Fashion design is the art of applying design and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces; because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes. Designers interpret them for their audience, their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes, they consider, to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they work within a wide range of materials, colors and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses; some clothes are made for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.
Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion house, as'in-house designers', which owns the designs, or they work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers; the garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels; some fashion designers design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to high-end fashion department stores; these designers create original garments, as well as those. Most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, children's fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director. Fashion designers work in different ways.
Some sketch their ideas on paper. When a designer is satisfied with the fit of the toile, he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. A sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth, the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by anonymous seamstresses, high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done; the term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy; the garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis, with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, is made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity. Ready-to-wear, or prêt-à-porter, clothes are a cross between haute mass market, they are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week; this occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include: spring/summer, fall/winter, resort and bridal. Half-way garments are an alternative to "off-the-peg", or prêt-à-porter fashion. Half-way garments are intentionally unfinished pieces of clothing that encourages co-design between the "primary designer" of the garment, what would be considered, the passive "cons
The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation and its successors from 1959 until 2000. The original is considered an icon of 1960s British popular culture, its space-saving transverse engine, front-wheel drive layout – allowing 80% of the area of the car's floorpan to be used for passengers and luggage – influenced a generation of car makers. In 1999, the Mini was voted the second-most influential car of the 20th century, behind the Ford Model T, ahead of the Citroën DS and Volkswagen Beetle; this distinctive two-door car was designed for BMC by Sir Alec Issigonis. It was manufactured at the Longbridge and Cowley plants in England, the Victoria Park/Zetland British Motor Corporation factory in Sydney and also in Spain, Chile, Malta, South Africa, Uruguay and Yugoslavia; the Mini Mark I had three major UK updates – the Mark II, the Clubman, the Mark III. Within these was a series of variations, including an estate car, a pick-up truck, a van, the Mini Moke, a jeep-like buggy.
The performance versions, the Mini Cooper and Cooper "S", were successful as both race and rally cars, winning the Monte Carlo Rally in 1964, 1965, 1967. In 1966, the first-placed Mini was disqualified after the finish, under a controversial decision that the car's headlights were against the rules. On its introduction in August 1959, the Mini was marketed under the Austin and Morris names, as the Austin Seven and Morris Mini-Minor; the Austin Seven was renamed Austin Mini in January 1962 and Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969. In 1980, it once again became the Austin Mini, in 1988, just "Mini". BMW acquired the Rover Group in 1994, sold the greater part of it in 2000, but retained the rights to build cars using the MINI name; the Mini came about because of a fuel shortage caused by the 1956 Suez Crisis. Petrol was once again rationed in the UK, sales of large cars slumped, the market for German bubble cars boomed in countries such as Britain, where imported cars were still a rarity.
The Fiat 500, launched in 1957, was hugely successful in its native Italy. Leonard Lord, the somewhat autocratic head of BMC detested these cars so much that he vowed to rid the streets of them and design a'proper miniature car', he laid down some basic design requirements - the car should be contained within a box that measured 10×4×4 feet. Alec Issigonis, working for Alvis, had been recruited back to BMC in 1955 with a brief from Lord to design a range of technically advanced family cars in the same innovative spirit as his earlier Morris Minor to complement BMC's existing conventional models. Issigonis had set out design projects for three cars – large and small family cars and a small economy car, his initial work was on the largest car, designated XC9001, with the smallest car, XC9003, having the lowest priority despite it being Issigonis' greatest personal interest. With Lord's dictum to produce a bubble car competitor and his revised design requirements being laid down in October 1956, work on XC9001 stopped and XC9003 became the priority.
The team that designed the Mini was remarkably small. Together, by July 1957, they had designed and built the original XC9003 prototype, affectionately named the "Orange Box" because of its colour. Leonard Lord approved the car for production on 19 July and XC9003 became project ADO15; the ADO15 used a conventional BMC A-Series four-cylinder, water-cooled engine, but departed from tradition by mounting it transversely, with the engine oil-lubricated, four-speed transmission in the sump, by employing front-wheel drive. All small front-wheel drive cars developed since have used a similar configuration, except with the transmission separately enclosed rather than using the engine oil; the radiator was mounted at the left side of the car so that the engine-mounted fan could be retained, but with reversed pitch so that it blew air into the natural low pressure area under the front wing. This location saved vehicle length, but had the disadvantage of feeding the radiator with air, heated by passing over the engine.
It exposed the entire ignition system to the direct ingress of rainwater through the grille. Early prototypes used the existing 948-cc A-Series unit, but this provided the ADO15 with performance far greater than its price and purpose required – a top speed over 90 mph; the engine was reduced to a new 848-cc capacity with a shorter stroke. This reduced power from 37 to 33 bhp and caused a significant drop in torque, so provided more realistic performance when the ADO15 body was widened by 2 inches over the XC9003 prototype, which blunted the car's top speed while improving its stability and roadholding. So, the ADO15 had a top speed of 75 mph, better than many other economy cars of the time; the suspension system, designed by Issigonis's friend Dr. Alex Moulton at Moulton Developments Limited, used compact rubber cones instead of conventional springs; this space-saving design featured rising progressive-rate springing of the cones, provided some natural damping, in addition to the normal dampers.
Built into the subframes, the rubber cone system gave a raw and bumpy ride accen
1960s in Western fashion
The 1960s in fashion featured a number of diverse trends. It was a decade. Around the middle of the decade, fashions arising from small pockets of young people in a few urban centres received large amounts of media publicity, began to influence both the haute couture of elite designers and the mass-market manufacturers. Examples include the mini skirt, culottes, go-go boots, more experimental fashions, less seen on the street, such as box-shaped PVC dresses and other PVC clothes. Mary Quant popularised the mini skirt, Jackie Kennedy introduced the pillbox hat. False eyelashes were worn by women throughout the 1960s. Hairstyles were a variety of styles. Psychedelic prints, neon colors, mismatched patterns were in style. In the late 1960s, The hippie movement exerted a strong influence on women's clothing styles, including bell-bottom jeans, tie-dye and batik fabrics, as well as paisley prints. In the early-to-mid 1960s, London "Modernists" known. Designers were producing clothing more suitable for young adults, which led to an increase in interest and sales.
American fashions in the early years of the decade reflected the elegance of the First Lady, Jacqueline Kennedy. In addition to tailored skirts, women wore stiletto heel shoes and suits with short boxy jackets, oversized buttons. Simple, geometric dresses, known as shifts, were in style. For evening wear, full-skirted evening gowns were worn. For casual wear, capri trousers were the fashion for girls; the bikini, named after the nuclear test site on Bikini Atoll, was invented in France in 1946 but struggled to gain acceptance in the mass-market during the 1950s in America. The breakthrough came in 1963, after rather large versions featured in the surprise hit teen film Beach Party, which launched the Beach party film genre; the 1960s were an age of fashion innovation for women. The early 1960s gave birth to drainpipe jeans and capri pants. Casual dress became more unisex and consisted of plaid button down shirts worn with slim blue jeans, comfortable slacks, or skirts. Traditionally, trousers had been viewed by western society as masculine, but by the early 1960s, it had become acceptable for women to wear them everyday.
These included Levi Strauss jeans, considered blue collar wear, "stretch" drainpipe jeans with elastane. Women's trousers came in a variety of styles: narrow, below the knee, above the ankle, mid thigh. Mid-thigh cut trousers known as shorts, evolved around 1969. By adapting men's style and wearing trousers, women voiced their equality to men. Space age fashion first appeared in the late 1950s, developed further in the 1960s, it was influenced by the Space Race of the Cold War, in addition to popular science fiction paperbacks and television series such as Star Trek, Dan Dare, or Lost In Space. Designers emphasized the energy and technology advancements of the Cold War era in their work; the space age look was defined by thigh length hemlines and bold accessories. Synthetic material was popular with space age fashion designers. After the Second World War, fabrics like nylon, orlon, terylene and spandex were promoted as cheap, easy to dry, wrinkle-free; the synthetic fabrics of the 1960s allowed space age fashion designers to design garments with bold shapes and a plastic texture.
Non-cloth material, such as polyester and PVC, became popular in clothing and accessories as well. For daytime outerwear, short plastic raincoats, colourful swing coats and dyed fake-furs were popular for young women. In 1966, the Nehru jacket arrived on the fashion scene, was worn by both sexes. Suits were diverse in color but were, for the first time fitted and slim. Waistlines for women were left hemlines were getting shorter and shorter. Footwear for women included low-heeled sandals and kitten-heeled pumps, as well as the trendy white go-go boots. Shoes and handbags were made of patent leather or vinyl; the Beatles wore elastic-sided boots similar to Winkle-pickers with Cuban heels. These were known as "Beatle boots" and were copied by young men in Britain; the French designer André Courrèges was influential in the development of space age fashion. The "space look" he introduced in the spring of 1964 included trouser suits, box-shaped dresses with high skirts, go-go boots. Go-go boots became a staple of go-go girl fashion in the sixties.
The boots were defined by their fluorescent colors, shiny material, sequins. Other influential space age designers include Paco Rabanne. Italian-born Pierre Cardin was best known for his helmets, short tunics, goggles. Paco Rabanne was known for his 1966 "12 Unwearable Dresses in Contemporary Materials" collection, which made use of chain mail and plastic. Although designer Mary Quant is credited with introducing the miniskirt in 1964, André Courrèges claimed credit for inventing the miniskirt; the miniskirt changed fashion forever. The definition of a miniskirt is a skirt with a hemline, between 6 and 7 inches above the knees. Early references to the miniskirt from the Wyoming newspaper The Billings Gazette, described the miniskirt as a controversial item, produced in Mexico City. During the 1950s, The miniskirt began appearing in science fiction films like Flight to Mars and Forbidden PlanetMary Quant and Andre Courreges both contributed to the invention of miniskirt during the 1960s. Mar
Pajamas or pyjamas shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent. In the Western world, pajamas are loose-fitting garments derived from the original garment and worn chiefly for sleeping, but sometimes for lounging by both sexes. More pajamas may refer to several garments, for both daywear and nightwear, derived from traditional pajamas and involving variations of style and material; the word pyjama was borrowed c. 1800 from the Hindustani pāy-jāma, itself borrowed from Persian pāy-jāmeh پايجامه lit.'leg-garment'. The original pyjāmā are loose, lightweight trousers fitted with drawstring waistbands worn by many Indian Muslims, as well as many Sikhs and Hindus, adopted by Europeans during British East India Company rule in India; the worldwide use of pajamas is the result of adoption by British colonists in India in the 18th and 19th centuries, the British influence on the wider Western world during the Victorian era. Pajamas had been introduced to England as "lounging attire" as early as the seventeenth century known as mogul's breeches but they soon fell out of fashion.
The word pajama is recorded in English use in the first half of the nineteenth century. They did not become a fashion in Britain and the Western world as sleeping attire for men until the Victorian period, from about 1870. Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases summarizes the state of usage at the time: Such a garment is used by various persons in India e.g. by women of various classes, by Sikh men, most by Mohammedans of both sexes. It was adopted from the Mohammedans by Europeans as an article of dishabille and of night attire, is synonymous with Long Drawers and Mogul-Breeches It is probable that we English took the habit like a good many others from the Portuguese, thus Pyrard says, in speaking of Goa Hospital: "Ils ont force calsons sans quoy ne couchent iamais les Portugais des Indes" The word is now used in London shops. A friend furnishes the following reminiscence: "The late Mr. B—, tailor in Jermyn Street, some on 40 years ago, in reply to a question why pyjammas had feet sewn on to them answered: "I believe, Sir, it is because of the White Ants."
Traditional pajamas consist of a jacket-and-pants combination made of soft fabric, such as flannel or lightweight cotton. The jacket element has a placket front and its sleeves have no cuffs. Many people opt to sleep or lounge in just the pajama pants, either with a t-shirt, or, for males, barechested. For this reason, pajama pants for men and boys are sold as separates. In colloquial speech, these traditional pajamas are called PJs, jim jams, or jammies. In South Asia and South Africa, they are sometimes referred to as night suits; some pajamas feature a drop seat: a buttoned opening in the seat, designed to allow the wearer to conveniently use a toilet. Drop seats were common on pajamas made before the 1950s, but in the early twenty-first century they are rather rare. Contemporary pajamas are derived from traditional pajamas. There are many variations in style such as short sleeve pajamas, pajama bottoms of varying length, or, on occasion, one-piece pajamas, pajamas incorporating various materials.
Chiefly in the US, stretch-knit sleep apparel with rib-knit trimmings are common. Worn by children, these garments have pullover tops or have zippers down the fronts, may be footed, although some would consider this to constitute a onesie. Although pajamas are distinguished from non-bifurcated sleeping garments such as nightgowns, in the US, they have sometimes included the latter as a top. Babydoll pyjamas have a kind of short dress top over short pants. Pajamas may today refer to women's combination daywear in the US where they became popular in the early twentieth century, consisting of short-sleeved or sleeveless blouses and lightweight pants. Examples of these include capri pajamas, beach pajamas, hostess pajamas. Pajamas are loose fitting and designed for comfort, using soft materials such as cotton or silk or satin. Synthetic materials such as polyester and Lycra are available. Pajamas contain visual references to a thing that may hold some special appeal to the wearer. Images of sports, balloons, polka dots, stripes, foulards and other motifs may all be used for decoration.
Pajamas may be found in plainer designs, such as plaid or plain gray, but when worn in public, they are designed in such a way that makes their identity unambiguous. Older styles of children's pajamas have been depicted as having a square button-up flap covering the buttocks. Pajamas are worn with bare feet and sometimes without underwear, they are worn for comfort by individuals in their living quarters. Since the late 20th century, some people, in particular those in the US and to some extent Britain and Australia, Polynesians in New Zealand, have worn pajamas in public, whether for convenience or as a fashion statement. In January 2007, the gulf emirate Ras al-Khaimah introduced a strict dress code for all local government workers in order to prevent them from wearing pajamas to work. In January 2010, the Tesco supermarket in St Mellons, United Kingdom, started a ban on customers wearing pajamas. In January 2012, a local Dublin branch of the Government's Department of Social Protection advised that pajamas were not regarded as
Hotpants, hot pants, or booty shorts describe short shorts, which may be worn by women or to a lesser extent, by men. The term was first used by Women's Wear Daily in 1970 to describe shorts made in luxury fabrics such as velvet and satin for fashionable wear, rather than their more practical equivalents, worn for sports or leisure since the 1930s; the term has since become a generic term for any pair of short shorts. While hotpants were a popular element of mainstream fashion in the early 1970s, by the mid-1970s, they had become associated with the sex industry, which contributed to their fall from fashion. However, hotpants continue to be popular as clubwear well into the 2010s and are worn within the entertainment industry as part of cheerleader costumes or for dancers. Performers such as Britney Spears and Kylie Minogue have famously worn hotpants as part of their public performances and presentation. Whilst the term "hotpants" is used generically to describe short shorts, similar garments had been worn since the 1930s.
These garments, were designed for sports and leisure wear, while hotpants were innovative in that they were made from non-activewear fabrics such as velvet, crochet and leather, styled explicitly to be worn on the street, for parties, or as bridal wear. Dorothy Tricario, a fashion curator at the Brooklyn Museum told The New York Times in 1971 that hotpants were part of a greater nostalgic revival of 1930s and 1940s fashion the short posing shorts worn by Hollywood stars like Ruby Keeler, Deanna Durbin, Betty Grable. However, Tricario observed that shorts had never before had such widespread acceptance as street or business wear as they did in early 1971. According to the fashion publicist Eleanor Lambert, the term "hot pants" was coined by Women's Wear Daily in 1970 to describe fashions innovated by the French ready-to-wear company Dorothée Bis; the WWD claim to have originated the term is backed up by 1971 articles in The New York Times and the African-American magazine Jet. Jet's fashion editor, Audrey Smaltz, suggested that because hotpants were best suited to Black women, they should be called "Knockout Shorts" as that name was more "relevant to Blacks", expressing the fashionable African-American Black woman's pride in her "knockout body" as well as paying tribute to Black identity and recent struggles.
Other alternative names included "les shorts", "short cuts", "cool pants", "shortootsies", with "booty shorts" as an early 21st-century term. Today, the term hotpants can be used for casual as well as fashion-wear short-shorts made in any fabric, or worn by any gender. While hotpants were principally marketed to women, men were targeted, the term can describe short men's shorts. At the end of the 1960s, the fashion industry had tried unsuccessfully to promote the mid-calf-length or midi skirt as a fashionable replacement for the miniskirt. In contrast to the lukewarm response to the midi, shoppers enthusiastically embraced the idea of short shorts, which were made available at all price levels from haute couture to inexpensive ready-to-wear. Lambert credits Mariuccia Mandelli of the Italian fashion label Krizia with designing the first "hot pants" in 1970. Hotpants are increasingly credited to Mary Quant, who offered them in the late 1960s. Many designers from across the Western world produced their own versions of hotpants at all price levels, including Yves Saint Laurent, Valentino and Betsey Johnson.
Mass-produced versions were sold through the Sears mail-order catalogue. Hotpants were available for women and children, although they were principally worn by women. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis bought a pair for wear while yachting, while other high-profile wearers included Elizabeth Taylor, Raquel Welch, Jane Fonda. Hotpants were worn by adventurous men such as David Bowie, Sammy Davis Jr. and Liberace. Hotpants for men were longer than the women's versions, although they were still shorter than usual; the James Brown song "Hot Pants", released in August 1971, according to his trombonist Fred Wesley, inspired by the sight of women of all colours wearing hotpants in a wide range of materials in the Black and White Club, Brussels. The historian Valerie Steele noted that hotpants, both as a name, as a garment became associated with sexuality and prostitution due to their popularity with male spectators. In January 1971, a Manhattan-based male psychiatrist suggested that the popularity of hotpants lay in how they expressed a "female's new freedom", borrowing his phrasing from the women's liberation movement, but went on to suggest that the wearer of hotpants wanted to relate to other people by drawing attention through "sexually provocative" dressing as a "prelude to a genuine relationship".
By the mid-1970s short shorts had become shorthand for prostitution underage prostitution, as exemplified by the 1976 film Taxi Driver, in which Jodie Foster's child-prostitute character was dressed in a pair of hotpants. Such associations contributed to hotpants becoming unattractive as a part of a woman's everyday wardrobe, although they remained popular wear in entertainment, party-wear and some evening contexts; the controversial associations with hotpants were still an issue in 1999, when Britney Spears posed for a photoshoot in Rolling Stone wearing a pink pair. The photographs, taken by David LaChapelle, presented Spears in provocative poses, surrounded by dolls and tricycles, with the word "Baby" rhinestoned across the seat of her hotpants, led to widespread media debate and public commentary about whether it w
Mod is a subculture that began in London in 1958 and spread throughout Great Britain and elsewhere influencing fashions and trends in other countries, continues today on a smaller scale. Focused on music and fashion, the subculture has its roots in a small group of stylish London-based young men in the late 1950s who were termed modernists because they listened to modern jazz. Elements of the mod subculture include fashion; the original mod scene was associated with amphetamine-fuelled all-night dancing at clubs. During the early to mid 1960s, as mod grew and spread throughout England, certain elements of the mod scene became engaged in well-publicized clashes with members of rival subculture, rockers; the mods and rockers conflict led sociologist Stanley Cohen to use the term "moral panic" in his study about the two youth subcultures, which examined media coverage of the mod and rocker riots in the 1960s. By 1965, conflicts between mods and rockers began to subside and mods gravitated towards pop art and psychedelia.
London became synonymous with fashion and pop culture in these years, a period referred to as "Swinging London." During this time, mod fashions spread to other countries and became popular in the United States and elsewhere—with mod now viewed less as an isolated subculture, but emblematic of the larger youth culture of the era. As mod became more cosmopolitan during the "Swinging London" period, some working class "street mods" splintered off, forming other groups such as what became known as skinheads. There was a mod revival in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s, which attempted to replicate the "scooter" period look and styles of the early to mid 1960s, it was followed by a similar mod revival in North America in the early 1980s in southern California and Toronto. The term mod derives from modernist, a term used in the 1950s to describe modern jazz musicians and fans; this usage contrasted with the term trad, which described traditional jazz fans. The 1959 novel Absolute Beginners describes modernists as young modern jazz fans who dress in sharp modern Italian clothes.
The novel may be one of the earliest examples of the term being written to describe young British style-conscious modern jazz fans. This usage of the word modernist should not be confused with modernism in the context of literature, art and architecture. From the mid-to-late 1960s onwards, the mass media used the term mod in a wider sense to describe anything, believed to be popular, fashionable or modern. Paul Jobling and David Crowley argue that the definition of mod can be difficult to pin down, because throughout the subculture's original era, it was "prone to continuous reinvention." They claim that since the mod scene was so pluralist, the word mod was an umbrella term that covered several distinct sub-scenes. Terry Rawlings argues that mods are difficult to define because the subculture started out as a "mysterious semi-secret world", which the Who's manager Peter Meaden summarised as "clean living under difficult circumstances." George Melly wrote that mods were a small group of clothes-focused English working class young men insisting on clothes and shoes tailored to their style, who emerged during the modern jazz boom of the late 1950s.
Early mods read Italian magazines to look for style ideas. They held semi-skilled manual jobs or low grade white-collar positions such as a clerk, messenger or Office boy. According to Hebdige, Mods created a parody of the consumer society. According to Dick Hebdige, by around 1963, the mod subculture had accumulated the identifying symbols that came to be associated with the scene, such as scooters, amphetamine pills and R&B music. While clothes were still important at that time, they could be ready-made. Dick Hebdige wrote the term mod covered a number of styles including the emergence of Swinging London, though to him it has come to define Melly's working class clothes-conscious teenagers living in London and south England in the early to mid 1960s. Mary Anne Long argues that "first hand accounts and contemporary theorists point to the Jewish upper-working or middle-class of London’s East End and suburbs." Simon Frith asserts that the mod subculture had its roots in the 1950s beatnik coffee bar culture, which catered to art school students in the radical Bohemian scene in London.
Steve Sparks, who claims to be one of the original mods, agrees that before mod became commercialised, it was an extension of the beatnik culture: "It comes from ‘modernist’, it was to do with modern jazz and to do with Sartre" and existentialism. Sparks argues that "Mod has been much misunderstood... as this working-class, scooter-riding precursor of skinheads." Coffee bars were attractive to British youths because, in contrast to typical pubs, which closed at about 11pm, they were open until the early hours of the morning. Coffee bars had jukeboxes, which in some cases reserved space in the machines for the customers' own records. In the late 1950s, coffee bars were associated with jazz and blues, but in the early 1960s, they began playing more R&B music. Frith notes that although coffee bars were aimed at middle-class art school students, they began to facilitate an intermixing of youths from different backgrounds and classes. At these venues, which Frith calls the "first sign of the youth movement", young people would meet collectors of R&B and blues records, who introduced them to new types of African-American music, which the teens were attracted to for its rawness and authenticity.
As the mod subculture grew in London during the earl
Christian Dior was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses called Christian Dior, now owned by Groupe Arnault. His fashion houses are now all around the world. Christian Dior was born in a seaside town on the coast of Normandy, France, he was the second of five children born to Maurice Dior, a wealthy fertilizer manufacturer, his wife Madeleine Martin. He had four siblings: Raymond, Jacqueline and Catherine Dior; when Christian was about five years old, the family moved to Paris, but still returned to the Normandy coast for summer holidays. Dior's family had hoped he would become a diplomat, but Dior was artistic and wished to be involved in art. To make money, he sold his fashion sketches outside his house for about 10 cents each. In 1928, Dior left school and received money from his father to finance a small art gallery, where he and a friend sold art by the likes of Pablo Picasso. Three years after the death of Dior's mother and brother and a financial disaster in the family's fertilizer business, during the Great Depression, that resulted in his father losing control of Dior Frères, the gallery had to be closed.
From 1937, Dior was employed by the fashion designer Robert Piguet, who gave him the opportunity to design for three Piguet collections. Dior would say that'Robert Piguet taught me the virtues of simplicity through which true elegance must come.' One of his original designs for Piguet, a day dress with a short, full skirt called "Cafe Anglais", was well received. Whilst at Piguet, Dior worked alongside Pierre Balmain, was succeeded as house designer by Marc Bohan – who would, in 1960, become head of design for Christian Dior Paris. Dior left Piguet. In 1942, when Dior left the army, he joined the fashion house of Lucien Lelong, where he and Balmain were the primary designers. For the duration of World War II, Dior, as an employee of Lelong — who labored to preserve the French fashion industry during wartime for economic and artistic reasons — designed dresses for the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators, as did other fashion houses that remained in business during the war, including Jean Patou, Jeanne Lanvin, Nina Ricci.
His sister, served as a member of the French Resistance, was captured by the Gestapo, sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was incarcerated until her liberation in May 1945. In 1946 Marcel Boussac, a successful entrepreneur known as the richest man in France, invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, a Paris fashion house launched in 1925. Dior refused. On 8 December 1946, with Boussac's backing, Dior founded his fashion house; the actual name of the line of his first collection, presented on 12 February 1947, was Corolle, but the phrase New Look was coined for it by Carmel Snow, the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar. Dior's designs were more voluptuous than the boxy, fabric-conserving shapes of the recent World War II styles, influenced by the rations on fabric, he was a master at creating silhouettes. His look employed fabrics lined predominantly with percale, bustier-style bodices, hip padding, wasp-waisted corsets and petticoats that made his dresses flare out from the waist, giving his models a curvaceous form.
Women protested because his designs covered up their legs, which they had been unused to because of the previous limitations on fabric. There was some backlash to Dior's designs due to the amount of fabrics used in a single dress or suit. Of the “New Look”, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel said the following, “Look how ridiculous these women are, wearing clothes by a man who doesn’t know women, never had one, dreams of being one.” During one photo shoot in a Paris market, the models were attacked by female vendors over this profligacy, but opposition ceased as the wartime shortages ended. The "New Look" revolutionized women's dress and reestablished Paris as the centre of the fashion world after World War II. Christian Dior died while on holiday in Montecatini, Italy, on 24 October 1957; some reports say. Time's obituary stated. However, one of Dior's acquaintances, the Paris socialite Baron de Redé, wrote in his memoirs that contemporary rumor was that the heart attack had been caused by a strenuous sexual encounter.
As of 2019, the exact circumstances of Dior's death remain undisclosed. Dior was nominated for the 1955 Academy Award for Best Costume Design in black and white for the Terminal Station directed by Vittorio De Sica. Dior was nominated in 1967 for a BAFTA for Best British Costume for the Arabesque directed by Stanley Donen. Nominated in 1986 for his contributions to the 1985 film, Bras de fer, he was up for Best Costume Design during the 11th Cesar Awards; the Paul Gallico novella Mrs'Arris Goes to Paris tells the story of a London charwoman who falls in love with her employer's couture wardrobe and decides to go to Paris to purchase herself a Dior ballgown. A perfume named Christian Dior is used in Haruki Murakami's novel The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle as an influential symbol placed at critical plot points throughout; the English singer-so