Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was Queen of the United Kingdom and the Dominions from her husband's accession in 1936 until his death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, she was the last Empress of India. Born into a family of British nobility, she came to prominence in 1923 when she married the Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary; the couple and their daughters embodied traditional ideas of public service. She undertook a variety of public engagements and became known for her cheerful countenance. In 1936, her husband unexpectedly became king when his older brother, Edward VIII, abdicated in order to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson. Elizabeth became queen, she accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of the Second World War.
During the war, her indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. After the war, her husband's health deteriorated and she was widowed at the age of 51, her elder daughter, aged 25, became the new queen. From the death of Queen Mary in 1953, Elizabeth was viewed as the matriarch of the British royal family. In her years, she was a popular member of the family when other members were suffering from low levels of public approval, she continued an active public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101 years, 238 days, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter, Princess Margaret. Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, his wife, Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck, her mother was descended from British Prime Minister William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Governor-General of India Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, the elder brother of another Prime Minister, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.
The location of her birth remains uncertain, but reputedly she was born either in her parents' Westminster home at Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, or in a horse-drawn ambulance on the way to a hospital. Other possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, the home of her maternal grandmother, Louisa Scott, her birth was registered at Hitchin, near the Strathmores' English country house, St Paul's Walden Bury, given as her birthplace in the census the following year. She was christened there on 23 September 1900, in the local parish church, All Saints, her godparents included her paternal aunt Lady Maud Bowes-Lyon and cousin Venetia James, she spent much of her childhood at St Paul's Walden and at Glamis Castle, the Earl's ancestral home in Scotland. She was educated at home by a governess until the age of eight, was fond of field sports and dogs; when she started school in London, she astonished her teachers by precociously beginning an essay with two Greek words from Xenophon's Anabasis.
Her best subjects were scripture. After returning to private education under a German Jewish governess, Käthe Kübler, she passed the Oxford Local Examination with distinction at age thirteen. On her fourteenth birthday, Britain declared war on Germany. Four of her brothers served in the army, her elder brother, Fergus, an officer in the Black Watch Regiment, was killed in action at the Battle of Loos in 1915. Another brother, was reported missing in action on 28 April 1917. Three weeks the family discovered he had been captured after being wounded, he remained in a prisoner of war camp for the rest of the war. Glamis was turned into a convalescent home for wounded soldiers, she was instrumental in organising the rescue of the castle's contents during a serious fire on 16 September 1916. One of the soldiers she treated wrote in her autograph book that she was to be "Hung, drawn, & quartered... Hung in diamonds, drawn in a coach and four, quartered in the best house in the land." Prince Albert, Duke of York—"Bertie" to the family—was the second son of King George V.
He proposed to Elizabeth in 1921, but she turned him down, being "afraid never, never again to be free to think and act as I feel I ought to". When he declared he would marry no other, his mother, Queen Mary, visited Glamis to see for herself the girl who had stolen her son's heart, she became convinced that Elizabeth was "the one girl who could make Bertie happy", but refused to interfere. At the same time, Elizabeth was courted by James Stuart, Albert's equerry, until he left the Prince's service for a better-paid job in the American oil business. In February 1922, Elizabeth was a bridesmaid at the wedding of Albert's sister, Princess Mary, to Viscount Lascelles; the following month, Albert proposed again. In January 1923, Elizabeth agreed to marry Albert, despite her misgivings about royal life. Albert's freedom in choosing Elizabeth, not a member of a royal family, though the daughter of a peer, was considered a gesture in favour of political modernisation, they selected a platinum engagement ring featuring a Kashmir sapphire with two diamonds adorning its sides.
They married on 26 April 1923, at Westminster Abbey. Unexpectedly, Elizabeth laid her bouquet at the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior on her way into the Abbey, in memory of her brother Fergus. Elizabeth became styled Her Royal Highness The Duchess of York. Following a
Trailfinders is a travel company in the United Kingdom and Ireland. It is the largest independently owned travel company in the United Kingdom, has 31 travel centres in the UK and three in Ireland; the company "specialises in tailormade travel worldwide" including Australia, New Zealand, North & South America, Asia & Africa. Trailfinders was founded by former SAS-officer Mike Gooley in October 1970 in an office of four staff based in a top-floor ‘garret’ on Earls Court Road in London; the business specialised in overland trips "I went to Thomas Cook and asked about overland trips to Kathmandu," Mike Gooley recalls. "They said'we don't do that - we're a travel agency'. In 1972 Trailfinders became the UK's first flight consolidator and advertised discounted air tickets in the national press. In 1979 the company became the first travel organiser to be IATA-licensed and to be granted an ATOL licence by the Civil Aviation Authority. In 1990 the company pioneered the concept of tailormade travel. Today Trailfinders is the largest independently owned travel company in the United Kingdom and employs over 1000 staff.
It has made travel arrangements for over 15 million clients and has 31 travel centres in the UK and three in Ireland. Trailfinders posted record breaking results in 2018 with turnover up 10.7%. Founder Mike Gooley decided not to take a dividend donating £10m to charity. Trailfinders has won many national awards voted for by travelling public. Recent awards include: The Times, The Sunday Times & The Sunday Times Travel Magazine Travel Awards - UK's Best Tour Operator 2018Food & Travel Magazine Awards 2018, 2017 - Tour Operator of the yearNational Geographic Traveller 2017 - Travel ExpertsThe Guardian - Most Trusted 2016 and Best Package Holiday Operator 2016The Telegraph Travel Awards - Best Tour Operator 2014, 2012, 2011, 2008, 2007, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001Which? Awards - Best Travel Company 2015 Which? Consumer Travel Survey - Best Holiday Company 2014, 2013 CLIA UK & Ireland Cruise Excellence Awards - High Street Travel Agent of the year 2015, 2014 Trailfinders was founded and is still owned by Mike Gooley, the Executive Chairman.
Gooley was named Entrepreneur of the Year in the Consumer Services category at the inaugural EY National Entrepreneur of the Year awards in December 1999. In 2006 he was appointed a CBE for his services to charity. In 2007 he was awarded the prestigious'Chairmans Award for Most Important Contribution to Australian Tourism by an Individual' by Tourism Australia. In 2018 The Sunday Times Rich List named him as the UK's 21st most generous giver to charity. Homepage
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a lieutenancy area, having been part of the Yorkshire lieutenancy previously; the three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions. An administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the administrative county and the Lieutenancy of the North Riding of Yorkshire were abolished, being succeeded in most of the riding by the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire; the highest point in the North Riding is Mickle Fell at 2,585 ft. During the English Civil War, the North Riding predominantly supported the royalist cause, while other areas of Yorkshire tended to support the parliamentarians; the County of York, North Riding administrative county was formed in 1889. In 1894 it was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts under the Local Government Act 1894.
Middlesbrough had been incorporated as a municipal borough in 1853 and formed a county borough, exempt from county council control, from 1889. Richmond and Scarborough had been incorporated as municipal boroughs in 1835, with Thornaby-on-Tees added in 1892; the urban districts in 1894 were Eston, Hinderwell, Kirklington cum Upsland, Malton, Northallerton, Redcar and Marske by the Sea, Scalby and Brotton and Whitby. In 1922 Redcar was incorporated as a borough; the rural districts in 1894 were Aysgarth, Croft, Flaxton, Helmsley, Kirkby Moorside, Malton, Middlesbrough, Pickering, Richmond, Startforth, Thirsk and Whitby. County Review Orders reduced the number of urban and rural districts in the county: Hinderwell urban district was absorbed by Whitby rural district in 1932 A new Saltburn and Marske by the Sea urban district was formed from Saltburn by the Sea urban district and part of Guisborough rural district; the remainder of Guisborough RD passed to Loftus urban district and Whitby rural district in 1932 Kirklington cum Upsland urban district was absorbed by Bedale rural district in 1934 Masham urban district was redesignated as Masham rural district in 1934In 1968 a new county borough of Teesside was created, taking in Middlesbrough and parts of the administrative counties of Durham and North Riding.
From the North Riding came the boroughs of Redcar and Thornaby-on-Tees, the urban district of Eston, part of Stokesley rural district. The entirety of Teesside, including the parts north of the River Tees in Durham, was associated with the North Riding for lieutenancy and other purposes. In 1974 the North Riding was abolished as both a Lieutenancy; the majority of its former area became part of the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire, which includes much of the northern rural part of the West Riding as well as the city of York and the northern and western fringes of the traditional East Riding. Middlesbrough and Redcar became part of Cleveland and are now in independent unitary authorities which became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes; the Startforth Rural District was transferred to County Durham, becoming part of the Teesdale district, subsequently abolished in 2009. The North Riding is now represented in the districts of Hambleton, Ryedale, Scarborough and Redcar and Cleveland, parts in Harrogate district, Stockton-on-Tees and County Durham.
The principal towns are Middlesbrough, Whitby and Northallerton. On three occasions a re-use of the name of the North Riding for local government purposes has been considered. During the 1990s UK local government reform, the Banham Commission suggested uniting Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough districts in a new unitary authority called North Riding of Yorkshire; the government proposed renaming the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire the North Riding of Yorkshire. This was deemed inappropriate and rejected, after a "chorus of disapprobation". During a further local government review in the 2000s as part of the preparations for the regional assembly referendums, a unitary authority with the name North Riding of Yorkshire, consisting of Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough was again suggested. However, the Commission withdrew this in favour or two unitary authorities, one for Hambleton and Richmondshire, the other for Ryedale and Scarborough. Unlike most counties in England, which were divided anciently into hundreds, Yorkshire was divided first into three ridings and into numerous wapentakes within each riding.
Within the North Riding of Yorkshire there were thirteen wapentakes in total, as follows: List of Lord Lieutenants of the North Riding List of High Sheriffs of North Yorkshire Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire - List of Keepers of the Rolls Map of the North Riding of Yorkshire on Wikishire Information on the North Riding of Yorkshire on I'm From Yorkshire
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo
ITV Evening News
The ITV Evening News is the evening news bulletin on the British television network ITV. It is produced by ITN; the Monday to Friday 30-minute programme and Saturday & Sunday 15-minute programme, presented by Mary Nightingale, covers British national and international news stories. On 22 September 1955 when the ITV television service was launched, ITN provided an early evening news service at 5:50pm, it was known as ITN News, presented by Gordon Honeycombe. This simple bulletin made use of a single camera, was intended as a round-up of the day's headlines and looking at stories to be covered in more length by that evening's edition of News at Ten. On 6 September 1976, ITN News moved to 5:45pm and was renamed News at 545; the 545 marked a major departure in presentational style from the ITN News. The bulletins were broadcast from the Police Five studio, which enabled the producers to make extensive use of chromakey to display images behind the newscaster, several studio cameras, interviews with correspondents in the studio and on a TV monitor, wide screen shots of the studio set at the beginning and end of the programme, when handing over to correspondents.
Alastair Burnet was the original presenter of the News at 545. Michael Nicholson fronted the bulletin on Fridays, was a relief presenter. After the animated visual'roll' and electronic theme music at the beginning, an announcer intoned in a hushed tone: "The news at 5:45, with Alastair Burnett/Michael Nicholson". Other relief presenters in the late 1970s included Leonard Parkin, who at the time regularly hosted the News at One, Martyn Lewis. In March 1980, when Burnet departed the 545 to present News at Ten, Nicholson replaced him as lead presenter, with Carol Barnes taking over as relief presenter. In September 1986, Nicholson left the 545 to return to war reporting, was replaced by Alastair Stewart. On 4 April 1988 the News at 545 underwent some cosmetic changes, with the animated visual'roll' logo and electronic theme music being dropped in favour of a new computer-generated opening sequence and a more contemporary theme tune; the programme was moved to the main newsroom within the ITN headquarters building, full-length reports were now featured as part of the programme.
ITN dispensed with the "main" presenter and relief host format, instead a "team" of newscasters - Alastair Stewart, Fiona Armstrong, Nicholas Owen, Trevor McDonald, Sue Carpenter and Carol Barnes - began presenting the show on a "rotation" basis. On 13 February 1989, the introduction of a national weather forecast at the end of the programme led to the bulletin's timeslot starting earlier at 5:40pm, being extended in length and the title being changed to News at 540. Due to the Gulf Crisis of 1991, ITN were temporarily granted a full half-hour slot each evening. On 2 March 1992, ITN News at 540 was renamed ITN Early Evening News; the new look made good use of ITN's impressive headquarters in London with opening sequence consisting of a camera panning across the building towards the newsdesk giving a panoramic view of the newsroom. John Suchet became the lead presenter, a role in which he continued until 1999. Barnes and Owen acted as relief presenters. On 6 March 1995 all of ITN's news programmes on ITV were relaunched with a more unified look, with exception to News at Ten which maintained its separate identity.
The new look, brought elements of News at Ten to ITN's other bulletins such as the use of the clockface of Big Ben and the News at Ten theme-tune, however the tune was rearranged differently. The studio at the time made heavy use of the colour blue - ITN's corporate colour at the time; the intro showed different images of Big Ben's clockface with the hands of the clock striking the time at 5:40 - the time at which the programme began. Around this time, Dermot Murnaghan became the main relief presenter; the ITV Evening News was launched on the 8 March 1999. The launch coincided with major changes to the scheduling of news programmes on ITV. ITN's Early Evening News programme was renamed the ITV Evening News; the programme was extended to become a 30-minute programme replacing News at Ten as the channel's flagship news programme which itself was axed at this time and replaced with a shorter 20 minute bulletin at 11:00pm entitled the ITV Nightly News. The programme was fronted by Trevor McDonald, with Murnaghan and Kirsty Young the most regular relief presenters.
The axing of News at Ten proved unpopular at the time and caused outcry from politicians and the general public, ratings for ITV's news programmes fell. ITV News at Ten returned on 22 January 2001, with McDonald once again at the helm. Mary Nightingale replaced Young a few months when Young decided not to return following maternity leave. Mark Austin replaced Murnaghan following his defection to BBC News in late 2002; the programme relaunched on 2 February 2004 in what was a state of the art virtual studio set dubbed the Theatre of News along with the other ITV News programmes. The move saw the ITN newscasters standing in front of a news-wall and presenting graphics to viewers; the Theatre of News was scaled back following a relaunch on 9 February 2009, with a return to a more traditional style of presenters sat behind a desk. On 3 August 2009, it was announced that after 16 years co-presenting London Tonight, Alastair Stewart was to leave the regional news programme to become lead co-prese
Exeter is a cathedral city in Devon, with a population of 129,800. The city is located on the River Exe 36 miles northeast of Plymouth and 65 miles southwest of Bristol, it is the county town of Devon, the base of Devon County Council. Situated in Exeter, are two campuses of the University of Exeter, Streatham Campus and St Luke's Campus. In Roman Britain, Exeter was established as the base of Legio II Augusta under the personal command of Vespasian. Exeter became a religious centre during the Middle Ages and into the Tudor times: Exeter Cathedral, founded in the mid 11th century, became Anglican during the 16th-century English Reformation. During the late 19th century, Exeter became an affluent centre for the wool trade, although by the First World War the city was in decline. After the Second World War, much of the city centre was rebuilt and is now considered to be a centre for modern business and tourism in Devon and Cornwall; the administrative area of Exeter has the status of a non-metropolitan district under the administration of the County Council.
The modern name of Exeter is a development of the Old English Escanceaster, from the anglicised form of the river now known as the Exe and the Old English suffix -ceaster, used to mark important fortresses or fortified towns. The name "Exe" is a separate development of the Brittonic name—meaning "water" or, more "full of fish" —that appears in the English Axe and Esk and the Welsh Usk. Exeter began as settlements on a dry ridge ending in a spur overlooking a navigable river teeming with fish, with fertile land nearby. Although there have been no major prehistoric finds, these advantages suggest the site was occupied early. Coins have been discovered from the Hellenistic kingdoms, suggesting the existence of a settlement trading with the Mediterranean as early as 250 BC; such early towns had been a feature of pre-Roman Gaul as described by Julius Caesar in his Commentaries and it is possible that they existed in Britannia as well. The Romans established a 42-acre'playing-card' shaped fort named Isca around AD 55.
The fort was the southwest terminus of the Fosse Way and served as the base of the 5 000-man Second Augustan Legion led by Vespasian Roman Emperor, for the next 20 years before they moved to Caerleon in Wales, known as Isca. To distinguish the two, the Romans referred to Exeter as Isca Dumnoniorum, "Watertown of the Dumnonii", Caerleon as Isca Augusta. A small fort was maintained at Topsham; the presence of the fort built up an unplanned civilian community of natives and the soldiers' families to the northeast of the fort. This settlement served as the tribal capital of the Dumnonii and was listed as one of their four cities by Ptolemy in his Geography; when the fortress was abandoned around the year 75, its grounds were converted to civilian purposes: its large bathhouse was demolished to make way for a forum and a basilica, a smaller-scale bath was erected to the southeast. This area was excavated in the 1970s, but could not be maintained for public view owing to its proximity to the present-day cathedral.
In January 2015, it was announced that Exeter Cathedral had launched a bid to restore the baths and open an underground centre for visitors. In the late 2nd century, the ditch and rampart defences around the old fortress were replaced by a bank and wall enclosing a much larger area, some 92 acres. Although most of the visible structure is older, the course of the Roman wall was used for Exeter's subsequent city walls, thus about 70% of the Roman wall remains, most of its route can be traced on foot. The Devonian Isca seems to have been most prosperous in the first half of the 4th century: more than a thousand Roman coins have been found around the city and there is evidence for copper and bronze working, a stock-yard, markets for the livestock and pottery produced in the surrounding countryside; the dating of the coins so far discovered, suggests a rapid decline: none have been discovered dated after the year 380. Bishop Ussher identified the Cair Pensa vel Coyt listed among the 28 cities of Britain by the History of the Britons as Isca, although David Nash Ford read it as a reference to Penselwood and thought it more to be Lindinis.
Nothing is known of Exeter from the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain around the year 410 until the seventh century. By that time, the city was held by the Saxons, who had arrived in Exeter after defeating the British Dumnonians at Peonnum in Somerset in 658, it seems that the Saxons maintained a quarter of the city for the Britons under their own laws around present-day Bartholomew Street, known as "Britayne" Street until 1637 in memory of its former occupants. Exeter was known to the Saxons as Escanceaster. In 876, it was attacked and captured by Danish Vikings. Alfred the Great drove them out the next summer. Over the next few years, he elevated Exeter to one of the four burhs in Devon, rebuilding its walls on the Roman lines; these permitted the city to fend off another attack and siege by the Danes in 893. Ki