Zola Pieterse is a middle-distance and long-distance runner. She competed at the 1984 Olympic Games for Great Britain and the 1992 Olympic Games for South Africa, both times in the 3000 metres. In 1984 and 1985, she broke the world record in the women's 5000 metres, she was a two-time winner at the World Cross Country Championships. Budd's career was unusual in that she trained and raced barefoot, she moved with her family to South Carolina in 2008, competes at marathons and ultramarathons. She volunteers as assistant coach at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, her mile best of 4:17.57 in 1985, still stands as the British record. Budd, born in Bloemfontein, Orange Free State, South Africa, achieved fame in 1984, at the age of 17, when she broke the women's 5000 m world record with a time of 15:01.83. Since her performance took place in South Africa excluded from international athletics competition because of its apartheid policy, the International Amateur Athletics Federation refused to ratify Budd's time as an official world record.
In 1985 she claimed the world record while representing Great Britain, clocking 14:48.07. The Daily Mail, a British tabloid newspaper, persuaded Budd's father to encourage her to apply for British citizenship, on the grounds that her grandfather was British, to circumvent the international sporting boycott of South Africa, so that she could compete in the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. With a strong push from the Daily Mail, British citizenship was granted in short order and she moved to Guildford, her application and arrival was controversial due to her acquiring a passport under preferential circumstances. Groups supporting the abolition of apartheid campaigned vociferously and to highlight the special treatment she received. Shortly afterwards, Budd was forced to pull out of a 1500 metres race in Crawley, when the town council withdrew their invitation at short notice; the race was part of the inaugural event for the town's new Bewbush Leisure Centre and Mayor Alf Pegler said members of the council had expressed misgivings that the local significance of the event would be overshadowed by "political connotations and anti-apartheid demonstrators".
She ran her first competitive race on the cinder track at Central Park in Dartford, covering 3000m in 9 mins. 2.6 seconds in a race shown live on the BBC's Grandstand programme. She ran in further races in Britain, including the UK Championships 1500m and the 3000m in the UK Olympic trials, which she won in 8 mins. 40 secs. Earning a place on the British Olympic team. In the 2000m at Crystal Palace in July 1984 she set a new world record of 5 mins. 33.15 secs. Commenting during the race for the BBC, David Coleman exclaimed, "The message will now be flashed around the world – Zola Budd is no myth." In Britain, Budd trained at Freddie’s Aldershot and District Athletics Club. In the 1984 Olympics, held in Los Angeles, the media billed the 3000 m race as a duel between Budd and world champion Mary Decker, few reported that a third contestant, Romanian Maricica Puică, had set the fastest time that year. Decker set a fast pace from the gun with Budd in close pursuit, followed by Puică and Britain's Wendy Smith-Sly.
When the pace slowed just past the midway point, Budd took the lead on the straight and ran wide of the pack around the turn. Setting the pace, she took herself, Smith-Sly and Puică clear of the pack. Running as a group was an unusual situation for Budd and Decker, both of whom were used to running in front and well ahead of other competitors. At 1700 metres, the first collision occurred. Decker came into contact with one of Budd's legs, knocking Budd off balance. However, both women maintained their close position. Five strides on, at race time of 4:58, Budd and Decker again made contact, with Budd's left foot brushing Decker's thigh, causing Budd to lose her balance and sending her into Decker's path. Decker's spiked running shoe came down hard into Budd's ankle, just above the heel, which drew blood. Videotapes examined by Olympic officials showed Budd visibly in pain. However, Budd kept stride. Decker stood on Budd shortly after, collided with the British runner and fell spectacularly to the curb, injuring her hip.
As a result, Mary Decker did not finish the race. Decker was carried off the track in tears by British discus thrower Richard Slaney. Budd affected by the occurrence, continued to lead for a while, but faded, finishing seventh, her finishing time of 8:48 was well outside her best of 8:37. Budd tried to apologise to Decker in the tunnel after the race, but Decker was upset, replied, "Don’t bother!". Puică won with Canada's Lynn Williams third. An IAAF jury found. Decker said many years after the event: "The reason I fell, some people think she tripped me deliberately. I happen to know; the reason I fell is because I am and was inexperienced in running in a pack."In general, it is the trailing athlete's responsibility to avoid contact with the runner ahead. "This doesn't mean," track journalist Kenny Moore wrote in the aftermath, "that a leader can swerve in with impunity, but that in the give and take of pack running, athletes learn to make allowances." At first the US media sided with Decker. In 2002 the moment was ranked 93rd in Channel 4's 100 Greatest Sporting Moments
Jesse Owens Award
The Jesse Owens Award is an annual track and field award, the highest accolade given out by USA Track and Field. As the country's highest award for the sport, it bears Jesse Owens' name in recognition of his significant career, which included four gold medals at the 1936 Olympic Games. First awarded in 1981 to hurdler Edwin Moses, it was created to recognize the season's top American performer in track and field competitions. In 1996, the award was divided with both a male and female winner; the 1996 winners, Michael Johnson and Gail Devers, each won two gold medals at that year's Olympics in Atlanta. Up to 2008, the award was voted on by members of the United States athletics media only, but in 2009 fans were able to vote via the USA Track and Field website, with their opinions contributing 10% of the overall result; the winners of the award are announced in late November or early December after the end of the outdoor track and field season. A number of athletes have received the award on more than one occasion: Jackie Joyner-Kersee was the first to do so with back-to-back wins in 1986 and 1987, while Carl Lewis won his second award in 1991.
Michael Johnson was the first to receive the award three times and Marion Jones became the first woman to collect three awards after wins in 1997, 1998 and 2002. In 2012, Allyson Felix won the award for the fourth time, thus distinguishing herself as the athlete with the most wins. 2014 winners are Jennifer Simpson. Winners receive a replica of the award while the original remains on permanent display at the USATF Headquarters in Indianapolis, Indiana; as of 2013, the female version of the award was renamed the Jackie Joyner-Kersee Athlete of the Year Award. General Woolum, Janet. Outstanding Women Athletes. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-1-57356-120-4. Retrieved November 3, 2010. Specific Official USATF website Official Jesse Owens website
The 10,000 metres or the 10,000-meter run is a common long-distance track running event. The event is part of the athletics programme at the Olympic Games and the World Championships in Athletics and is common at championship level events; the race consists of 25 laps around an Olympic-sized track. It is less held at track and field meetings, due to its duration; the 10,000 metre track race is distinguished from its road running counterpart, the 10K run, by its reference to the distance in metres rather than kilometres. The 10,000 metres is the longest standard track event; the international distance is equal to 6.2137 miles. Most of those running such races compete in road races and cross country events. Added to the Olympic programme in 1912, athletes from Finland, nicknamed the "Flying Finns", dominated the event until the late 1940s. In the 1960s, African runners began to come to the fore. In 1988, the women's competition debuted in the Olympic Games. Official records are kept for outdoor 10,000 metre track events.
The world record for men is held by Kenenisa Bekele of Ethiopia in 26:17.53, posted at Brussels, Belgium on August 26, 2005. For women, the world track 10,000 metre record is held by Almaz Ayana of Ethiopia in 29:17.45 to win gold at the 2016 Rio Olympics on August 12, 2016. The 10,000 metres demands exceptional levels of aerobic endurance, elite athletes train in excess of 160 km a week. 10,000 metres is the longer metric derivative of the 6 mile run, an event common in countries when they were using the imperial measurement system. 6 miles was used in the Commonwealth Games until 1966 and was a championship in the United States in non-Olympic years from 1953 to 1973. It is 24 laps around a quarter mile 1320 ft 0 in track. Correct as of August 2017. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 26:46.31: Kenenisa Bekele ran 26:20.31, 26:25.97, 26:28.72, 26:43.16, 26:46.19, 26:46.31. Haile Gebrselassie ran 26:29.22, 26:31.32, 26:41.58, 26:43.53. Boniface Toroitich Kiprop ran 26:41.95. Leonard Komon of Kenya ran the 10k road distance in a time of 26:44 in a world record performance in Utrecht on 26 September 2011.
While run over the same distance, the time was set on a road course and is therefore not eligible to be considered among the top performances listed here. Correct as of August 2017. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 30:17.15: Tirunesh Dibaba ran 29:54.66, 30:15.67. Almaz Ayana ran 30:07.00, 30:16.32. Meseret Defar ran 30:08.06. Paula Radcliffe ran 30:17.15. Elvan Abeylegesse of Turkey's time of 29:56.34 set in Beijing on 15 August 2008 was annulled due to doping offense. Joyciline Jepkosgei of Kenya ran the 10k distance in a time of 30:04 en route to her world record performance in the half-marathon in Prague on 1 April 2017. While run over the same distance, the time was set on a road course and is therefore ineligible to be considered among the top performances listed here. Violah Jepchumba of Kenya ran the 10k distance in a time of 30:05 en route to her personal best in the half-marathon in Prague on 1 April 2017. While run over the same distance, the time was set on a road course and is therefore ineligible to be considered among the top performances listed here.
European Cup 10,000m Iberian 10,000 Metres Championships IAAF list of 10000-metres records in XML ARRS: Yearly Rankings - 10,000 meters Outdoor Track 10K Races in Race-Calendar.com
The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run is a common long-distance running event in track and field. It is one of the track events in the Olympic Games and the World Championships in Athletics, run over 12.5 laps of a standard track. The same distance in road running is called a 5K run; the 5000 m has been present on the Olympic programme since 1912 since 1996 for women. Prior to 1996, women had competed in an Olympic 3000 metres race since 1984; the 5000 m has been held at each of the World Championships in Athletics in men's competition and since 1995 in women's. The event is the same length as the dolichos race held at the Ancient Olympic Games, introduced in 720 BCE. While run as an outdoor event, the 5000 m is sometimes run on an indoor track; the IAAF keeps official records for both indoor 5000 m track events. 5000 metres is the longer metric derivative of the 3 mile run, an event common in countries when they were using the imperial measurement system. 3 miles was used in the Commonwealth Games until 1966 and was a championship in the United States in non-Olympic years from 1953 to 1973.
It is 12 laps around a quarter mile 1320 ft 0 in track. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 12:49.60: Kenenisa Bekele ran 12:40.18, 12:48.09, 12:48.25, 12:49.53, 12:49.60i. Haile Gebrselassie ran 12:41.86, 12:44.39. Daniel Komen ran 12:44.90, 12:45.09, 12:48.98. Hagos Gebrhiwet ran 12:47.53 Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 14:31.91: Almaz Ayana ran 14:14.32, 14:18.89, 14:25.84, 14:29.19. Tirunesh Dibaba ran 14:23.68, 14:30.40, 14:30.88. Genzebe Dibaba ran 14:19.76, 14:25.22, 14:26.89. Vivian Cheruiyot ran 14:26.17. Hellen Obiri ran 14:21.75, 14:22.37, 14:25.78, 14:25.88, 14:29.77. Senbere Teferi ran 14:29.82, 14:31.76. Letesenbet Gidey ran 14:30.29. Paula Radcliffe ran 14:31.42. "i" indicates indoor performance. National champions 5000 metres National champions 5000 metres IAAF list of 5000-metres records in XML ARRS: Yearly Rankings – 5000 metres Outdoor Track All-time Masters men's 5000 m list All-time Masters women's 5000 m list
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta