Marvin Lee Minsky was an American cognitive scientist concerned with research of artificial intelligence, co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy. Minsky received many honors, such as the 1969 Turing Award. Marvin Lee Minsky was born in New York City, to an eye surgeon father, to a mother, a Zionist activist, his family was Jewish. He attended the Bronx High School of Science, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. He served in the US Navy from 1944 to 1945, he received a B. A. in mathematics from Harvard University and a Ph. D. in mathematics from Princeton University. He was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows from 1954-1957, he was on the MIT faculty from 1958 to his death. He joined the staff at MIT Lincoln Laboratory in 1958, a year he and John McCarthy initiated what is, as of 2019, named the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, he was the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, professor of electrical engineering and computer science.
Minsky's inventions include the confocal microscope. He developed, with Seymour Papert, the first Logo "turtle". Minsky built, in 1951, the first randomly wired neural network learning machine, SNARC. In 1962, Minsky published a Turing machine. At the time, it was the simplest known universal Turing machine, a record that stood for about 40 years until Stephen Wolfram published a Turing machine in his 2002 book, A New Kind of Science proven to be universal. Minsky wrote the book Perceptrons, attacking the work of Frank Rosenblatt, which became the foundational work in the analysis of artificial neural networks; this book is the center of a controversy in the history of AI, as some claim it to have had great importance in discouraging research of neural networks in the 1970s, contributing to the so-called "AI winter". He founded several other AI models, his book A framework for representing knowledge created a new paradigm in programming. While his Perceptrons is now more a historical than practical book, the theory of frames is in wide use.
Minsky wrote of the possibility that extraterrestrial life may think like humans, permitting communication. In the early 1970s, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab and Papert started developing what came to be known as the Society of Mind theory; the theory attempts to explain how what we call intelligence could be a product of the interaction of non-intelligent parts. Minsky says that the biggest source of ideas about the theory came from his work in trying to create a machine that uses a robotic arm, a video camera, a computer to build with children's blocks. In 1986, Minsky published The Society of Mind, a comprehensive book on the theory which, unlike most of his published work, was written for the general public. In November 2006, Minsky published The Emotion Machine, a book that critiques many popular theories of how human minds work and suggests alternative theories replacing simple ideas with more complex ones. Recent drafts of the book are available from his webpage. Minsky was an adviser on Stanley Kubrick's movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Minsky is mentioned explicitly in Arthur C. Clarke's derivative novel of the same name, where he is portrayed as achieving a crucial break-through in artificial intelligence in the then-future 1980s, paving the way for HAL 9000 in the early 21st century: In the 1980s, Minsky and Good had shown how artificial neural networks could be generated automatically—self replicated—in accordance with any arbitrary learning program. Artificial brains could be grown by a process strikingly analogous to the development of a human brain. In any given case, the precise details would never be known, if they were, they would be millions of times too complex for human understanding. In 1952, Minsky married pediatrician Gloria Rudisch. Minsky was a talented improvisational pianist who published musings on the relations between music and psychology. Minsky was an atheist, a signatory to the Scientists' Open Letter on Cryonics, he was a critic of the Loebner Prize for conversational robots, argued that a fundamental difference between humans and machines was that while humans are machines, they are machines in which intelligence emerges from the interplay of the many unintelligent but semi-autonomous agents that comprise the brain.
He argued that "somewhere down the line, some computers will become more intelligent than most people," but that it was hard to predict how fast progress would be. He cautioned that an artificial superintelligence designed to solve an innocuous mathematical problem might decide to assume control of Earth's resources to build supercomputers to help achieve its goal, but believed that such negative scenarios are "hard to take seriously" because he felt confident that AI would go through a lot of testing before being deployed. In January 2016 Minsky died of a cerebral hemorrhage, at the age of 88. Minsky was a member of Alcor Life Extension Foundation's Scientific Advisory Board. Minsky, like other prominent scientists, received research funding from Jeffrey Epstein. In 2002, four years before Epstein's first arrest for sex offenses, Minsky received a research grant from him. Minsky organized two symp
Marmorerpeton is an extinct genus of prehistoric stem-salamanders that lived in Europe during the Middle Jurassic. They are among the earliest-known salamanders, are older than Karaurus; the genus appears to have been neotenic, based on a few morphological characters and on the presence of calcified cartilage in the medulla of its humerus. The size of its osteocytic lacunae suggests that it had a large genome, though not as large as that of obligatorily neotenic extant urodeles; this suggests. List of prehistoric amphibians
Dahlgren is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in King George County, United States. The population was 2,653 at the 2010 census, up from 997 in 2000. Since 1918, Dahlgren has been the site of a U. S. naval base named for Rear Admiral John A. Dahlgren, it was first the "U. S. Naval Proving Ground" but was renamed the "U. S. Naval Weapons Laboratory" after 1950, the "Naval Surface Weapons Center" in 1974, the "Naval Surface Warfare Center" in 1987, the "U. S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division" around 1990. In 2006, it was renamed "Naval Support Activity-South Potomac", with NSWCDD becoming a tenant command of the base; the U. S. Naval Space Surveillance Systems command was located at that base, but that responsibility was transferred to the Air Force in 2004; the AEGIS Training and Readiness Center is a tenant command at NSA-SP. The naval base lies just east of the Dahlgren CDP within its own census-designated place, Dahlgren Center. Dahlgren is in northeastern King George County, 1 mile south of and 2 miles west of the Potomac River.
It is bordered to the east by the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. The Dahlgren CDP extends north to state route 635, to the west to the unincorporated community of Owens, south to the tidal Upper Machodoc Creek, an arm of the Potomac. U. S. Route 301, runs through Dahlgren, leading northeast across the Potomac 18 miles to La Plata and southwest 15 miles to Port Royal, Virginia. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Dahlgren CDP has a total area of 2.8 square miles, of which 2.7 square miles are land and 0.10 square miles, or 3.51%, are water. As of the census of 2000, there were 997 people, 456 households, 260 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 885.2 people per square mile. There were 510 housing units at an average density of 452.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 70.31% White, 25.28% African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.50% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population.
As of the 2010 census the population had more than doubled, although the makeup was the same, with whites edging down as a percentage from 70.31% to 61.4%, blacks up from 25.28% to 30.5%, %, Hispanics up from 1.71% to 4.1%, those reporting mixed race up from 1.91% to 3.8%. There were 456 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.8% were non-families. 36.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.85. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.6 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $49,545, the median income for a family was $53,500.
Males had a median income of $45,714 versus $21,029 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $25,928. About 7.6% of families and 8.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. The 1.7-mile-long, narrow two-lane Governor Harry W. Nice Memorial Bridge on U. S. Route 301 funnels interstate traffic across the wide Potomac River at Dahlgren, offering an alternative to using Interstate 95. A wider replacement bridge is scheduled for completion in 2023. Dahlgren has a growing number of other small businesses. Center for Surface Combat Systems AEGIS Training and Readiness Center Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Journal newspaper, covering Dahlgren and King George