentals, concessions, a few hotels, a bike path, wooden pathways for warm days and beachgoers with disabilities. Visitor activities include volleyball, stand up paddleboarding, swimming. Smoking at the beach is prohibited. At the foot of Colorado Avenue, through the famous arch and sign, lies the historic Santa Monica Pier, which dates from 1909; the pier has a National Historic. A few steps south of the Pier volleyball courts is the International Chess Park; the public chess tables—and a human-scale chessboard set into the sidewalk—draw a wide assortment of players. Palisades Park is located atop Santa Monica’s famed sandstone cliffs, providing a vantage point to see the sweep of Santa Monica Beach and the Pacific Ocean.
The beach is the one Baywatch was filmed at and the beach the album art for Umbrella Beach by Owl City features. The beach will host beach surfing during the 2028 Summer Olympics. A section of the beach was referred to as "Ink Well" and "Negro Beach" in the early 20th century when it was one of the few areas in California where African Americans were allowed to enjoy beach access in a segregated society. Other areas for blacks were Bruce's Beach in Manhattan Beach and the Pacific Beach Club in Orange County. Nick Gabaldon, one of the first black surfers in California, lived in Santa Monica, used the 200 foot roped off stretch of beach demarcated for blacks, he died after crashing into the Malibu Pier. Arlington West is a temporary memorial created on Santa Monica Beach just north of the Santa Monica Pier at Santa Monica, every Sunday from sunrise to sunset. Crosses are placed on the beach for each U. S. military person who has died in the Iraq War. The number of crosses erected every Sunday now exceeds 4,000.
For military personnel killed within the week past, flag draped coffins with blue crosses are positioned in front. The Arlington West Memorial, a project of Veterans For Peace, is intended to offer visitors a graceful and powerful, place for reflection. Snowy Plovers nest on the beach; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for fish caught in the Santa Monica Beach based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in local species. Official Santa Monica State Beach webpage - City of Santa Monica Santa Monica State Beach Santa Monica Pier — Pier located on Santa Monica Beach Muscle Beach — Portion of Santa Monica Beach south of the pier, the site of gymnastics exhibitions and bodybuilding Santa Monica Pier Aquarium — Aquarium on the pier operated by Heal the Bay, known as the Ocean Discovery Center Pacific Park — the amusement park portion of the pier Hot Dog on a Stick — original, opened in 1946, found on the sidewalk just south of the pier in front the original Muscle Beach Pacific Ocean Park — former amusement park one pier south of Santa Monica Pier.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Los Angeles International Airport
Los Angeles International Airport, locally referred to as LAX, is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles, California. LAX is in the Westchester district of the city of Los Angeles, California, 18 miles southwest of Downtown Los Angeles, with the commercial and residential areas of Westchester to the north, the city of El Segundo to the south and the city of Inglewood to the east. Owned and operated by Los Angeles World Airports, an agency of the government of Los Angeles known as the Department of Airports, the airport has over 3,500 acres of land, LAX has four parallel runways. In 2018, LAX handled 87,534,384 passengers, making it the world's fourth busiest and the United States' second busiest airport following Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport; as the largest and busiest international airport on the U. S. West Coast, LAX is a major international gateway to the United States, serves a connection point for passengers traveling internationally; the airport holds the record for the world's busiest origin and destination airport, since relative to other airports, many more travelers begin or end their trips in Los Angeles than use it as a connection.
It is the only airport to rank among the top five U. S. airports for both passenger and cargo traffic. LAX serves as a hub or focus city for more passenger airlines than any other airport in the United States, it is the only airport that four U. S. legacy carriers have designated as a hub and is a focus city for Air New Zealand, Allegiant Air, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Southwest Airlines, Volaris. While LAX is the busiest airport in the Greater Los Angeles Area, several other airports, including Hollywood Burbank Airport, John Wayne Airport, Long Beach Airport, as well as Ontario International Airport serve the area. In 1928, the Los Angeles City Council selected 640 acres in the southern part of Westchester for a new airport; the fields of wheat and lima beans were converted into dirt landing strips without any terminal buildings. It was named Mines Field for the real estate agent who arranged the deal; the first structure, Hangar No. 1, is in the National Register of Historic Places. Mines Field opened as the airport of Los Angeles in 1930 and the city purchased it to be a municipal airfield in 1937.
The name became Los Angeles Airport in 1941 and Los Angeles International Airport in 1949. In the 1930s the main airline airports were Burbank Airport in Burbank and the Grand Central Airport in Glendale. Mines Field did not extend west of Sepulveda Boulevard. A tunnel was completed in 1953 allowing Sepulveda Boulevard to revert to straight and pass beneath the two runways. For the next few years the two runways were 8,500 feet long. Before the 1930s, existing airports used a two-letter abbreviation based on the weather stations at the airports. At that time, "LA" served as the designation for Los Angeles Airport, but with the rapid growth in the aviation industry the designations expanded to three letters c. 1947, "LA" became "LAX." The letter "X" has no specific meaning in this identifier. "LAX" is used for the Port of Los Angeles in San Pedro and by Amtrak for Union Station in downtown Los Angeles. The "Imperial Hill" area in El Segundo is a prime location for aircraft spotting for takeoffs. Part of the Imperial Hill area has been set aside as Clutter's Park.
Another popular spotting location sits under the final approach for runways 24 L&R on a lawn next to the Westchester In-N-Out Burger on Sepulveda Boulevard. This is one of the few remaining locations in Southern California from which spotters may watch such a wide variety of low-flying commercial airliners from directly underneath a flight path. At 12:51 p.m. on Friday, September 21, 2012, a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the Space Shuttle Endeavour landed at LAX on runway 25L. An estimated 10,000 people saw the shuttle land. Interstate 105 was backed up for miles at a standstill. Imperial Highway was shut down for spectators, it was taken off the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified Boeing 747, was moved to a United Airlines hangar. The shuttle spent about a month in the hangar while it was prepared to be transported to the California Science Center; the distinctive white googie Theme Building, designed by Pereira & Luckman architect Paul Williams and constructed in 1961 by Robert E. McKee Construction Co. resembles a flying saucer that has landed on its four legs.
A restaurant with a sweeping view of the airport is suspended beneath two arches. The Los Angeles City Council designated the building a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument in 1992. A $4 million renovation, with retro-futuristic interior and electric lighting designed by Walt Disney Imagineering, was completed before the Encounter Restaurant opened there in 1997. Visitors are able to take the elevator up to the roof of the "Theme Building", which closed after the September 11, 2001 attacks for security reasons and reopened to the public on weekends beginning on July 10, 2010. Additionally, a memorial to the victims of the 9/11 attacks is located on the grounds, as three of the f