Mary of Burgundy

Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death. As the only child of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, his wife Isabella of Bourbon, she inherited the duchy upon the death of her father in the Battle of Nancy on 5 January 1477. Owing to the great prosperity of many of her territories, Mary was referred to as Mary the Rich. Mary of Burgundy was born in Brussels at the ducal castle of Coudenberg, to Charles the Bold known as the Count of Charolais, his wife Isabella of Bourbon, her birth, according to the court chronicler Georges Chastellain, was attended by a clap of thunder ringing from the otherwise clear twilight sky. Her godfather was Dauphin of France, in exile in Burgundy at that time. Reactions to the child were mixed: the baby's grandfather, Duke Philip the Good, was unimpressed, "chose not to attend the as it was only for a girl", whereas her grandmother Isabella of Portugal was delighted at the birth of a granddaughter.

Her illegitimate aunt Anne was assigned as her governess. Philip the Good died in 1467 and Mary's father assumed control of the duchy of Burgundy. Since her father had no living sons at the time of his accession, Mary became his heir presumptive, her father controlled a vast and wealthy domain made up of the Duchy of Burgundy, the Free County of Burgundy, the majority of the Low Countries. As a result, her hand in marriage was eagerly sought by a number of princes; the first proposal was received by her father when she was only five years old, in this case to marry the future King Ferdinand II of Aragon. She was approached by Charles, Duke of Berry, the younger brother of King Louis XI of France, intensely annoyed and attempted to prevent the necessary papal dispensation for consanguinity; as soon as Louis succeeded in producing a male heir who survived infancy, the future King Charles VIII of France, Louis wanted him to be the one to marry Mary though he was thirteen years younger than Mary was.

Nicholas I, Duke of Lorraine, was a few years older than Mary and controlled a duchy that lay alongside Burgundian territory, but his plan to combine his domain with hers was ended by his death in battle in 1473. Mary assumed the rule of her father's domains upon his defeat in battle and death on 5 January 1477. King Louis XI of France seized the opportunity to attempt to take possession of the Duchy of Burgundy proper and the regions of Franche-Comté, Picardy and Artois; the king was anxious that Mary should marry his son Charles and thus secure the inheritance of the Low Countries for his heirs, by force of arms if necessary. Burgundy, fearing French military power, sent an embassy to France to negotiate a marriage between Mary and the six-year-old Dauphin, but returned home without a betrothal. Mary was compelled to sign a charter of rights known as the Great Privilege in Ghent on 10 February 1477 on the occasion of her formal recognition as her father's heir. Under this agreement, the provinces and towns of Flanders, Brabant and Holland recovered all the local and communal rights, abolished by the decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create a centralized state on the French model out of their disparate holdings in the Low Countries.

In particular, the Parliament of Mechelen was abolished and replaced with the pre-existing authority of the Parliament of Paris, considered an amenable counterweight to the encroaching centralization undertaken by both Charles the Bold and Philip the Good. The duchess had to undertake not to declare war, make peace, or raise taxes without the consent of these provinces and towns and only to employ native residents in official posts; such was the hatred of the people for the old regime that in spite of the duchess's entreaties, two of her father's most influential councilors, the Chancellor Hugonet and the Sire d'Humbercourt, were executed in Ghent after it was discovered that they were in correspondence with the king of France. Mary soon made her choice among the many suitors for her hand by selecting Archduke Maximilian of Austria, the future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, who became her co-ruler; the marriage took place at Ghent on 19 August 1477. Mary's marriage into the House of Habsburg initiated two centuries of contention between France and the Habsburgs, a struggle that climaxed with the War of the Spanish Succession in the years 1701–1714.

In the Netherlands, affairs now went more smoothly. In 1482, a falcon hunt in the woods near Wijnendale Castle was organised by Adolph of Cleves, Lord of Ravenstein, who lived in the castle. Mary loved riding and was hunting with Maximilian and knights of the Court when her horse tripped, threw her in a ditch, landed on top of her, breaking her back, she died several weeks on 27 March, from internal injuries, having made a detailed will. She was buried in the Church of Our Lady in Bruges on April 3, 1482, her 2-year-old daughter, Margaret of Austria, was sent in vain to France, to marry the Dauphin, in an attempt to please Louis XI and persuade him not to invade the territories owned by Mary. Louis was swift to re-engage hostilities with Maximilian and forced him to agree to the Treaty of Arras of 1482, by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed for a time to French rule, only to be recovered

Möbius syndrome

Möbius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder, characterized by facial paralysis and the inability to move the eyes from side to side. Most people with Möbius syndrome are born with complete facial paralysis and cannot close their eyes or form facial expressions. Limb and chest wall abnormalities sometimes occur with the syndrome. People with Möbius syndrome have normal intelligence, although their lack of facial expression is sometimes incorrectly taken to be due to dullness or unfriendliness, it is named for Paul Julius Möbius, a German neurologist who first described the syndrome in 1888. People with Möbius syndrome are born with facial paralysis and the inability to move their eyes laterally, their upper lip is retracted due to muscle shrinkage. The cranial nerves V and VIII are affected. If cranial nerve VIII is affected, the person experiences hearing loss. Other symptoms that sometimes occur with Möbius syndrome are: Limb abnormalities—clubbed feet, missing fingers or toes Chest-wall abnormalities Crossed eyes Difficulty in breathing and/or in swallowing Corneal erosion resulting from difficulty in blinkingChildren with Möbius syndrome may have delayed speech because of paralysis of muscles that move the lips, soft palate and tongue root.

However, with speech therapy, most people with Möbius syndrome can develop understandable speech. Möbius syndrome has been associated with increased occurrence of the symptoms of autism; some children with Möbius syndrome are mistakenly labeled as intellectually disabled because of their expressionless faces and frequent drooling. Möbius syndrome results from the underdevelopment of the VI and VII cranial nerves; the VI cranial nerve controls lateral eye movement, the VII cranial nerve controls facial expression. The causes of Möbius syndrome are poorly understood, it is thought to result from a vascular disruption in the brain during prenatal development. There can be many reasons for vascular disruption leading to Möbius syndrome. Most cases do not appear to be genetic. However, genetic links have been found in a few families; some maternal trauma may result in impaired or interrupted blood flow or lack of oxygen to a developing fetus. Some cases are associated with reciprocal translocation between chromosomes or maternal illness.

In the majority of cases of Möbius syndrome in which autosomal dominant inheritance is suspected and seventh cranial nerve paralysis occurs without associated limb abnormalities. The use of drugs and a traumatic pregnancy may be linked to the development of Möbius syndrome; the use of the drugs misoprostol or thalidomide by women during pregnancy has been linked to the development of Möbius syndrome in some cases. Misoprostol is used to induce abortions in Argentina as well as in the United States. Misoprostol abortions are successful 90% of the time, meaning that 10% of the time the pregnancy continues. Studies show that the use of misoprostal during pregnancy increases the risk of developing Möbius syndrome by a factor of 30. While this is a dramatic increase in risk, the incidence of Möbius syndrome without misoprostal use is estimated at one in 50000 to 100000 births; the use of cocaine has been implicated in Möbius syndrome. Some researchers have suggested that the underlying problem of this disorder could be congenital hypoplasia or agenesis of the cranial nerve nuclei.

Certain symptoms associated with Möbius syndrome may be caused by incomplete development of facial nerves, other cranial nerves, other parts of the central nervous system. When a child is born with Möbius syndrome, there may be difficulty in closing the mouth or swallowing; the tongue may be hypotonic. The tongue may be smaller than average. There may be low tone of the muscles of the soft palate and the masticatory system; the palate may be arched excessively, because the tongue does not form a suction that would shape the palate down further. The palate may be cleft; the opening to the mouth may be small. Feeding problems may become a critical issue early on; the primary teeth start coming in by 6 months of age, all 20 teeth may be in by two and a half years of age. The eruption timing varies greatly. There may be an incomplete formation of the enamel on the teeth that makes the teeth more vulnerable to caries. There may be missing teeth eruptions. If the infant is not closing down properly, the lower jaws become more noticeably deficient.

The front teeth may not touch when the child closes down because the back teeth have overerrupted or because of incomplete formation of the maxilla. This condition has facial/skeletal implications; the saliva may be thick. Between age 5 and 7, most children start losing their primary teeth; some primary teeth are slow to exfoliate, the dentist may want to remove a primary tooth early to prevent orthodontic problems. Premature loss of primary teeth may create orthodontic problems on; when a tooth is lost prematurely, removable or fixed spacers may be needed to prevent the shifting of teeth. Interceptive orthodontic treatment can be initiated at this stage of development to help with crowding or to help relate the upper and lower jaws. Consistent with a high palate i

Brazilian football match-fixing scandal

Máfia do Apito, sometimes referred to as the Escândalo do Apito, was the name given by the Brazilian press to the football match-fixing scandal reported by Veja magazine on 23 September 2005. Some investors, who were not related to any club, bribed referees Edílson Pereira de Carvalho and Paulo José Danelon to fix results according to what was determined by the betting websites Aebet and Futbet; the investors made a deal with Edílson Pereira de Carvalho to fix the results of the matches refereed by him, the investors made millionaire bets on the betting websites. Edílson Pereira de Carvalho said that he agreed to receive R$10,000 to fix the result of the Brazilian National Championship match between Juventude and Figueirense, that he was paid between R$10,000 and R$15,000 per fixed match. Edílson Pereira de Carvalho said he accepted the money to fix the results only because he had a R$30,000 debt; the eleven Brazilian National Championship matches refereed by Edílson Pereira de Carvalho was made null and void by the Supreme Court of Sporting Justice, presided by Luiz Zveiter though Edílson Pereira de Carvalho assured he did not fix all eleven matches.

The Supreme Court decided. This decision was not popular among the board of supporters of the harmed clubs. Five clubs, which are Ponte Preta, Internacional and Cruzeiro appealed the decision, but the decision was kept. On November 28, Brazilian lawyer Luís Carlos Crema sought a court injunction requesting the cancellation of the decision that annulled the eleven Brazilian National Championship matches, Minister Nancy Andrighi of the Second Section of the Supreme Court of Justice rejected the demand. However, another lawyer, Leandro Konrad Konflanz sought a lawsuit requesting the annulment of the replayed matches. If those matches are annulled, Internacional would win the competition, instead of Corinthians; the decision was that no club should be announced as champion during the dawn of Sunday, December 5. CBF, ignoring the decision, on December 6, declared Corinthians as the 2005 Campeonato Brasileiro champion. Judge Munira Hanna, of the First Civil Court of Porto Alegre, dispatched a temporary restraining order obligating the CBF to obey that decision.

However, FIFA and CBF rules forbid clubs to petition regular courts of justice when the claim is directly related to a match, as was the case. Four Brazilian Second Division first stage matches; these matches were not annulled. Paulo José Danelon and Edílson Pereira de Carvalho, refereed 22 Paulista Championship matches. None of these matches has been annulled, including two of them which were considered suspected of being fixed. Both suspected matches were refereed by Paulo José Danelon; the São Paulo Football Sporting Justice Court's Inquiry Court, after analyzing all the 22 matches, concluded that no matches were fixed, with the exception of the two suspected matches. After coming to the conclusion that these two matches were fixed, the São Paulo Football Sporting Justice Court decided that the results should be kept. Edílson Pereira de Carvalho was banned for life by the STJD's First Disciplinary Commission. Paulo José Danelon was removed from the referee staff of Paulista Football Federation.

On October 31, 2005, the São Paulo Football Sporting Justice Court's First Disciplinary Commission banned for life both Edilson Pereira de Carvalho and Paulo José Danelon. So, they are prohibited from refereeing. Both Edílson Pereira de Carvalho and Paulo José Danelon face charges of fraud and crimes against the economy; the entrepreneur Nagib Fayad, suspected of commanding the gambling ring in Piracicaba was arrested on September 25. Golden Whistle: Portuguese football corruption scandal 2005 Bundesliga scandal in Germany 2006 Serie A scandal in Italy 2011 Turkish sports corruption scandal Sports Illustrated news The Star Online Veja magazine report Brazilian Yahoo News Terra Esportes coverage No Olhar