Camden, New Jersey
Camden is a city and the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey, United States. Camden is located directly across the Delaware River from Pennsylvania. At the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 77,344. Camden is the 12th most populous municipality in New Jersey; the city was incorporated on February 13, 1828. Camden has been the county seat of Camden County since the county was formed on March 13, 1844; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. Camden is made up of over twenty different neighborhoods. Beginning in the early 1900s, Camden was a prosperous industrial city, remained so throughout the Great Depression and World War II. During the 1950s, Camden manufacturers began closing their factories and moving out of the city. With the loss of manufacturing jobs came a sharp decline in population numbers; the growth of the interstate highway system played a large role in "white flight." Sub urbanization influenced the drop in population. Civil unrest and crime became common in Camden.
In 1971, civil unrest reached its peak with riots breaking out in response to the death of Horacio Jimenez, a Puerto Rican motorist, killed by two American police officers. The Camden waterfront holds the USS New Jersey; the city is the home of Rutgers University–Camden, founded as the South Jersey Law School in 1926, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, which opened in 2012. Camden houses both Cooper University Hospital and Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center; the "eds and meds" institutions account for 45% of Camden's total employment. There were 23 murders in Camden in 2017, the lowest in the city in three decades, part of a significant decline in violent crime since 2012. In 1626, Fort Nassau was established by the Dutch West India Company in the area, now known as Camden, New Jersey. Europeans settled along the Delaware River. Throughout the 17th century more Europeans arrived in the area, developing it and making improvements. After the restoration period the land was controlled by nobles who served under King Charles II.
Ln 1673, the land was sold off to a group of New Jersey Quakers. The growth of the colony was the result of Philadelphia, a Quaker colony directly across from Camden along the Delaware River. In the Ferry systems were established to facilitate trade between Fort Philadelphia; the ferry system operated along the east side of the Delaware River. The ferry system built by William Royden was located along Cooper Street and was turned over to Daniel Cooper in 1695; the creation of the ferry system resulted in the creation of small settlements along the Delaware River which would develop into Camden. The initial structures and settlements that formed Camden were established by three families: The Coopers, The Kaighns, the Mickels; the Cooper family had the greatest impact on the formation of Camden. In 1773, Jacob Cooper developed some of the land he had inherited through his family into a "townsite." It was Jacob Cooper. The lands that these families owned would be combined to create the future city.
For over 150 years, Camden served as a secondary economic and transportation hub for the Philadelphia area. However, that status began to change in the early 19th century. Camden was incorporated as a city on February 13, 1828, from portions of Newton Township, while the area was still part of Gloucester County; the city derives its name from 1st Earl Camden. One of the U. S.'s first railroads, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, was chartered in Camden in 1830. The Camden and Amboy Railroad allowed travelers to travel between New York City and Philadelphia via ferry terminals in South Amboy, New Jersey and Camden; the railroad terminated on the Camden waterfront, passengers were ferried across the Delaware River to their final Philadelphia destination. The Camden and Amboy Railroad opened in 1834 and helped to spur an increase in population and commerce in Camden. Horse ferries, or team boats, served Camden in the early 1800s; the ferries connected Camden and other Southern New Jersey towns to Philadelphia.
Ferry systems allowed Camden to generate economic growth. "These businesses included lumber dealers, manufacturers of wooden shingles, pork sausage manufacturers, candle factories, coachmaker shops that manufactured carriages and wagons, tanneries and harness makers." The Cooper's Ferry Daybook, 1819–1824, documenting Camden's Point Pleasant Teamboat, survives to this day. A suburban town with ferry service to Philadelphia, Camden evolved into its own city; until 1844, Camden was a part of Gloucester County. In 1840 the city's population had reached 3,371 and Camden appealed to state legislature, which resulted in the creation of Camden County in 1844; the poet Walt Whitman spent his years in Camden. He bought a house on Mickle Street in March 1884. Whitman died in 1892 of a stroke. Whitman was a prominent member of the Camden community at the end of the nineteenth century. Camden became an industrialized city in the half of the nineteenth century. In 1860 Census takers recorded eighty factories in the city and the number of factories grew to 125 by 1870.
Camden began to industrialize in 1891 when Joseph Campbell incorporated his business Campbell's Soup. Through the Civil War era Camden gained a large immigrant population which formed the base of its industrial workforce. Between 1870 and 1920 Camden's population grew by 96,000 people due to the large influx of immigrants. Like other industrial cities, Camden prospered during stro
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Eleanor J. Gibson
Eleanor Jack Gibson was an American psychologist who focused on reading development and perceptual learning in infants and toddlers. In the 1960s and 1970s Gibson, with her husband James J. Gibson, created the Gibsonian ecological theory of development which emphasized how important perception was because it allows humans to adapt to their environments, her most well-known contribution to psychology was the "visual cliff", which studied depth perception and visual or motor impairments in both human and animal species. This led to a new understanding of perceptual development in infants; the environment provides information for the sensory system to develop with increased stimuli, so perceptual development corresponds with environmental stimuli. Infants develop from adapting to the environment. Gibson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1971 and as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1977. In 1992 she was awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States, only five of which have been awarded to psychologists.
Eleanor J. Gibson was born in Peoria, Illinois on December 7, 1910. While much of her early life is unknown, Gibson received her B. A. degree in 1931 and her M. S. degree in 1933 from Smith College in Massachusetts. While studying at Smith College Gibson met James J. Gibson, a professor there whom she married in 1932. In 1938, she completed her Ph. D. from Yale University. Once completed, Gibson began teaching. In 1941 Gibson's husband was drafted by the Air Force to make perceptual tests for some of their pilots so Gibson, her husband and their two children moved to Texas and on to California. Throughout this time Gibson was a homemaker but returned to work at Smith College for a few years before she and her family left for Cornell University, where she was a research associate. While at Cornell she created the "Visual Cliff" alongside Richard Walk, a professor at Cornell. Gibson died on December 30, 2002. 1960's-1970's: Gibson, alongside her husband, created the Gibsonian ecological theory of development.
1960: Gibson created the "Visual cliff". 1971: Gibson was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. 1972: Gibson was named Susan Linn Sage Professor of Psychology, which made her become the first woman at Cornell to get an endowed professorship. 1977:Gibson was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1992: Gibson was awarded the National Medal of Science, the highest scientific honor in the United States. Gibson believed. Gibson worked with her husband James on a joint study to explore the perception of nonsense scribbles to clarify this concept of perceptual learning; the participants were tasked to identify one standard scribble from a set of similar scribbles varying in many different dimensions. At first the standard scribble was imperceptible from the other scribbles but after repeated tests the standard scribble became clear; the participants were tested until the standard was identified without any correction given. The Gibson's stated that the stimulus held all the information for perception rather than the participants learning to perceive through an associative process.
This resulted in perceptual learning as being redefined as a change in what was perceived by an observer became more sensitive to the different aspects of a stimulus. Gibson was conducting a study on infant-mother olfactory role in bonding in goats and so she would wash one of them after birth before the mother could lick it, she had just finished washing one. In a hurry Gibson decided to put the kid on a high camera stand nearby. Gibson was surprised that the newborn didn't fall off; this led her to discover the visual cliff and do further research on perceptual learning. During a study with Richard Walk in which they looked at the role of the environment in development of rats, Gibson came up with the idea of a second task. Gibson wanted to test the depth perception of rats; this Walk constructing an artificial cliff. This was a sheet of plexiglass, covered by cloth with a checkerboard pattern, held above the ground with clamps and rods. One side of the cloth was placed just beneath the glass and on the other side the cloth was placed 4 feet below.
They watched what side the rats descended to. To Gibson's amazement the dark-reared rats acted the same way as rats reared in the light and avoided the deep side. Gibson tested lambs, chickens, pigs and newborn children on a larger apparatus which led to the same results; these tests led to the belief. Kittens that were raised in the dark would walk indiscriminately on both sides of the visual cliff, therefore learning from the environment had to occur. Gibson, E. J.. Principles of perceptual learning and development. New York: Meredith Corporation. Gibson, E. J.. An odyssey in learning and perception. Cambridge: MIT Press. Gibson, E. J. & Walk, R. D.. The "visual cliff." Scientific American, 202, 67-71. Gibson, E. J. & Pick, A. D.. Perceptual learning and development: An ecological approach to perceptual learning and development. Oxford: Oxford Universityn Press. Gibson, E. J, & Levin, H.. Psychology of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gibson, E. J.: Perceiving the Affordances: A Portrait of Two Psychologists.
Psychology Press. Caudle, F. M.. Gibson, Eleanor J. In A. E. Kazdin, A. E. Kazdin, Encyclopedia of Psychology, Vol. 3. Washington, DC, US.
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Othmar Hermann Ammann was a Swiss-American structural engineer whose bridge designs include the George Washington Bridge, Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, Bayonne Bridge. He directed the planning and construction of the Lincoln Tunnel. Othmar Ammann was born near Schaffhausen, Switzerland in 1879, his father was a manufacturer and his mother was a hat maker. He received his engineering education at the Polytechnikum in Switzerland, he studied with Swiss engineer Wilhelm Ritter. In 1904, he emigrated to the United States, he became a naturalized citizen in 1924. In 1905 he returned to Switzerland to marry Lilly Selma Wehrli. Together they had 3 children- Werner and Margot- before she died in 1933, he married Klary Vogt Noetzli, herself widowed, in 1935 in California. Ammann wrote two reports about bridge collapses, the collapse of the Quebec Bridge and the collapse of the original Tacoma Narrows Bridge, it was the report that he wrote about the failure of the Quebec Bridge in 1907 that first earned him recognition in the field of bridge design engineering.
Because of this report, he was able to obtain a position working for Gustav Lindenthal on the Hell Gate Bridge. By 1925, he had been appointed bridge engineer to the Port of New York Authority, his design for a bridge over the Hudson River was accepted over one developed by his mentor, Lindenthal. This became the George Washington Bridge. Under Ammann's direction, it was completed six months ahead of schedule for less than the original $60 million budget. Ammann's designs for the George Washington Bridge, the Bayonne Bridge, caught the attention of master builder Robert Moses, who drafted Ammann into his service; the last four of Ammann's six New York City bridges — Triborough, Bronx-Whitestone, Throgs Neck, Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge were all built for Moses' Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority. In 1946, Ammann and Charles Whitney founded the firm Whitney. In 1964, Ammann opened the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge in New York, that had the world's longest suspended span of 4,260 feet, the world's heaviest suspension bridge of its time.
The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge is the eleventh-longest span in the world and longest in the Western Hemisphere. Ammann assisted in the building of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco ranked twelfth. Ammann designed more than half of the eleven bridges that connect New York City to the rest of the United States, his talent and ingenuity helped. Ammann was known for being able to create bridges that were light and inexpensive, yet they were still simple and beautiful, he was able to do this by using the deflection theory. He believed that the weight per foot of the span and the cables would provide enough stiffness so that the bridge would not need any stiffening trusses; this made him popular during the depression era. Famous bridges by Ammann include the following: George Washington Bridge Bayonne Bridge Triborough Bridge Bronx–Whitestone Bridge Walt Whitman Bridge Throgs Neck Bridge Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge The George Washington Bridge was designed to have its steel structure clad in dressed stone, omitted from the final design due to cost constraints stemming from the Great Depression.
Ammann's managerial skills saw the bridge completed ahead under budget. The arched Bayonne Bridge is the only Othmar design, not a suspension bridge; the Bronx-Whitestone Bridge had to be reinforced after only one year of operation because of perceptible movement during high winds. Warren trusses were implemented to stiffen the bridge, spoiling its classic streamlined looks, they have been removed and the wind problem solved using triangular shaped lightweight fiberglass aerodynamic fairing along both sides that slices the wind as it passes over the bridge. In addition to his work on bridges, Ammann directed the planning and construction of the Lincoln Tunnel. Through his career, Ammann was the recipient of several awards, including the Thomas Fitch Rowland Prize, the Metropolitan Section Civil Engineer of the Year, the Ernest E. Howard Award and the National Medal of Science. In 1962, a bronze bust of Ammann was unveiled in the lobby of the George Washington Bridge Bus Station. A residence hall called Ammann College was dedicated in his honor on February 18, 1968 on the campus of Stony Brook University.
To mark the hundredth anniversary of his birth, a memorial plaque for Ammann was placed near the Verrazzano Narrows Bridge on June 28, 1979. Ammann & Whitney Othmar Hermann Ammann at Structurae Othmar Ammann’s Glory: Genius and thousands of miles of steel wire went into the George Washington Bridge Othmar Ammann's Glory: A description of the design of the George Washington Bridge and Ammann's rivalry with Lindenthal Othmar Ammann: Provides dates of death, election to the academy, citation Photo Isobel Leybold-Johnson. "Swiss design in Big Apple spans generations". Swissinfo. Othmar Ammann: Facts and Quotes from ASCE
Paul Anthony Samuelson was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Swedish Royal Academies stated, when awarding the prize in 1970, that he "has done more than any other contemporary economist to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory". Economic historian Randall E. Parker has called him the "Father of Modern Economics", The New York Times considered him to be the "foremost academic economist of the 20th century". Samuelson was the most influential economist of the 20th century. In 1996, when he was awarded the National Medal of Science, considered to be America's top science-honor, President Bill Clinton commended Samuelson for his "fundamental contributions to economic science" for over 60 years. Samuelson considered mathematics to be the "natural language" for economists and contributed to the mathematical foundations of economics with his book Foundations of Economic Analysis, he was author of the best-selling economics textbook of all time: Economics: An Introductory Analysis, first published in 1948.
It was the second American textbook. It is now in its 19th edition, having sold nearly 4 million copies in 40 languages, including Russian, Greek, Chinese, German, Polish, Czech, Hungarian, Swedish, Dutch, Hebrew and Arabic. James Poterba, former head of MIT's Department of Economics, noted that by his book, Samuelson "leaves an immense legacy, as a researcher and a teacher, as one of the giants on whose shoulders every contemporary economist stands", he entered the University of Chicago at age 16, during the depths of the Great Depression, received his PhD in economics from Harvard. After graduating, he became an assistant professor of economics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology when he was 25 years of age and a full professor at age 32. In 1966, he was named MIT's highest faculty honor, he spent his career at MIT where he was instrumental in turning its Department of Economics into a world-renowned institution by attracting other noted economists to join the faculty, including Robert M. Solow, Franco Modigliani, Robert C.
Merton, Joseph E. Stiglitz, Paul Krugman, all of whom went on to win Nobel Prizes, he served as an advisor to Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, was a consultant to the United States Treasury, the Bureau of the Budget and the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Samuelson wrote a weekly column for Newsweek magazine along with Chicago School economist Milton Friedman, where they represented opposing sides: Samuelson, as a self described "Cafeteria Keynesian", claimed taking the Keynesian perspective but only accepting what he felt was good in it. By contrast, Friedman represented the monetarist perspective. Together with Henry Wallich, their 1967 columns earned the magazine a Gerald Loeb Special Award in 1968. Samuelson died on 13 December 2009, at the age of 94. Samuelson was born in Gary, Indiana, on 15 May 1915, to Frank Samuelson, a pharmacist, the Ella née Lipton, his family, he said, was "made up of upwardly mobile Jewish immigrants from Poland who had prospered in World War I, because Gary was a brand new steel-town when my family went there".
In 1923, Samuelson moved to Chicago. He studied at the University of Chicago and received his Bachelor of Arts degree there in 1935, he said he was born as an economist, at 8.00am on January 2, 1932, in the University of Chicago classroom. The lecture mentioned the cause was on the British economist Thomas Malthus, who most famously studied population growth and its effects. Samuelson felt there was a dissonance between neoclassical economics and the way the system seemed to behave, he next completed his Master of Arts degree in 1936, his Doctor of Philosophy in 1941 at Harvard University. He won the David A. Wells prize in 1941 for writing the best doctoral dissertation at Harvard University in economics, for a thesis titled "Foundations of Analytical Economics", which turned into Foundations of Economic Analysis; as a graduate student at Harvard, Samuelson studied economics under Joseph Schumpeter, Wassily Leontief, Gottfried Haberler, the "American Keynes" Alvin Hansen. Samuelson remained there until his death.
Samuelson's family included many well-known economists, including brother Robert Summers, sister-in-law Anita Summers, brother-in-law Kenneth Arrow and nephew Larry Summers. During his seven decades as an economist, Samuelson's professional positions included: Assistant professor of economics at M. I. T, 1940, associate professor, 1944. Member of the Radiation Laboratory 1944–45. Professor of international economic relations at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy in 1945. Guggenheim Fellowship from 1948 to 1949 Professor of economics at MIT beginning in 1947 and Institute Professor beginning in 1962. Vernon F. Taylor Visiting Distinguished Professor at Trinity University in spring 1989. Samuelson died after a brief illness on December 13, 2009, at the age of 94, his death was announced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. James M. Poterba, an economics professor at MIT and the president of the National Bureau of Economic Research, commented that Samuelson "leaves an immense legacy, as a researcher and a teacher, as one of the giants on whose shoulders every contemporary economist stands".
Susan Hockfield, the president of MIT, said that Samuelson "transformed everything he tou
Neal E. Miller
Neal Elgar Miller was an American experimental psychologist. Described as an energetic man with a variety of interests, including physics and writing, Miller entered the field of psychology to pursue these. With a background training in the sciences, he was inspired by professors and leading psychologists at the time to work on various areas in behavioral psychology and physiological psychology relating visceral responses to behavior. Miller's career in psychology started with research on "fear as a learned drive and its role in conflict". Work in behavioral medicine led him to his most notable work on biofeedback. Over his lifetime he lectured at Yale University, Rockefeller University, Cornell University Medical College and was one of the youngest members of Yale's Institute of Human Relations, his accomplishments led to the establishment of two awards: the New Investigator Award from the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research and an award for distinguished lectureship from the American Psychological Association.
A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Miller as the eighth most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Miller was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 1909, he grew up in the Pacific Northwest. His father, Irving Miller, worked at Western Washington University as Chair of the Department of Education and Psychology, his father's position in Neal Miller's words, "may have had something to do with" his interest in psychology. Having a curiosity for science, Miller entered the University of Washington, where he studied biology and had an interest in writing, his senior year he decided that psychology would allow him to pursue his wide variety of interests. He graduated from the University of Washington with a B. S. and a piqued interest in behavioral psychology. Afterwards he studied at Stanford University where he received his M. S. and an interest in psychology of personality. At Stanford he accompanied his professor, Walter Miles, to the Institute of Human Relations at Yale University as a research assistant.
There he was encouraged by another professor to further study psychoanalysis. He received his Ph. D. degree in Psychology from Yale University in 1935, that same year he became a social science research fellow at the Institute of Psychoanalysis in Vienna for one year before returning to Yale as a faculty member in 1936. He spent a total of 30 years at Yale University, in 1950 he was appointed professor at Yale, a position he held until 1966. In 1966 he began teaching at Rockefeller University and afterwards spent the early 1970s teaching at Cornell University Medical College. In 1985 he returned to Yale as a research associate. Miller's early work focused on experimenting with Freudian ideas on behavior in real-life situations, his most notable topic was fear. Miller came to the conclusion. Miller decided to extend his research to other autonomic drives, such as hunger, to see if they worked in the same way, his unique ideas and experimental techniques to study these autonomic drives resulted in findings that changed ideas about motivations and behavior.
Miller was one of the founding fathers behind the idea of biofeedback. Today, many of his ideas have been expanded and added to, but Miller has been credited with coming up with most of the basic ideas behind biofeedback. Miller was doing experimentation on conditioning and rats. Neal Miller, along with John Dollard and O. Hobart Mowrer, helped to integrate behavioral and psychoanalytic concepts, they were able to translate psychological analytic concepts into behavioral terms that would be more understood. They focused on the stimulus-response theory; these three men recognized Sigmund Freud's understanding of anxiety as a "signal of danger" and that some things in Freud's work could be altered to fix this. Miller and Mowrer believed that a person, relieved of high anxiety levels would experience what is called "anxiety relief". Together with fellow psychologist O. Hobart Mowrer, Miller gives his name to the "Miller-Mowrer Shuttlebox" apparatus. Over the course of his career, Miller wrote 276 papers and articles.
Neal Miller worked with John Dollard and together they wrote the book Personality and Psychotherapy concerning neurosis and psychological learning concepts. Miller's regular use of laboratory animals, over many years, aroused criticism from animal rights groups, but he was a forthright defender of the practice, he once argued that if people had no right to use animals in research they had no right to kill them for food or clothing. So, Miller acknowledged that the issue was complex, saying: "There is sacredness of all life, but where do we draw the line? That's the problem. Cats kill mice. Dogs exploit other animals by eating them. Humans have to draw the line somewhere in animal rights, or we're dead." Miller served as President of the American Psychological Association from 1960–61, received the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1959 and the APA Citation for Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology in 1991. In 1964 he received the National Medal of Science from President Johnson, the first psychologist to receive this honor.
He was President of the Society for Neurosciences, the Biofeedback Society of America and the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research. Dollard, John. Frustration and aggression. New Haven: Published for the Institute of Human Relations by Yale University Press. OCLC 256003. Miller, Neal E. Social learning and imitation. New Haven