SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

RNF144A

RNF144A is an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the RING-between RING family of ubiquitin ligases, whose specific members have been shown to function as RING-HECT hybrid E3 ligases. RNF144A is most related to RNF144B at the protein level, the two proteins together comprise a subdomain within the RBR family of proteins; the ubiquitin ligase activity of RNF144A catalyzes ubiquitin linkages at the K6-, K11- and K48- positions of ubiquitin in vitro, is regulated by self-association through its transmembrane domain. The biological functions of RNF144A is/are unknown beyond its intrinsic enzymatic activity. Somatic mutations of RNF144A have been catalogued in cancer genetic databases in several primary human tumors, including breast, lymphoma, glioblastoma and lung cancers. Other members of the RBR family have been associated with neurological and immunological diseases, most notably parkin, HOIL-1L and HOIP. Current known substrates of RNF144A targeted for degradation are proteins involved in DNA repair, heatshock/chaperone function and signalling, consistent with the predominant association of this protein with cancer, include, PARP1, HSPA2, BMI1, RAF1.

RING finger domain

Switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia

The switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia was a change in the rule of the road in 1938–1939. Before 1938, Czechoslovakia drove on the left. In 1925, Czechoslovakia accepted the Paris convention and undertook to change to right-hand traffic "within a reasonable time frame". In 1931, the government decreed to change over within five years; the main obstacles were financial cost and widespread opposition in rural areas. In November 1938, parliament decided to change to right-hand traffic with effect from 1 May 1939; the occupation of the Czech part of the country by Nazi Germany and its transformation into the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia on 15 March 1939 sped up the change. A few places switched the same day, the rest of the area of the Protectorate on 17 March, Prague got a few more days to implement the change and switched on 26 March. Tramway infrastructure in Prague was modified in November 1938. In the final days there were daily reminders of the change in newspapers and large warnings were painted on the streets and on tramway cars.

Drivers adapted and only a small number of traffic accidents happened due to the switch with only one recorded fatality in Prague. Right hand traffic was introduced in Slovakia by a decree of the government of "autonomous Slovakia" within Czechoslovakia in late 1938. Buses in the capital Bratislava were adapted in 1939, the last roads in Slovakia switched to the new system in 1940/1941; the areas which are nowadays the southern border regions of Slovakia were subsequently part of Hungary, did therefore change to right hand traffic as late as 1941, together with the rest of wartime Hungary. Right- and left-hand traffic Dagen H 730