Gladys Louise Smith, known professionally as Mary Pickford, was a Canadian-born American film actress and producer. With a career spanning 50 years, she was a co-founder of both the Pickford–Fairbanks Studio and the United Artists film studio, one of the original 36 founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences who present the yearly "Oscar" award ceremony. Pickford was known in her prime as "America's Sweetheart" and the "girl with the curls", she was one of the Canadian pioneers in early Hollywood and a significant figure in the development of film acting. Pickford was one of the earliest stars to be billed under her own name, was one of the most popular actresses of the 1910s and 1920s, earning the nickname "Queen of the Movies", she is credited as having defined the ingénue archetype in cinema. She was awarded the second Academy Award for Best Actress for her first sound-film role in Coquette and received an honorary Academy Award in 1976. In consideration of her contributions to American cinema, the American Film Institute ranked Pickford as 24th in its 1999 list of greatest female stars of classic Hollywood Cinema.
Mary Pickford was born Gladys Louise Smith in 1892 at 211 University Avenue, Ontario. Her father, John Charles Smith, was the son of English Methodist immigrants, worked a variety of odd jobs, her mother, Charlotte Hennessey, was of Irish Catholic descent and worked for a time as a seamstress. She had two younger siblings, called "Lottie", John Charles, called "Jack", who became actors. To please her husband's relatives, Pickford's mother baptized her children as Methodists, the religion of their father. John Charles Smith was an alcoholic; when Gladys was age four, her household was under a public health measure. Their devoutly Catholic maternal grandmother asked a visiting Roman Catholic priest to baptize the children. Pickford was at this time baptized as Gladys Marie Smith. After being widowed in 1899, Charlotte Smith began taking in boarders, one of whom was a Mr. Murphy, the theatrical stage manager for Cummings Stock Company, who soon suggested that Gladys age seven, Lotti age six, be given two small theatrical roles – Gladys portrayed a girl and a boy, while Lottie was cast in a silent part in the company's production of The Silver King at Toronto's Princess Theatre, while their mother played the organ.
Pickford subsequently acted in many melodramas with Toronto's Valentine Stock Company playing the major child role in its version of The Silver King. She capped her short career in Toronto with the starring role of Little Eva in the Valentine production of Uncle Tom's Cabin, adapted from the 1852 novel. By the early 1900s, theatre had become a family enterprise. Gladys, her mother and two younger siblings toured the United States by rail, performing in third-rate companies and plays. After six impoverished years, Pickford allowed one more summer to land a leading role on Broadway, planning to quit acting if she failed. In 1906 Gladys and Jack Smith supported singer Chauncey Olcott on Broadway in Edmund Burke. Gladys landed a supporting role in a 1907 Broadway play, The Warrens of Virginia; the play was written by William C. deMille, whose brother, appeared in the cast. David Belasco, the producer of the play, insisted that Gladys Smith assume the stage name Mary Pickford. After completing the Broadway run and touring the play, Pickford was again out of work.
On April 19, 1909, the Biograph Company director D. W. Griffith screen-tested her at the company's New York studio for a role in the nickelodeon film Pippa Passes; the role went to someone else but Griffith was taken with Pickford. She grasped that movie acting was simpler than the stylized stage acting of the day. Most Biograph actors earned $5 a day but, after Pickford's single day in the studio, Griffith agreed to pay her $10 a day against a guarantee of $40 a week. Pickford, like all actors at Biograph, played both bit parts and leading roles, including mothers, charwomen, slaves, Native Americans, spurned women, a prostitute; as Pickford said of her success at Biograph:I played scrubwomen and secretaries and women of all nationalities... I decided that if I could get into as many pictures as possible, I'd become known, there would be a demand for my work, she appeared in 51 films in 1909 – one a week. While at Biograph, she suggested to Florence La Badie to "try pictures", invited her to the studio and introduced her to D. W. Griffith, who launched La Badie's career.
In January 1910, Pickford traveled with a Biograph crew to Los Angeles. Many other film companies wintered on the West Coast, escaping the weak light and short days that hampered winter shooting in the East. Pickford added to her 1909 Biographs with films made in California. Actors were not listed in the credits in Griffith's company. Audiences identified Pickford within weeks of her first film appearance. Exhibitors, in turn, capitalized on her popularity by advertising on sandwich boards that a film featuring "The Girl with the Golden Curls", "Blondilocks", or "The Biograph Girl" was inside. Pickford left Biograph in December 1910; the following year, she starred in films at Carl Laemmle's Independent Moving
"Joue pas" is a 1989 song recorded by French artist François Feldman, in duet with the American singer Joniece Jamison. It was released as a single from Feldman's album Une Présence in 15 July 1989, was his fifth single overall; the song achieved great success, becoming a popular song throughout the years. Written and composed by François Feldman and Thierry Durbet, "Joue pas" has funky sonorities and starts with a brief guitar riff, it was "very well received by the public". It was the singer's first duet in his career, he recorded other two ones with Joniece Jamison: "J'ai peur" in 1991 and "Love platonique" in 1996. In France, the single debuted at #47 on July 15, 1989, climbed and entered the top ten in its fourth week, it hit number 2 for five non consecutive weeks, but was unable to dislodge Kaoma's smash hit "Lambada" which topped the chart then. Thereafter, it totaled 14 weeks in the top ten and 22 weeks on the chart. "Joue pas" is the 640th best-selling single of all time in France. The song was included on many French compilations released in the 1990s and the 2000s, such as Les années tubes spécial 80, Tubes d'un jour tubes de toujours spécial années 80, Nostalgie Classiques 80 and La Discothèque du XXè siècle - 1989.
It features on Feldman's compilations Two Feldman and Gold. The song was covered in 2000 by Karen Mulder, Roch Voisine and Ophélie Winter on Les Enfoirés' album Les Enfoirés en 2000; this 3:46 version is the 11th track. It was covered in 2002 by Houcine and Anne-Laure Sibon, two contestants of Star Academy 2, on the album Fait sa boum. In 2008, French DJ Soma Riba, who covered many 1980s songs, made his own version of the song and, as for the original one, recorded it as a duet with Joniece Jamison. 7" single"Joue pas" — 4:02 "Joue pas" — 4:0012" maxi"Joue pas" — 6:45 "Joue pas" — 6:10
A sky marshal is a covert law enforcement or counter-terrorist agent on board a commercial aircraft to counter aircraft hijackings. Sky marshals may be provided by airlines such as El Al, or by government agencies such as the Austrian Einsatzkommando Cobra, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, German Federal Police, National Security Guard in India, Metropolitan Police SO18, Pakistan Airports Security Force or US Federal Air Marshal Service; the history of in-flight security began in March 1962 when the US Federal Aviation Administration directed a program to combat airplane hijackings. In that same year alone, there were numerous airplane hijackings in the USA that were planned with the ultimate aim to fly to Cuba. In response, the Federal Aviation Administration created the title of FAA Peace Officer. FAA Peace Officers were the first people to provide armed security onboard commercial aircraft; the original 18 In-Flight Security Officers known worldwide as IFSOs, were the predecessor to all current in-flight security programs that exist today.
In response to the September 11, 2001, the Commonwealth instituted an Air Security Officer Program under the Australian Federal Police in December 2001. These officers are referred to in the media as Sky Marshals; the ASO Programme provides a discreet anti-hijacking capability for Australian civil aviation by providing armed security personnel on board aircraft. This involves both random and intelligence-led placement of armed ASOs on flights operated by Australian registered air carriers, on both domestic and international flights. Officers are armed and trained and equipped for a variety of situations on both domestic and international flights. In Austria, armed air marshals are provided since 1981 by the Einsatzkommando Cobra; the Canadian Air Carrier Protection/Protective Program began on September 17, 2002 when a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the Royal Canadian Mounted Police with Transport Canada, the authority responsible for Canadian aviation security, the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority, for the implementation and administration of the CACPP.
The program is conducted by specially trained undercover, armed RCMP officers on selected domestic and international flights and all flights to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport. Pilots and flight attendants are advised of their presence and the officer will physically intervene should an unauthorized person attempt to gain control of an aircraft. APOs, will not be involved in controlling unruly passengers. While they are peace officers within Canadian territories, they rely on section 6 of the Tokyo Convention as a legal basis for intervening an incident outside of Canadian airspace. By law, such officers are exempt from acquiring a permit for importing or exporting their duty firearms when crossing the border. However, the exact nature of their weaponry is not released to the public except they are "deadly and effective and should not damage the aircraft." The Canadian Forces Military Police members of the Canadian Forces Air Marshal Detail, are responsible for providing security to Canadian Forces aircraft and passengers – passengers who may include the governor general, the prime minister and members of the royal family.
Months after the September 11 attacks, private operators like Air Sahara introduced sky marshals in some of their flights and had plans to increase it. Indian Airlines had started this in December 1999 after the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight 814. In 2003, Air India had an agreement with a US directive to have air marshals on all of its US-bound flights, they are recruited from India's elite commando force National Security Guard. Ireland does not have a dedicated sky marshal agency, although there is a National Civil Aviation Security Committee. Limited capabilities are provided by the Garda Síochána Emergency Response Unit, the national police armed tactical unit, backup may be provided by the counter-terrorism Garda Special Detective Unit and the Army Ranger Wing special forces unit in certain situations; the Irish government allows armed flight marshals from the United Kingdom, United States, Israel and specific European Union countries onboard international flights landing from or destined for those countries in Irish airspace, once they are informed of their presence beforehand.
Weapons carried by an air marshal in Ireland include a concealed handgun, taser and pepper spray. In Pakistan, armed sky marshals are deployed on all flights. Sky marshals are provided by Airports Security Force; the ASF was established in 1976 under the Airports Security Force Act LXXVII of 1975 as the Directorate within the Department of Civil Aviation. After the hijacking of a Pakistan International Airlines aircraft in March 1981, sensing the contradictory requirements of security and facilitation, the Airports Security Force was separated, in December 1983, was placed under the folds of the Ministry of Defence. Singapore Airlines and Silkair deploy sky marshals in their flights; such members are armed with firearms loaded with dart-firing stun gun. Members are from either the Air Marshal Unit, the Security Command or the Special Tactics and Rescue of the Singapore Police Force. Members have undergone extensive training to enable them to operate within the confines of an aircraft. An Armed Sky Marshal Program was begun in the United Kingdom in 2003 - in response to growing threats to Civilian Passenger Aircraft.