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Mary Leakey

Mary Douglas Leakey, FBA was a British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first fossilised Proconsul skull, an extinct ape, now believed to be ancestral to humans. She discovered the robust Zinjanthropus skull at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, eastern Africa. For much of her career she worked with her husband, Louis Leakey, at Olduvai Gorge, where they uncovered fossils of ancient hominines and the earliest hominins, as well as the stone tools produced by the latter group. Mary Leakey developed a system for classifying the stone tools found at Olduvai, she discovered the Laetoli footprints, at the Laetoli site she discovered hominin fossils that were more than 3.75 million years old. During her career, Leakey discovered fifteen new species of animal, she brought about the naming of a new genus. In 1972, after the death of her husband, Leakey became director of excavations at Olduvai, she maintained the Leakey family tradition of palaeoanthropology by training her son, Richard, in the field. Mary Leakey was born on 6 February 1913, in London, England to Erskine Edward Nicol and Cecilia Marion Nicol.

The Nicol family moved to numerous locations in the United States and Egypt where Erskine painted watercolors that he brought back and sold in England. Mary began to develop an enthusiasm for Egyptology during these travels. On her mother's side, Mary was a 3rd great-granddaughter of antiquarian John Frere; the Frere family had been active abolitionists in the British colonial empire during the 19th century and established several communities for freed slaves. Three of these communities were still in existence when Leakey published her 1984 autobiography: Freretown, Kenya; the Nicols spent much of their time in southern France. In 1925, when Mary was 12, the Nicols stayed at the commune, Les Eyzies, at a time when Elie Peyrony, a French archeologist and prehistorian, was excavating one of the caves there. Peyrony was not excavating scientifically during that early stage of archaeology and did not understand the significance of much of what he found. Mary received permission to go through the remnants of his dig and this was where her interests in prehistory and archaeology were sparked.

She started a collection of points and blades from the dump and developed her first system of classification. The family moved to Cabrerets, a village of Lot, France. There she became her mentor for a time; the two toured. In the spring of 1926, when Mary was thirteen years old, her father died of cancer and Mary and her mother returned to London. Mary was placed in a local Catholic convent to be educated, she boasted of never passing an examination there. Although she spoke fluent French, Mary did not excel at French language studies because her teacher frowned upon her provincial accent, she was expelled for refusing to recite poetry, was expelled from a second convent school for causing an explosion in a chemistry laboratory. After the second expulsion, her mother hired two tutors. After the unsuccessful tutors, her mother hired a nanny. Mary's particular interests centered on illustration and archaeology, but formal university admission was impossible with her academic record, her mother contacted a professor at Oxford University about possible admission, was encouraged not to apply, as it would be a waste of her time.

Mary had no further contact with the university until it awarded her an honorary doctoral degree in 1951. The small family moved to Kensington, in West London, though unregistered, Mary attended lectures in archaeology and related subjects at the University College and at the London Museum, where she studied under Mortimer Wheeler. Mary applied to work on a number of summer excavations. Wheeler was the first to accept her for a dig, it took place at St. Albans at the Roman site of Verulamium, her next dig was at Hembury, a Neolithic site, under Dorothy Liddell, who trained her for four years until 1934. Her illustrations of tools for Liddell drew the attention of Gertrude Caton Thompson, and, in late 1932, she entered the field as an illustrator for Caton Thompson's book The Desert Fayoum. Through Caton Thompson, an English archeologist, Mary met Louis Leakey, in need of an illustrator for his book Adam's Ancestors. While she was doing that work they became romantically involved. Leakey was still married.

This news became public. They married after Leakey's wife, divorced him in 1936. Mary and Louis Leakey had three sons: Jonathan, born in 1940, Richard in 1944, Philip in 1949, their fourth child died as an infant. The three boys received much of their early childhood care at various anthropological sites and, whenever possible, the Leakeys excavated and explored as a family; the children accompanied them with dig becoming a family endeavor. The boys grew up with the same love of freedom. Mary would not allow guests to shoo away the pet hyraxes that helped themselves to food and drink at the dinner table. In her autobiography, she mentioned her pregnancies or the difficulties she faced while raising children in Kenya, she smoked a lot, first cigarettes and cigars, dressed as though completing an excavation. While her husband was alive, they published many joint findings. However, her contributions were credited to her husband. Louis Leakey died on 1 October 1972 of a heart attack. Mary L


Irota is a village in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county, Hungary. It can be found 20 kilometres north of the town of Edelény, 180 metres above sea level in a narrow valley, its only stream, the ‘Hunters’ Creek’ runs south. Walking through the forest area which starts from the northern end of Irota, one will find the highest peak of the region at a height of 340 metres; the village was mentioned for the first time in 1320. By 1726, the population consisted both of Ruthenian speakers. Most of the inhabitants were shepherds and small farmers. In the 19th century, a local quarry was used to produce rooftiles. In 1851, Irota was home to 36 Roman Catholics, 358 Greek Catholics, 5 Calvinists, 4 Evangelicals and 8 Jews; the latest census mentions 117 inhabitants, of which 38 Roman Catholics, 70 Greek Catholics, 6 Calvinists and 3 belonging to none of these groups. Irota’s only church is Greek Catholic. Roman Catholics go to mass here as well; the current stone building, dating from 1846, was preceded by several wooden structures.

It boasts a beautiful iconostasis. In 1898, the whitewashed church interior was embellished with frescoes. Services are held on Sunday at 10.30, unless otherwise indicated. A small chapel can be found in the main street, it was built in 1925 and renovated in 1965. It is used for smaller services during the week; the mansion which once belonged to the noble Fáy family was used as headquarters for the Party Secretary, public library and consulting room for the visiting GP during the years of communism. After years of neglect and decay, it has been renovated and these days, it serves as a private residence; the houses in the village have a rectangular shape and consist of three rooms. The houses do not stand in a straight line, since people always made sure to build them in the highest point of their plot to protect them from water damage. Tourists are attracted to Irota because of its unspoilt character, the beautiful surroundings teeming with wildlife, rare plant and bird species and the pleasant village atmosphere.

The village has several guest houses and three eco-friendly lodges have been built at its edge. These have been operational since Summer 2016. Street map

2018 Municipality of Anchorage, Alaska, Proposition 1

Proposition 1 was an Anchorage, Alaska direct initiative bathroom bill. A public vote on the proposition was held on April 3, 2018, it would have made it legal for "any employer, public accommodation, or other person to establish and enforce sex-specific standards or policies concerning access to intimate facilities such as locker rooms, changing rooms, restrooms." The measure defined the term'sex' as "an individual's immutable biological condition of being male or female, as objectively determined by anatomy and genetics at the time of birth."The proposition was the result of a petition campaign headed by Alaska Family Action, a Christian public policy organization. The group organized a petition titled "Regulating Access to Facilities Such as Locker Rooms and Bathrooms on the Basis of Sex at Birth, Rather Than Gender Identity." The Anchorage Municipal Clerk's Office certified over 6,200 valid signatures on the petition and authorized the referendum in July 2017. Local opponents of the bill were led by a coalition of organizations.

Anchorage voters rejected Proposition 1 by a vote of 52.64% to 47.36%. Bathroom bill LGBT rights in Alaska

Glossary of engineering

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are defined and explained within Wikipedia itself. However, glossaries like this one are useful for looking up, comparing and reviewing large numbers of terms together. You can help enhance this page by writing definitions for existing ones; this glossary of engineering terms is a list of definitions about the major concepts of engineering. Please see the bottom of the page for glossaries of specific fields of engineering. Absolute electrode potentialIn electrochemistry, according to an IUPAC definition, is the electrode potential of a metal measured with respect to a universal reference system. Absolute pressureIs zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, using an absolute scale, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure. Absolute zeroIs the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0. Absolute zero is the point at which the fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion, retaining only quantum mechanical, zero-point energy-induced particle motion.

The theoretical temperature is determined by extrapolating the ideal gas law. The corresponding Kelvin and Rankine temperature scales set their zero points at absolute zero by definition. AbsorbanceAbsorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material. AC powerElectric power delivered by alternating current. AccelerationThe rate at which the velocity of a body changes with time, the direction in which that change is acting. AcidA molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron, or, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair. Acid-base reactionA chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base, which can be used to determine pH. Acid strengthIn strong acids, most of the molecules become ionized. AcousticsThe scientific study of sound. Activated sludgeA type of wastewater treatment process for treating sewage or industrial wastewaters using aeration and a biological floc composed of bacteria and protozoa.

Activated sludge modelA generic name for a group of mathematical methods to model activated sludge systems. Active transportIn cellular biology, active transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of their lower concentration to a region of their higher concentration—against the concentration gradient. Active transport requires cellular energy to achieve this movement. There are two types of active transport: primary active transport that uses ATP, secondary active transport that uses an electrochemical gradient. An example of active transport in human physiology is the uptake of glucose in the intestines. ActuatorThe final element of a control loop, that translates control signals into a physical output movement. Adenosine triphosphateA complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, e.g. muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, chemical synthesis. Found in all forms of life, ATP is referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

AdhesionThe tendency of dissimilar surfaces to cling to one another. Adiabatic processA process. Adiabatic wallA barrier through which heat energy cannot pass. Aerobic digestionA process in sewage treatment designed to reduce the volume of sewage sludge and make it suitable for subsequent use. AerodynamicsThe study of the motion of air its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing, it is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields.. Aerospace engineeringAerospace engineering Is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft, it has two major and overlapping branches: Astronautical Engineering. Avionics engineering deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Afocal systemAn optical system that produces no net convergence or divergence of the beam, i.e. has an infinite effective focal length. Agricultural engineeringThe profession of designing machinery and systems for use in agriculture.

AlbedoA measure of the fraction of light reflected from other object. AlkaneAn alkane, or paraffin, is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon–carbon bonds are single. AlkeneAn unsaturated hydrocarbon; the words alkene and olefin are used interchangeably. AlkyneIs an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond; the simplest acyclic alkynes with only one triple bond and no other functional groups form a homologous series with the general chemical formula CnH2n−2. Alloyis a combination of metals or of a metal and another element. Alloys are defined by a metallic bonding character. Alpha particleAlpha particles consist of t

Kepler problem

In classical mechanics, the Kepler problem is a special case of the two-body problem, in which the two bodies interact by a central force F that varies in strength as the inverse square of the distance r between them. The force may be either repulsive; the problem is to find the position or speed of the two bodies over time given their masses and velocities. Using classical mechanics, the solution can be expressed as a Kepler orbit using six orbital elements; the Kepler problem is named after Johannes Kepler, who proposed Kepler's laws of planetary motion and investigated the types of forces that would result in orbits obeying those laws. For a discussion of the Kepler problem specific to radial orbits, see Radial trajectory. General relativity provides more accurate solutions to the two-body problem in strong gravitational fields; the Kepler problem arises in many contexts. The Kepler problem is important in celestial mechanics, since Newtonian gravity obeys an inverse square law. Examples include a satellite moving about a planet, a planet about its sun, or two binary stars about each other.

The Kepler problem is important in the motion of two charged particles, since Coulomb’s law of electrostatics obeys an inverse square law. Examples include the hydrogen atom and muonium, which have all played important roles as model systems for testing physical theories and measuring constants of nature; the Kepler problem and the simple harmonic oscillator problem are the two most fundamental problems in classical mechanics. They are the only two problems that have closed orbits for every possible set of initial conditions, i.e. return to their starting point with the same velocity. The Kepler problem has been used to develop new methods in classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian mechanics, Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton–Jacobi equation, action-angle coordinates; the Kepler problem conserves the Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector, which has since been generalized to include other interactions. The solution of the Kepler problem allowed scientists to show that planetary motion could be explained by classical mechanics and Newton’s law of gravity.

The central force F that varies in strength as the inverse square of the distance r between them: F = k r 2 r ^ where k is a constant and r ^ represents the unit vector along the line between them. The force may be either repulsive; the corresponding scalar potential is: V = k r The equation of motion for the radius r of a particle of mass m moving in a central potential V is given by Lagrange's equations m d 2 r d t 2 − m r ω 2 = m d 2 r d t 2 − L 2 m r 3 = − d V d r ω ≡ d θ d t and the angular momentum L = m r 2 ω is conserved. For illustration, the first term on the left-hand side is zero for circular orbits, the applied inwards force d V d r equals the centripetal force requirement m r ω 2, as expected. If L is not zero the definition of angular momentum allows a change of independent variable from t to θ d d t = L m r 2 d d θ giving the new equation of motion, independent of time L r 2 d d θ − L 2 m r 3 = − d V d r The expansion of the first term is L r 2 d


The Marinefährprahm, "naval ferry barge", was the largest landing craft operated by Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. It served a variety of roles in the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the English Channel and Norwegian coastal waters. Developed for the proposed invasion of England, the first of these ships was commissioned on 16 April 1941, with 700 being completed by the war's end in May 1945. Allied sources sometimes refer to this class of vessel as a "Flak Lighter" or "F-lighter". Several Types were developed, whose armament grew from Type to Type; some specialised derivates such as artillery vessels and minelaying vessels were built on the basis of these craft. They were not used for their initial invasion role, but for transport and supply duties and harbour protection; the MFPs were protected by 20 mm-thick steel armor plating. This first version of the MFP was to be of all-welded construction, but a shortage of skilled welders meant that only the original prototype, F100, was built in this fashion.

All following examples featured extensive riveting. The MFP-A's original intended power plant was to be two 600 hp 6-cylinder surplus BMW aircraft engines and one 6-cylinder Deutz diesel truck engine. Operating with all three engines at full throttle, the MFP-A could make 13 knots, but the BMW aircraft engines proved mechanically trouble-prone and used excessive amounts of fuel and it was decided to install a standard set of three Deutz diesel truck engines instead. Though this reduced the vessel's maximum speed to 10.5 knots, the loss of speed was more than offset by the power plant's greater reliability and more economical cruising range. These were intended for use in Operation Herkules, the planned but never-executed Italo-German invasion of Malta. Ten of them were specially modified to each KV-2 heavy tank; this required strengthening and widening of the well decks and internal ramps and outward repositioning of the bow ramp counterbalance weights in order to accommodate these vehicles. The Artilleriefährprahm or AFP was a gunboat derivative of the MFP.

These ships were used for shore bombardment and minelaying. They were fitted with light AA guns. In preparation for its proposed invasion of Malta, Operazione C3, the Regia Marina secured design plans from the Kriegsmarine for the MFP-A in late 1941 and placed an initial order for 65 vessels, numbered 701 through 765; these motozattere were built in Italian shipyards in and around Palermo, gave the Italian Navy the necessary amphibious capability to land infantry, armored vehicles and supplies directly onto an open beach. Up to three M13/40 medium tanks and 100 equipped infantrymen could be carried or an equivalent weight in cargo; the only major design changes were to substitute Italian-made diesel engines for the German powerplant of three Deutz truck engines and to replace the German-made 7.5 cm deck gun with a 76 mm/40 quick-firing Italian gun. The first motozattera was laid down in March 1942. By July of that year, the month slated for the Malta invasion, all 65 MZs had been completed and were ready for deployment.

On 27 July, the invasion was indefinitely postponed and many Italian MZs were diverted to the task of ferrying supplies from Italy to Libya and between ports along the Libyan coast in order to support Panzerarmee Afrika's advance into Egypt. In September 1942, 40 additional MZs were ordered; this modified version featured a raised bow to improve sea-keeping, a strengthened keel, larger fuel tanks for increased range, a lining of concrete “armor” 100mm thick for anti-splinter protection and a second 20mm AA gun mounted amidships. A third series of 40 MZs was ordered in June 1943 but none were completed. A further 20 examples were planned, being an exact copy of the MFP-D, but this too never materialized as by the war situation for Italy had worsened and her armed forces had been expelled from North Africa. In all, 95 motozattere were built in Italian shipyards prior to Italy’s signing of an armistice with the Allies on 8 September 1943; the first use of the Marinefährprahm was during Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union.

Twelve Marinefährprähme were deployed during Operation Beowulf II as part of the German invasion of Saaremaa and Muhu on 14 September 1941. The Marinefährprahm provided logistical support during the siege of Sevastopol in June 1942. Twenty-four Marinefährprähme from 1. Landungs-Flotille transported a Kampfgruppe from the 46th Infantry Division across the Kerch Strait to the Taman Peninsula as part of Operation Blücher II on the night of 2 September 1942. Between January and October 1943, Marinefährprähme were used to evacuate the Wehrmacht's 17th Army from the Kuban bridgehead on the Taman Peninsula in southern Russia despite repeated Soviet attacks during this period; the sea evacuation brought out 239,669 soldiers, 16,311 wounded, 27,456 civilians and 115,477 tons of military equipment, 21,230 vehicles, 74 tanks, 1,815 guns and 74,657 horses to the Crimea. In February 1944, three MFPs were purchased by the Romanian Navy, being renamed PTA-404, PTA-405 and PTA-406. Media related to Marinefährprahm at Wikimedia Commons Landing craft tank, an equivalent Allied naval class german