Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and the citys historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, founded on November 1,1683, Manhattan is often described as the cultural and financial capital of the world and hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough and it is historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders which equals US$1062 today. New York County is the United States second-smallest county by land area, on business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York Citys five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the citys government.
The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, a 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. The word Manhattan has been translated as island of hills from the Lenape language. The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use New York, NY rather than Manhattan, the area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, a permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, called New Amsterdam, the 1625 establishment of Fort Amsterdam at the southern tip of Manhattan Island is recognized as the birth of New York City.
In 1846, New York historian John Romeyn Brodhead converted the figure of Fl 60 to US$23, variable-rate myth being a contradiction in terms, the purchase price remains forever frozen at twenty-four dollars, as Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace remarked in their history of New York. Sixty guilders in 1626 was valued at approximately $1,000 in 2006, based on the price of silver, Straight Dope author Cecil Adams calculated an equivalent of $72 in 1992. In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony, New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it New York after the English Duke of York and Albany, the Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city New Orange. Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the Battle of Fort Washington on November 16,1776.
The city, greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the campaign, became the British political, British occupation lasted until November 25,1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
In American folklore, a Christmas elf is a diminutive elves that live with Santa Claus in the North Pole and acts as his helper. Christmas elves are depicted as green or red clad with large, pointy ears. Santas elves are said to make the toys in Santas workshop and take care of his reindeer. They were first introduced in literature by Louisa May Alcott in 1856, the Christmas elf appeared in literature as early as 1850 when Louisa May Alcott completed, but never published a book entitled Christmas Elves. Additional recognition was given in Austin Thompsons 1876 work The House of Santa Claus, in Clement Clarke Moores 1823 poem A Visit from St. Nicholas, Santa Claus himself is described in line 45 as, He was chubby and plump, a right jolly old elf. Prior to the influence of St. Nicholas in Sweden, the job of giving out gifts was done by the Yule Goat, by 1891, the saint had become so well known that he could no longer be ignored. He became merged with Tomten, which was previously a farm guardian.
Following the work of artist Jenny Nyström, this hybrid figure became known as Jultomten and they make the toys in a workshop located in the North Pole. In this portrayal, elves slightly resemble nimble and delicate versions of the dwarves of Norse myth, Christmas elves have had their role expanded in modern films and television. For instance, In Santa Claus, The Movie, the elves are a type of craft guild making traditional toys by hand, the elves workshop is featured regularly in films, such as in Elf, starring Will Ferrell. The 1932 Disney short film, Santas Workshop, features Santa Claus, the Christmas Elves are featured in the 1998 TV movie Like Father, Like Santa. Disney had the theme of Christmas elves for their 2009 short film, Prep & Landing and it was the first holiday television special made by Walt Disney Animation Studios. The Christmas Elves were featured in Arthur Christmas, valentine DArcy Sheldons childrens picture book, The Christmas Tree Elf, tells the origin story of how Santa met his elves.
It introduces Blink the elf, who introduces Santa to the elves and saves Christmas by extinguishing a Christmas tree fire, in different countries, Santas helpers go by different names. In Iceland they are the Yule Lads who between December 12 and 24, a different Lad visit homes each day to leave presents and play tricks on children. In Belgium and the Netherlands, the companion is called Zwarte Piet, in Germany they are the Knecht Ruprecht and in Luxembourg they are known as Hoesecker. In Nordic countries Christmas Elves are considered nisser and not elves and will wear only red instead of the green. SantaLand Diaries Yule Lads Santa Claus Nisse All about Santas elves
He starred in the CBS dramas CSI, Crime Scene Investigation and CSI, Cyber as D. B. He played a role on Larry Davids HBO sitcom Curb Your Enthusiasm, starred alongside Glenn Close in legal drama Damages. In 2015 he starred as Hank Larsson in the season of FXs black comedy-crime drama anthology Fargo. Since 2016, he has played the afterlife architect Michael in the NBC sitcom The Good Place and he was ranked second in TV Guides list of the top 25 television stars. Danson has been a longtime activist in ocean conservation, in March 2011, he published his first book, Our Endangered Oceans and What We Can Do to Save Them, written with journalist Michael DOrso. Danson was born in San Diego, California, to Jessica Jess Danson and Edward Bridge Ned Danson, Jr. an archaeologist and he has an older sister, Jan Haury. He was raised in Flagstaff and his ancestry includes English and Scottish. In 1961, he enrolled in the Kent School, where he was a basketball star and he became interested in drama while attending Stanford University.
He transferred to Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he received his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in drama in 1972, Danson began his television career as a contract player on the daytime soap opera Somerset. He played the role of Tom Conway from 1975 to 1976 and he spent a few years as a doctor on the daytime soap opera The Doctors. He was in a number of commercials, most recognizably as the Aramis man. He made a number of guest appearances in television in the late 1970s and early 1980s, including spots on Laverne and Shirley, B. J. The show had a run of 11 seasons and its finale was watched by 80 million people and it won four Emmy Awards for Outstanding Comedy Series and a Golden Globe for Best Series – Musical or Comedy. The show ran from 1982 to 1993, with Danson receiving 11 consecutive Emmy nominations and nine Golden Globe nominations, in 2002, TV Guide named Cheers the 18th Greatest Show of All Time. It was included in Time Magazines 100 Greatest Shows of All Time, Danson appeared as Sam Malone in guest-starring roles on other sitcoms, such as Frasier, The Jim Henson Hour, and The Simpsons.
Danson went on to star in the successful CBS sitcom Becker, Danson plays himself on Curb Your Enthusiasm. He reprised his role of Sam Malone in a episode of Frasier. He won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie and was nominated for an Emmy Award, in 1996, three years after Cheers concluded, Danson starred in the short-lived CBS sitcom Ink with his real-life wife Mary Steenburgen
John Joseph Jack Nicholson is an American actor and filmmaker, who has performed for over 60 years. Nicholson is known for playing a range of starring or supporting roles, including satirical comedy and dark portrayals of antiheroes. In many of his films, he has played the eternal outsider, Nicholsons 12 Academy Award nominations make him the most nominated male actor in the Academys history. Nicholson has won the Academy Award for Best Actor twice, one for the drama One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest and he won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the comedy-drama Terms of Endearment. Nicholson is one of three actors to win three Academy Awards. Nicholson is one of two actors to be nominated for an Academy Award for acting in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s. He has won six Golden Globe Awards, and received the Kennedy Center Honor in 2001, in 1994, he became one of the youngest actors to be awarded the American Film Institutes Life Achievement Award. He played Jack Torrance in Stanley Kubricks horror film The Shining, the Joker in Tim Burtons superhero film Batman, other films include the legal drama A Few Good Men, the Sean Penn-directed mystery film The Pledge, and the comedy-drama About Schmidt.
Nicholson was born on April 22,1937, in Neptune City, New Jersey, Nicholsons mother was of Irish and German descent. She married Italian-American showman Donald Furcillo in 1936, before realizing that he was already married, biographer Patrick McGilligan stated in his book Jacks Life that Latvian-born Eddie King, Junes manager, may have been Nicholsons biological father, rather than Furcillo. Other sources suggest June Nicholson was unsure of who the father was, in 1974, Time magazine researchers learned, and informed Nicholson, that his sister, was actually his mother, and his other sister, was really his aunt. By this time, both his mother and grandmother had died, on finding out, Nicholson said it was a pretty dramatic event, but it wasnt what Id call traumatizing. I was pretty well psychologically formed. Nicholson grew up in Neptune City, New Jersey and he was raised in his mothers Roman Catholic religion. Before starting high school, his family moved to an apartment in Spring Lake, nick, as he was known to his high school friends, attended nearby Manasquan High School, where he was voted class clown by the Class of 1954.
He was in every day for a whole school year. A theatre and an award at the school are named in his honor. In 2004, Nicholson attended his 50-year high school reunion accompanied by his aunt Lorraine and he served a tour of duty in the Air National Guard. Nicholson first came to Hollywood in 1954, when he was 17 and he took a job as an office worker for animators William Hanna and Joseph Barbera at the MGM cartoon studio
The Brave One (2007 film)
The Brave One is a 2007 American psychological thriller film directed by Neil Jordan, produced by Joel Silver, and starring Jodie Foster and Terrence Howard. It is about Erica Bain, a female New York radio host and her boyfriend, terrified for her safety, Bain buys a pistol. Armed with the gun, she undergoes a personality transformation and becomes a vigilante, Detective Sean Mercer investigates the vigilante shootings, which lead him closer and closer to Bain. It was released in the United States on September 14,2007, the film earned Foster a Golden Globe nomination for Best Leading Actress in a Drama. The film, which garnered mixed reviews, had a box office total of $69.7 million against a $70 million budget. David dies from his injuries, and Erica, while seriously injured and traumatized, she attempts to purchase a gun. Terrified and unwilling to wait the required to obtain a gun legally. When she stops at a store, a man comes in screaming at the female cashier for not allowing him to see his kids.
The killer hears Ericas cell phone ringer, while attempting to out the till. Just as the killer is about to find her, Erica is overcome with fear and shoots through the aisles, on another night, two street thugs harass and threaten passengers in a subway car. The passengers all leave at the stop except Erica. When the thugs, amazed that she was not threatened enough to leave, take it as a challenge and threaten her with a knife, another night, she attempts to save a prostitute by threatening the brutal pimp with her pistol. When he attempts to run them down with his car in retaliation, she shoots him in the head, the prostitute is injured, but lives, and is taken to the hospital. All the while, Erica attempts to track down the thugs who killed David and she strikes up a friendship with Detective Sean Mercer, who is investigating the vigilante crimes and who is initially unaware of her role in the deaths. Erica, in trying to find out if the detective is close to solving her case, as well as the vigilante killings, during the interview, the detective asks her how she pulled it back together after her tragedy.
She replies that she did not, and she had to become a different person from the one she was before, Ericas boss gets her to take calls on her radio show to solicit the publics opinion on the vigilante killings. The various responses almost get her to confess to the killings, Mercer tells Erica about a criminal he has been pursuing for a long time, who has allegedly committed several murders, but Mercer is unable to bring him to justice. When Erica kills the suspect that Detective Mercer had long been after, Mercer comes to suspect her as the killer
Elf is a 2003 American Christmas comedy film directed by Jon Favreau and written by David Berenbaum. It stars Will Ferrell, James Caan, Zooey Deschanel, Mary Steenburgen, Daniel Tay, Edward Asner and it was released in the United States on November 7,2003 by New Line Cinema. The story is one of Santas elves who learns of his true identity as a human and goes to New York City to meet his biological father. The film received reviews from critics and earned $220.4 million worldwide on a $33 million budget. It inspired the 2010 Broadway musical Elf, The Musical and NBCs 2014 stop-motion animated television special Elf, on Christmas Eve in 1973, an orphaned infant boy stows away on Santa Claus sack. When discovered back at the North Pole, he is adopted by Papa Elf, Papa Elf names his son Buddy. Buddy grows up at the North Pole believing he is an elf, when Buddy accidentally learns that he is human, Papa Elf explains that he was born to Walter Hobbs and Susan Wells, and was given up for adoption without Walter knowing.
Susan died and Walter works at a book publisher in New York City at the Empire State Building. Santa notes that Walter is on the naughty list due to his greed and selfishness, but suggests Buddy could help redeem him, Buddy has trouble acclimating to the customs of the human world. Buddy finds his fathers office, but Walter has him ejected after Buddy mentions Susan Wells, after following a security guards sarcastic suggestion to go back to Gimbels due to his elf outfit, the Gimbels manager mistakes him for an employee at Santa Land. He meets Jovie, an employee to whom he is attracted. Knowing that Santa will arrive the day, Buddy stays behind and spends the night decorating Santa Land. The next day, Buddy is appalled that the stores Santa is not real and rips off the fake beard, causing them to fight. Walter bails Buddy out of prison and takes him to Dr. Leonardo for a DNA test, the doctor convinces him to take Buddy home to meet his step-mother Emily and 12-year-old half-brother Michael. Walter and Michael are annoyed by Buddys childlike behavior, but Emily insists that they take care of him until he recovers, Buddy wins Michael over by helping him defeat a gang of bullies in a snowball fight and Michael encourages Buddy to ask Jovie out.
One night, Buddy goes on a date with Jovie and wins her over, on Christmas Eve, Buddy bursts into Walters office during a meeting with Finch to tell Walter about his love, and mistakes Finch for an elf because of his dwarfism. Finch loses his temper and attacks Buddy before storming out, causing Walter to yell at Buddy and Morris find a notebook Finch left that is filled with ideas for childrens books. Walter pitches these ideas to Greenway, but Michael bursts in to tell Walter that Buddy ran away, Greenway refuses to reschedule, Walter quits his job and leaves to find Buddy
British Academy Television Awards
The British Academy Television Awards are presented in an annual award show hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. They have been awarded annually since 1955 and it is the British equivalent to the Emmy Awards in the United States. The first ever Awards, given in 1955, consisted of six categories, until 1958, they were awarded by the Guild of Television Producers and Directors. From 1958 onwards, after the Guild had merged with the British Film Academy, in 1976, this became the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. The Television Awards are usually presented in April, with a ceremony for the Television Craft Awards on a different date. The Craft Awards are presented for more technical areas of the industry, such as effects, production design. Individual performances, such as actors, can either be entered by the performers themselves or by the broadcasters. The programmes being entered must have been broadcast on or between March and February of the year to be eligible for the years awards.
Entry is free, and entry forms are available between November and January each year. After all the entries have been received, they are voted for online by all members of the Academy. The programmes and performances attracting the most votes, usually four in each category, are shortlisted as the nominees for each award. The winner is chosen from the four nominees by a jury of nine academy members for each award. These Awards are suggested by the Television Committee and awarded by the Academys Council and they are not necessarily always given every year, but as and when appropriate. The Awards ceremony is broadcast on British television, usually the day after it has taken place, between 1998 and 2006, it was alternated between ITV and BBC One. But since 2007, it has been broadcast by BBC One, in 1991, a controversial selection was made in the Best Drama Serial category, when Prime Suspect beat G. B. H. to win the award. Following the ceremony, four of the seven voting members of the signed a public statement declaring that they had voted for G. B. H. to win. B. H.
Price claimed that the papers could not be recounted as they had subsequently been destroyed. No blame was attached to Shubik by the four judges
John Christopher Johnny Depp II is an American actor and musician. He has won the Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Actor and he rose to prominence on the 1980s television series 21 Jump Street, becoming a teen idol. He has collaborated on nine films with director, Depp is regarded as one of the worlds biggest film stars. Films featuring Depp have grossed over $3.2 billion at the United States box office, Depp has been nominated for major acting awards, including three nominations for Academy Award for Best Actor. He has been listed in the 2012 Guinness World Records as the highest paid actor, Depp was inducted as a Disney Legend in 2015. Depp was born in Owensboro, the youngest of four children of Betty Sue Palmer, a waitress, and John Christopher Depp, Depp is of mostly English ancestry, with some ancestors from elsewhere in Europe. He is descended from a French Huguenot immigrant, Pierre Deppe or Dieppe, Depp is a 20th cousin of Elizabeth II. Depp moved frequently during his childhood and he and his siblings lived in more than 20 different places, eventually settling in Miramar, Florida in 1970.
Depps parents divorced in 1978 when he was 15 and his mother married Robert Palmer, whom Depp has called an inspiration to me. With the gift of a guitar from his mother when he was 12, a year after his parents divorce, he dropped out of high school to become a rock musician. He attempted to go back to two weeks later, but the principal told him to follow his dream of being a musician. He played with The Kids, a band that enjoyed modest local success, the Kids set out together for Los Angeles in pursuit of a record deal, changing their name to Six Gun Method, but the group split up before signing a record deal. Depp subsequently collaborated with the band Rock City Angels and co-wrote their song Mary, on December 20,1983, Depp married Lori Anne Allison, the sister of his bands bass player and singer. During their marriage she worked as a makeup artist while he worked a variety of odd jobs and his wife introduced him to actor Nicolas Cage, who advised him to pursue an acting career. Depp and his wife divorced in 1985, Depps first film role was in the horror film A Nightmare on Elm Street, in which he played the boyfriend of heroine Nancy Thompson and one of Freddy Kruegers victims.
After a starring role in the comedy Private Resort, Depp was cast in the role of the skating drama Thrashin by the films director. Instead, Depp appeared in a supporting role as a Vietnamese-speaking private in Oliver Stones Vietnam War drama Platoon. He accepted this role to work with actor Frederic Forrest, who inspired him, despite his success, Depp felt that the series forced into the role of product
Philadelphia is a 1993 American drama film and one of the first mainstream Hollywood films to acknowledge HIV/AIDS, and homophobia. It was written by Ron Nyswaner, directed by Jonathan Demme and stars Tom Hanks, Hanks won the Academy Award for Best Actor for his role as Andrew Beckett in the film, while the song Streets of Philadelphia by Bruce Springsteen won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Nyswaner was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, Andrew Beckett is a senior associate at the largest corporate law firm in Philadelphia. He hides his homosexuality and his status as an AIDS patient from the members of the firm. A partner in the firm notices a lesion on Becketts forehead, although Beckett attributes the lesion to a racquetball injury, it indicates Kaposis Sarcoma, a form of cancer. Shortly thereafter, Beckett stays home from work for days to try to find a way to hide his lesions. Later that morning, he receives a call asking for the paperwork, as the paper copy cannot be found, the paperwork is finally discovered in an alternate location and is filed with the court at the last possible moment.
The following day, Beckett is dismissed by the firms partners, Beckett believes that someone deliberately hid his paperwork to give the firm an excuse to fire him, and that the dismissal is actually as a result of his diagnosis with AIDS. He asks several attorneys to take his case, including personal injury lawyer Joe Miller, the homophobic Miller appears to be worried that he could contract Becketts illness. After declining to take the case, Miller immediately visits his doctor to find out if he could have contracted the disease, the doctor explains that the routes of HIV infection do not include casual contact. Unable to find a willing to represent him, Beckett is compelled to act as his own attorney. While researching a case at a law library, Miller sees Beckett at a nearby table, after a library employee stares down Miller, presumably because Miller is black, a librarian approaches Beckett and announces that he has found a book on AIDS discrimination for him. As others in the begin to first stare uneasily, the librarian suggests Beckett to go to a private room.
As the case goes before the court, the partners of the take the stand, each claiming that Beckett was incompetent. The defense repeatedly suggests that Beckett brought AIDS upon himself by having gay sex, according to that partner, the woman was an innocent victim, unlike Beckett, and further testified that he did not recognize Becketts lesions. To prove that the lesions would have been visible, Miller asks Beckett to unbutton his shirt while on the witness stand, Beckett eventually collapses during the trial. During his hospitalization, the votes in his favor, awarding him back pay, damages for pain and suffering. Miller visits the visibly failing Beckett in the hospital after the verdict, after Becketts family leaves the room, he tells his partner Miguel that he is ready to die
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
The Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress is an award presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. It is given in honor of an actress who has delivered a performance in a supporting role while working within the film industry. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony held in 1937, Gale Sondergaard was the first winner of award for her role in Anthony Adverse. Initially, winners in both supporting acting categories were awarded instead of statuettes. Beginning with the 16th ceremony held in 1944, winners received full-sized statuettes, nominees are determined by single transferable vote within the actors branch of AMPAS, winners are selected by a plurality vote from the entire eligible voting members of the Academy. Since its inception, the award has given to 78 actresses. Dianne Wiest and Shelley Winters have received the most awards in this category with two awards each, despite winning no awards, Thelma Ritter was nominated on six occasions, more than any other actress.
As of the 2017 ceremony, Viola Davis is the most recent winner in category for her role as Rose Maxson in Fences. In the following table, the years are listed as per Academy convention, and generally correspond to the year of release in Los Angeles County. Toronto, Canada, University of Toronto Press, inside Oscar, The Unofficial History of the Academy Awards. New York, United States, Ballantine Books, oscars. org Oscar. com The Academy Awards Database