White Pigeon, Michigan
White Pigeon is a village in St. Joseph County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,522 at the 2010 census, the village is located within White Pigeon Township. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has an area of 1.41 square miles. The White Pigeon River flows through the end of town. US12 US131 White Pigeon was incorporated in 1837, downtown White Pigeon boasts an historic building listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the United States Land Office, which is the oldest surviving U. S. Land office in the state of Michigan, out of this office the U. S. government sold land in Michigan for $1.25 an acre in the 1830s to settlers of Western Michigan. The town was named after the Potawatomi Indian Chief Wahbememe, which means Chief White Pigeon, according to legend, while he was at the gathering of the chiefs in Detroit, Wahbememe heard plans to attack the settlement which is now White Pigeon. The Chief was a friend to the settlers and didnt want to see harm come to them so he set out on foot.
After running that distance and giving his warning, he collapsed. His remains are buried in the town, and the site is now part of the National Register of Historic Places, as of the census of 2010, there were 1,522 people,621 households, and 383 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,095.0 inhabitants per square mile, there were 724 housing units at an average density of 520.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 93. 3% White,0. 3% African American,0. 9% Native American,0. 5% Asian,2. 6% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 2% of the population. 29. 3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the village was 37.1 years. 27. 1% of residents were under the age of 18,7. 3% were between the ages of 18 and 24,24. 9% were from 25 to 44,25. 5% were from 45 to 64, and 15. 2% were 65 years of age or older.
The gender makeup of the village was 47. 0% male and 53. 0% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,627 people,602 households, and 431 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,157.8 per square mile, there were 640 housing units at an average density of 455.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 94. 59% White,0. 18% African American,1. 11% Native American,0. 55% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,2. 03% from other races, and 1. 48% from two or more races
Sally Pederson was the 45th Lieutenant Governor of Iowa. A Democrat, she is a native of Vinton and she graduated from Iowa State University in Ames. Prior to being elected lieutenant governor on the Vilsack-Pederson ticket in 1998, Pederson served as an executive with the Meredith Corporation in Des Moines and she worked as an editor for Better Homes and Gardens magazine. She ran for lieutenant governor again in 2002 and was re-elected and it was rumoredthat Vilsack would have been offered a cabinet-level position in the event of a Kerry victory. Had that occurred, Pederson would have become the first female Governor of Iowa
Not to be confused with Maia Mitchell, Australian actress and singer. Maria Mitchell was an American astronomer who, in 1847, by using a telescope and she won a gold medal prize for her discovery which was presented to her by King Frederick VI of Denmark. On the medal was inscribed Non Frustra Signorum Obitus Speculamur et Ortus in Latin (taken from Georgics by Virgil, Mitchell was the first American woman to work as a professional astronomer. One of ten children, she was raised in the Quaker religion, Maria Mitchell was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts. She was the granddaughter of Peter Foulger and Mary Morrill Foulger. She had nine brothers and sisters and her parents, William Mitchell and Lydia Coleman Mitchell, were Quakers. Maria Mitchell was born into a community unusual for its time in regard to equality for women and her parents, like other Quakers, valued education and insisted on giving her the same quality of education that boys received. One of the tenets of the Quaker religion was intellectual equality between the sexes, after attending Elizabeth Gardeners small school in her earliest childhood years, Maria attended the North Grammar school, where William Mitchell was the first principal.
Two years following the founding of that school, when Maria was eleven, she was a student and a teaching assistant to her father. At home, Marias father taught her astronomy using his personal telescope, at age twelve and a half, she aided her father in calculating the exact moment of an annular eclipse. Her fathers school closed, and afterwards she attended Unitarian minister Cyrus Peirces school for young ladies, she worked for Peirce as his teaching assistant before she opened her own school in 1835. She made the decision to allow children to attend her school. One year later, she was offered a job as the first librarian of the Nantucket Atheneum, using a telescope, she discovered Miss Mitchells Comet on October 1,1847, at 10,30 PM. Some years previously, King Frederick VI of Denmark had established gold medal prizes to each discoverer of a telescopic comet, the prize was to be awarded to the first discoverer of each such comet. Maria Mitchell won one of these prizes, and this gave her worldwide fame, since the previous women to discover a comet were the astronomers Caroline Herschel.
The prize was awarded in 1848 by the new king Christian VIII and she became the first woman elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848 and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1850. Mitchell was one of the first women elected to the American Philosophical Society and she worked at the U. S. Nautical Almanac Office, calculating tables of positions of Venus, and traveled in Europe with Nathaniel Hawthorne and she became professor of astronomy at Vassar College in 1865, the first person appointed to the faculty
Emma Willard School
The first womens higher education institution in the United States, it was founded by womens rights advocate Emma Willard in 1821, and has an endowment of $83 million. Emma Willard is an independent college-preparatory day and boarding school enrolling students in grades 9–12, class sizes are kept at a 16-student maximum, the typical student to teacher ratio is 6 to 1. Advanced Placement preparation is offered in all disciplines, students may enroll in courses at neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Most students take five courses each semester, classes meet four or five times each week for fifty minutes, though lab sciences, and AP sections meet for varying lengths of time. An ESL program offers intermediate and advanced-level curriculum for international students, all students must fulfill a community service requirement and take physical education or its equivalent each semester in the ninth and eleventh grades. Seniors must take at least ten weeks, Emma Willard offers inquiry-based classes across all disciplines.
In keeping with philosophy of personal development providing its own benchmarks. The grading system uses letter and number grades and it goes as follows, A, A−, B+, B, B−, C+, C, C−, etc. accompanied usually by a number indicating where on the spectrum the individual student falls. Over one-third of the students participate in Practicum each year, Emma Willard students worked to make Emma Willard School the first fair trade high school in the United States in 2010. In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, having taught for several years, Emma Willard perceived the egregious disparity in what girls learned compared to boys. In 1819, Willard promoted a comprehensive secondary and postsecondary female educational institution and her address to the office of New York’s “innovative” governor DeWitt Clinton met with initial success. However, the New State legislature at Albany, on hearing her request, responded with mixed sentiment, many of the wives of prominent men steadfastly supported and promoted her educational agenda to their friends and associates.
Thereafter, the City of Troys Common Council eventually raised $4,000 that would facilitate Willard’s purchase of a flagship building for her proposed seminary for young women. She had already obtained inexpensive accommodation in a nearby historic Waterford, she had come to rent two nondescript long and narrow stone structures, former pre-Colonial Dutch estates outbuildings in a picturesque setting along the mighty Mohawk River. The propertys border still abuts the Erie Canal’s first but long-defunct stone lock, however, in early 1821, a critical funds shortage from to a brief economic downturn that had impacted the region made her be compelled to close her Waterford Academy. Toward the close of 1821, she secured $4,000 in funding and relocated to Troy, the Albany Academy for Boys had been established in March 1813, just downstream from Waterford and her temporary school, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute opened in 1824. She was able to found the Troy Female Seminary for young ladies of means.
From its establishment in 1821 until 1872, the seminary admitted 12,000 students. The Troy Female Seminary promoted the education of girls as well as women teachers in training
Phebe W. Sudlow was a pioneer for women in the education field and was the first female superintendent of a public school in the United States. Sudlow became the first female professor at the University of Iowa in 1878, phebe W. Sudlow was born on July 11,1831 in Poughkeepsie, New York. When Sudlow was four, her parents Richard and Hannah, Sudlow soon began teaching, at the age of fifteen, at the same school where she was taught. After the death of her father in 1855, Sudlow moved to Rockford, Illinois to live with her brother, Sudlow started teaching at a local school, and soon was moved by Superintendent Abram S. Kissell to Davenport sub-district 5 as an assistant of the district. She soon became the assistant principal of two schools in Davenport and a later, in 1860, she was the principal of both schools. Sudlow was paid a wage less than that of male principals and she argued with the school board about the pay disparate, and was soon paid an equal wage. On June 19,1874, Sudlow became the first woman in United States history to be appointed superintendent of schools when she was unanimously chosen by the Davenport school board.
Sudlow served as superintendent for four years, among her achievements was the construction of a new high school. In 1876, Sudlow became the first female president of the Iowa State Teachers Association and she obtained another first by becoming the first female professor at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, despite having only an honorary masters degree from Grinnell College. She taught at the university for three years when she resigned due to poor health and she went back to Davenport to become a principal for one year before retiring from education. On June 8,1922, Sudlow died in her home in Davenport and she is buried in Oakdale Cemetery in Davenport. Sudlow was inducted into the Iowa Womens Hall of Fame in 1993
Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower was the wife of United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961. Mamie married Dwight Eisenhower at age 19 in 1916, the young couple moved frequently between military quarters in many postings, from Panama to the Philippines. As First Lady, she entertained a wide range of foreign dignitaries, Mamie Eisenhower spent her retirement and widowhood at the family farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. She grew up in Cedar Rapids, Colorado Springs, Denver and her father, who retired at age 36, ran a meatpacking company founded by his father, Doud & Montgomery, and had investments in Illinois and Iowa stockyards. Her mother was a daughter of Swedish immigrants and she had three sisters, Eleanor Carlson Doud, Eda Mae Doud, and Mabel Frances Mike Doud. Soon after completing her education at Miss Wolcotts, a finishing school, she met Dwight Eisenhower in San Antonio in October 1915. Introduced by Mrs. Lulu Harris, wife of an officer at Fort Sam Houston.
On St. Valentines Day in 1916, he gave her a miniature of his West Point class ring to seal a formal engagement. Lieutenant Dwight D. Eisenhower, aged 25, married Mamie Doud, aged 19, on July 1,1916, at the home of the parents in Denver. The Eisenhowers had two children, Doud Dwight Icky died of scarlet fever, John Sheldon Doud – soldier, author – was born in Denver, Colorado, he graduated from West Point in 1944 and earned a masters degree in English literature from Columbia University in 1950. After retiring from a career, he was appointed ambassador to Belgium by Richard Nixon. He authored ten books, among them an account of the Battle of the Bulge, The Bitter Woods, Strictly Personal, and Allies, Pearl Harbor to D-Day. For years, Mamie Eisenhowers life followed the pattern of other Army wives, a succession of posts in the United States, in the Panama Canal Zone, duty in France, and in the Philippine Islands. During the Second World War, while promotion and fame came to Ike, his wife lived in Washington, after he became president of Columbia University in 1948, the Eisenhowers purchased a farm at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
It was the first home they had ever owned and his duties as commander of North Atlantic Treaty Organization forces—and hers as his hostess at a villa near Paris—delayed work on their dream home, finally completed in 1955. They celebrated with a picnic for the staff at what would be their last temporary quarters. Diplomacy—and air travel—in the postwar world brought changes in their official hospitality, the Eisenhowers entertained an unprecedented number of heads of state and leaders of foreign governments. As First Lady, she was noted for her manner, her love of pretty clothes, some of them designed by Scaasi, jewelry
World's Columbian Exposition
The Worlds Columbian Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicagos self-image, and American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted. It was the prototype of what Burnham and his colleagues thought a city should be and it was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor. The color of the generally used to cover the buildings facades gave the fairgrounds its nickname. Many prominent architects designed its 14 great buildings and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition.
The exposition covered more than 600 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, more than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21,1892, the fair continued until October 30,1893. On October 9,1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair one of the stars on its municipal flag. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, and Connecticut banking, the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. Worlds fairs, such as Londons 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines, the first American attempt at a worlds fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure. Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus landing started in the late 1880s.
Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, Congress was called on to decide the location. What finally persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million dollars in a 24-hour period, over. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park, Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, and George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the periods top talent to design the buildings, the temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the “White City”
Iowa Women's Hall of Fame
In 1972, the state of Iowa created the ICSW to oversee womens issues, with Cristine Swanson Wilson as its first chair. During Womens History Month every March, the ICSW sponsors a public Write Women Back into History Essay Contest, since the Hall of Fames beginnings in 1975, four annual nominees are inducted by the ICSW and the Governor of Iowa in a public ceremony. The event is held on Womens Equality Day, which commemorates the August 26,1920 ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution that gave women the right to vote, the honorees are nominated by the public via online forms available on the ICSW website. The ICSW created the annual Cristine Wilson Medal for Equality, Wilson was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1989. In the ensuing years, the Hall of Fame ranks were joined by women from all walks of life, as of the 2011 inductee ceremonies, there have been 148 women inducted. Two First Ladies of the United States, Lou Henry Hoover, black made the list in 1985.
Mycologist Lois Hattery Tiffany was added in 1991 for her career of educating the public about mushrooms, the military is represented by Womens Army Corps veteran Rosa Cunningham in 1980 and by former United States Army Judge Advocate General officer Phyllis Propp Fowle in 2001. Vietnam War era anti-war activist Peg Mullen was inducted in 1997, pulitzer Prize winner Susan Glaspell was a 1976 inductee. Hualing Nieh Engle, who in 1976 was co-nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, became a Hall of Fame inductee in 2008. Cattle breeder Mary Garst was added in 1981, several women farmers are on the list, and added in 2001was attorney Phyllis Josephine Hughes who had been honored by Pope John Paul II for her legal assistance to the farm community. Iowa Womens Hall of Fame official site
Meridel Le Sueur
Meridel Le Sueur was an American writer associated with the proletarian movement of the 1930s and 1940s. Born as Meridel Wharton, she assumed the name of her mothers husband, Arthur Le Sueur. Le Sueur, the daughter of William Winston Wharton and Marian Mary Del Lucy, was born into a family of social and political activists and her grandfather was a supporter of the Protestant fundamentalist temperance movement, and she grew up among the radical farmer and labor groups. Like the Populists, the Farmers Alliance and the Wobblies, the Industrial Workers of the World, Le Sueur was heavily influenced by poems and stories that she heard from Native American women. Starting in her teens, she wrote for liberal newspapers about unemployment, migrant workers. By 1925, she had become a member of the Communist Party, like other writers of the period such as John Steinbeck, Nelson Algren, and Jack Conroy, Le Sueur wrote about the struggles of the working class during the Great Depression. She published articles in the New Masses and The American Mercury and she wrote several popular children’s books, including the biographies, Nancy Hanks of Wilderness Road, The Story of Davy Crockett, and The Story of Johnny Appleseed, and Sparrow Hawk, among others.
Her best known books are North Star Country, a history of Minnesota, Salute to Spring, and the novel The Girl. In the 1950s, Le Sueur was blacklisted as a communist, but her reputation was revived in the 1970s and she wrote on Goddess spirituality in a poetry volume titled Rites of Ancient Ripening, which was illustrated by her daughter. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, she taught writing classes in her mothers home on Dupont Avenue near Douglas Avenue in Minneapolis and she was something of a magnet for aspiring writers, drawing students from as far as New York City. She lived in the Twin Cities for some time, during the 1960s, she traveled around the country, attending campus protests and conducting interviews. In the 1970s, she spent much time living among the Navajo people in Arizona, returning to Minnesota in the summers to visit her extended family. Late in her life, she lived with family in Minnesota, the short 1932 piece Women on the Breadlines is one of Le Sueurs most recognized proleterian works.
Here, LeSueur wrote of the struggles that women faced during the Depression Era, while most of the characters presented in this work are struggling women searching for work, some are depicted as having nowhere to go but to work in the streets. Through this and other works, Le Sueur opened the door for female artists that wanted to write confrontational poetry, mediating the personal. She is commemorated in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the Meridel Le Sueur building in the Cedar-Riverside neighborhood, the 1999 song Go on the album Come On Now Social, by the Indigo Girls has a spoken passage inspired by Le Seurs I Was Marching. A play based on LeSueurs life, Hard Times Come Again No More, written by her friend, baby 1984 I Hear Men Talking and Other Stories ISBN97809311223781984 Word is movement, journal notes, Tulsa, Wounded Knee. Meridel Le Sueur is interviewed by Allan Francovich,1987 Sparrow Hawk, childrens book ISBN97809301002231991 The dread road
Troy, New York
Troy is a city in the U. S. State of New York and the seat of Rensselaer County. The city is located on the edge of Rensselaer County. Troy has close ties to the cities of Albany and Schenectady. The city is one of the three centers for the Albany Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a population of 1,170,483. At the 2010 census, the population of Troy was 50,129, troja est, which means Ilium was, Troy is. Before European arrival, the area was settled by the Mahican Indian tribe, the Dutch began settling in the mid 17th century, the patroon Kiliaen van Rensselaer called the area Pafraets Dael, after his mother. Control of New York passed to the English in 1664 and in 1707 Derick Van der Heyden purchased a farm near todays downtown area, in 1771, Abraham Lansing had his farm in todays Lansingburgh laid out into lots. Responding to Lansings success to the north, in 1787, Van der Heydens grandson Jacob had his extensive holdings surveyed and laid out into lots as well, in 1789, Troy got its current name after a vote of the people.
In 1791, Troy was incorporated as a town and extended east across the county to the Vermont line, in 1796, Troy became a village and in 1816 it became a city. Lansingburgh, to the north, became part of Troy in 1900, prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Mohican Indians had a number of settlements along the Hudson River near the confluence with the Mohawk River. The land comprising the Poesten Kill and Wynants Kill areas were owned by two Mohican groups, the land around the Poesten Kill was owned by Skiwias and was called Panhooseck. The area around the Wynants Kill, was known as Paanpack, was owned by Peyhaunet, the land between the creeks, which makes up most of downtown and South Troy, was owned by Annape. South of the Wynants Kill and into present-day North Greenbush, the land was owned by Pachquolapiet and these parcels of land were sold to the Dutch between 1630 and 1657 and each purchase was overseen and signed by Skiwias, the sachem at the time. In total, more than 75 individual Mohicans were involved in deed signings in the 17th century, the site of the city was a part of Rensselaerswyck, a patroonship created by Kiliaen van Rensselaer.
Dirck Van der Heyden was one of the first settlers, in 1707, he purchased a farm of 65 acres which in 1787 was laid out as a village. One skeleton was female and Caucasian with an iron ring, the other was Native-American and male. The name Troy was adopted in 1789 before which it had known as Ashleys Ferry. The township included Brunswick and Grafton, Troy became a village in 1801 and was chartered as a city in 1816