Sant'Andrea della Zirada
Sant'Andrea della Zirada is a church and a monastery in Venice, northern Italy. The church and the monastery, both dedicated to Saint Andrew, were founded in 1329 by four noblewomen on a place called "cao de zirada"; the church was rebuilt in 1479, the most important part remaining of the original Gothic edifice being the façade. Noteworthy is the main portal in Istrian white stone; the interior has a single nave with a plain ceiling, with a Gothic choir with stucco part from the 17th century. The main artworks are the Dead Christ between St. Charles Borromeo and Angels by Domenico Tintoretto, the St. Augustine with Two Angels by Paris Bordon and a St. Jerome by Paolo Veronese. Description and image gallery slowtrav Sant'Andrea della Zirada
Salome, or Mary Salome, was a follower of Jesus who appears in the canonical gospels and in more detail in apocryphal writings. She is named by Mark as present at the crucifixion and as one of the women who found Jesus's tomb empty. Interpretation has further identified her with other women who are mentioned but not named in the canonical gospels. In particular, she is identified as the wife of Zebedee, the mother of James and John, two of the Apostles of Jesus. In Roman Catholic tradition Salome is, or at least was in the Middle Ages, counted as one of the Three Marys who were daughters of Saint Anne, so making her the sister or half-sister of Mary, mother of Jesus, she is not to be confused with the dancing Salome, who demanded the head of John the Baptist, in the gospels is only referred to as "the daughter of Herodias". "Salome" may be the Hellenized form of a Hebrew name, such as Shulamit, Shlomtsion, or Shlomzion. Her name in Hebrew is שלומית and is derived from the root word שָׁלוֹם, meaning "peace".
The name was a common one. In Mark 15:40, Salome is named as one of the women present at the crucifixion: "There were women looking on afar off: among whom was Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, Salome"; the parallel passage of Matthew 27:56 reads thus: "Among, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, the mother of Zebedee's children." The Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that the Salome of Mark 15:40 is identical with the mother of the sons of Zebedee in Matthew. In John, three, or four, women are mentioned at the crucifixion. A common interpretation identifies Salome as the sister of Jesus' mother, thus making her Jesus' aunt. Traditional interpretations associate Mary the wife of Cleophas with Mary the mother of James son of Alphaeus. In the Gospel of Mark, Salome is among the women who went to Jesus' tomb to anoint his body with spices. "And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, Salome, had bought sweet spices, that they might come and anoint him."
They discovered that the stone had been rolled away, a young man in white told them that Jesus had risen, told them to tell Jesus' disciples that he would meet them in Galilee. In Matthew 28:1, two women are mentioned in the parallel passage: Mary Magdalene and the "other Mary" – identified in Matthew 27:56 as Mary the mother of James and Joses; the canonical gospels never go so far as to label Salome a "disciple", so mainstream Christian writers describe her as a "follower" of Jesus per references to the women who "followed" and "ministered" to Jesus. However, feminist critiques have argued that the mainstream tradition underplays the significance of Jesus's female supporters; the Gospel of Thomas found at Nag Hammadi mentions among the "disciples" of Jesus two women and Mary Magdalene The Diatessaron, part of the Ante-Nicene Fathers collection, separates Salome and the mother of the sons of Zebedee as two distinct persons, contrary to tradition that conflate them into the same individual.
"And there were in the distance all the acquaintance of Jesus standing, the women that came with Him from Galilee, those that followed Him and ministered. One of them was Mary Magdalene; the controversial Secret Gospel of Mark, referred to and quoted in the Mar Saba letter ascribed by his modern editors to Clement of Alexandria, contains a further mention of Salome, not present in the canonical Mark at 10:46. Clement quotes the passage in his letter: "Then he came into Jericho, and the sister of the young man whom Jesus loved was there with his mother and Salome, but Jesus would not receive them." The lines complete a well-known lacuna in Mark as the text stands. In the early but non-canonical Greek Gospel of the Egyptians, Salome appears again as a disciple of Jesus, she asks him how long death would hold sway, he says to her, "So long as women bring forth, for I come to end the works of the female." To this Salome replies, "Then I have done well in not bringing forth." It would appear from this text that there was an early tradition that Salome the disciple was childless, unmarried.
In the Gospel of Thomas there is a reference to Jesus reclining on a couch and eating at a table that belonged to Salome and being asked by her: "Who are you sir, that you have taken your place on my couch and eaten from my table?" Jesus answers: "I am he, from the One, the things that belong to the Father have been given to me." Salome replies, "But I am your disciple", Jesus answers, "When t
James, son of Alphaeus
James, son of Alphaeus was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, appearing under this name in all three of the Synoptic Gospels' lists of the apostles. He is identified with James the Less and known by that name in church tradition, he is labelled "the minor", "the little", "the lesser", or "the younger", according to translation. He is distinct from James, son of Zebedee and in some interpretations from James, brother of Jesus, he appears only four times in the New Testament, each time in a list of the twelve apostles. James, son of Alphaeus is identified with James the Less, only mentioned four times in the Bible, each time in connection with his mother. Refers to "Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses", while and refer to "Mary the mother of James". Since there was another James among the twelve apostles, equating James son of Alphaeus with "James the Less" made sense.. Jerome identifies James, son of Alpheus with James the Less writing in his work called The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary the following: Do you intend the comparatively unknown James the Less, called in Scripture the son of Mary, not however of Mary the mother of our Lord, to be an apostle, or not?
If he is an apostle, he must be the son of Alphæus and a believer in Jesus, "For neither did his brethren believe in him." The only conclusion is that the Mary, described as the mother of James the Less was the wife of Alphæus and sister of Mary the Lord's mother, the one, called by John the Evangelist "Mary of Clopas". Papias of Hierapolis, who lived circa 70–163 AD, in the surviving fragments of his work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord relates that Mary, wife of Alphaeus is mother of James the Less: Mary, mother of James the Less and Joseph, wife of Alphaeus was the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord, whom John names of Cleophas, either from her father or from the family of the clan, or for some other reason. Therefore, son of Alphaeus would be the same as James the Less. Modern Biblical scholars are divided on. John Paul Meier finds it unlikely. Amongst evangelicals, the New Bible Dictionary supports the traditional identification, while Don Carson and Darrell Bock both regard the identification as possible, but not certain.
Jerome voicing the general opinion of Early Church, maintains the doctrine of perpetual virginity of Mary. He proposed that James, son of Alphaeus, was to be identified with "James, the brother of the Lord" and that the term "brother" was to be understood as "cousin." The view of Jerome, the "Hieronymian view," became accepted in the Roman Catholic Church, while Eastern Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and Protestants tend to distinguish between the two. Geike states that Hausrath and Schenkel think James the brother of Jesus was the son of Clophas-Alphaeus. In two small but important works ascribed by some to Hippolytus, On the Twelve Apostles of Christ and On the Seventy Apostles of Christ, he relates the following: And James the son of Alphaeus, when preaching in Jerusalem was stoned to death by the Jews, was buried there beside the temple, it is important to remember that the brother of Jesus had the same death. This testimony of "Hippolytus", if authentic, would increase the plausibility that James the son of Alphaeus is the same person as James the brother of Jesus.
These two works of "Hippolytus" are neglected because the manuscripts were lost during most of the church age and found in Greece in the 19th century. As most scholars consider them spurious, they are ascribed to "Pseudo-Hippolytus"; the two are included in an appendix to the works of Hippolytus in the voluminous collection of Early Church Fathers. According to the surviving fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of Papias of Hierapolis Cleophas and Alphaeus are the same person, Mary wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of James, the brother of Jesus, of Simon and Judas, of one Joseph. Mary the mother of the Lord; these four are found in the Gospel... Thus, the brother of the Lord would be the son of Alphaeus, the husband of Mary of Cleophas or Mary the wife of Alphaeus. However, the Anglican theologian J. B. Lightfoot maintains; as reported by the Golden Legend, a collection of hagiographies, compiled by Jacobus de Varagine in the thirteenth century: James the Apostle is said the Less, how well, the elder of age than was St. James the More.
He was called the brother of our Lord, because I have resembled much well our Lord in body, in visage, of manner. He was called James the Just for his right great holiness, he was called James the son of Alpheus. He sang in Jerusalem the first mass, there, he was first bishop of Jerusalem. Alphaeus is the name of the father of the publican Levi mentioned in Mark 2:14; the publican appears as Matthew in Matthew 9:9, which has led some to conclude that James and Matthew might have been brothers. The four times that James son of Alphaeus is mentioned directly in the Bible the only family relationship stated is th
Papias of Hierapolis
Papias was a Greek Apostolic Father, Bishop of Hierapolis, author who lived c. 60–163 AD. It was Papias; this work, lost apart from brief excerpts in the works of Irenaeus of Lyons and Eusebius of Caesarea, is an important early source on Christian oral tradition and on the origins of the canonical Gospels. Little is known of Papias apart from what can be inferred from his own writings, he is described as "an ancient man, a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp" by Polycarp's disciple Irenaeus. Eusebius adds. In this office Papias was succeeded by Abercius of Hierapolis; the name Papias was common in the region, suggesting that he was a native of the area. The work of Papias is dated by most modern scholars to about 95–120. Dates were once argued from two references that now appear to be mistaken. One dating Papias' death to around the death of Polycarp in 164 is a mistake for Papylas. Another unreliable source in which Papias is said to refer to the reign of Hadrian seems to have resulted from confusion between Papias and Quadratus.
Eusebius refers to Papias only in his third book, thus seems to date him before the opening of his fourth book in 109. Papias himself knows several New Testament books, whose dates are themselves controversial, was informed by John the Evangelist, the daughters of Philip and many "elders" who had themselves heard the Twelve Apostles, he is called a companion of the long-lived Polycarp. For all these reasons, Papias is thought to have written around the turn of the 2nd century. Papias describes his way of gathering information in his preface: I shall not hesitate to put into ordered form for you, along with the interpretations, everything I learned in the past from the elders and noted down for the truth of which I vouch. For unlike most people I took no pleasure in those who told many different stories, but only in those who taught the truth. Nor did I take pleasure in those who reported their memory of someone else’s commandments, but only in those who reported their memory of the commandments given by the Lord to the faith and proceeding from the Truth itself.
And if by chance anyone, in attendance on the elders arrived, I made enquiries about the words of the elders—what Andrew or Peter had said, or Philip or Thomas or James or John or Matthew or any other of the Lord’s disciples, whatever Aristion and John the Elder, the Lord’s disciples, were saying. For I did not think that information from the books would profit me as much as information from a living and surviving voice. Papias inquired of travelers passing through Hierapolis what the surviving disciples of Jesus and the elders—those who had known the Twelve Apostles—were saying. One of these disciples was Aristion bishop of nearby Smyrna, another was John the Elder identified with John the Evangelist, residing in nearby Ephesus, of whom Papias was a hearer. From the daughters of Philip, who settled in Hierapolis, Papias learned still other traditions. There is some debate about the intention of Papias' last sentence in the above quotation, "For I did not think that information from the books would profit me as much as information from a living and surviving voice."
One side of the debate holds, with the longstanding opinion of 20th-century scholarship, that in Papias' day written statements were held at a lower value than oral statements. The other side observes that "living voice" was a topos, an established phrase referring to personal instruction and apprenticeship, thus Papias indicates his preference for personal instruction over isolated book learning. Despite indications that the work of Papias was still extant in the late Middle Ages, the full text is now lost. Extracts, appear in a number of other writings, some of which cite a book number. MacDonald proposes the following tentative reconstruction of the five books, following a presumed Matthaean order. Papias provides the earliest extant account of. Eusebius preserves two verbatim excerpts from Papias on the origins of the Gospels, one concerning Mark and another concerning Matthew. On Mark, Papias cites John the Elder: The Elder used to say: Mark, in his capacity as Peter’s interpreter, wrote down as many things as he recalled from memory—though not in an ordered form—of the things either said or done by the Lord.
For he neither heard the Lord nor accompanied him, but as I said, who used to give his teachings in the form of chreiai, but had no intention of providing an ordered arrangement of the logia of the Lord. Mark did nothing wrong when he wrote down some individual items just as he related them from memory. For he made it his one concern to falsify anything; the excerpt regarding Matthew says only: Therefore Matthew put the logia in an ordered arrangement in the Hebrew language, but each person interpreted them as best he could. How to interpret these quotations from Papias has long been a matter of controversy, as the original context for each is missing and the Greek is in several respects ambiguous and seems to employ technical rhetorical terminology. For one thing, it is not explicit that the writings by Mark and Matthew are the canonical Gospels bearing those names; the word logia —which appears in the title of Papias' work—is itself problematic. In non-Christian contexts, the usual meaning was o
Gospel of Mark
The Gospel According to Mark is one of the four canonical gospels and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells of the ministry of Jesus from his baptism by John the Baptist to his death and burial and the discovery of the empty tomb – there is no genealogy of Jesus or birth narrative, nor, in the original ending at chapter 16, any post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, it portrays Jesus as a heroic man of action, an exorcist, a healer, a miracle worker. Jesus is the Son of God, but he keeps his identity secret, concealing it in parables so that most of the disciples fail to understand. All this is in keeping with prophecy; the gospel ends, in its original version, with the discovery of the empty tomb, a promise to meet again in Galilee, an unheeded instruction to spread the good news of the resurrection. Mark dates from AD 66–70. Most scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to John Mark, the companion of the apostle Peter, regard it as anonymous, the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, a passion narrative.
Mark was traditionally placed second, sometimes fourth, in the Christian canon, as an inferior abridgement of what was regarded as the most important gospel, Matthew. The Church has derived its view of Jesus from Matthew, secondarily from John, only distantly from Mark, it was only in the 19th century that Mark came to be seen as the earliest of the four gospels, as a source used by both Matthew and Luke. The hypothesis of Marcan priority continues to be held by the majority of scholars today, there is a new recognition of the author as an artist and theologian using a range of literary devices to convey his conception of Jesus as the authoritative yet suffering Son of God; the Gospel of Mark is anonymous. It was written c. AD 66–70, during Nero's persecution of the Christians in Rome or the Jewish revolt, as suggested by internal references to war in Judea and to persecution; the author used a variety of pre-existing sources, such as conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings.
It was written in Greek for a gentile audience, Rome, Galilee and southern Syria have all been offered as alternative places of composition. Early Christian tradition attributes it to John Mark mentioned in Acts, but scholars reject this as an attempt to link the gospel to an authoritative figureThe Gospels represent a form of Greco-Roman biography. Interpreters differ. Among some of the proposals include that Mark had a theological agenda, that Mark was written in order to distance Christianity from political connotations in light of the Roman-Jewish War, or that Mark was responding to imperial Flavian propaganda; the gospels of Matthew and Luke bear a striking resemblance to each other, so much so that their contents can be set side by side in parallel columns. The fact that they share so much material verbatim and yet exhibit important differences has led to a number of hypotheses explaining their interdependence, a phenomenon termed the Synoptic Problem. Traditionally, Mark was thought to be an epitome of Matthew: today, the most accepted hypothesis is that Mark was the first gospel and was used as a source by both Matthew and Luke, together with considerable additional material.
The strongest argument for this is the fact that Matthew and Luke agree with each other in their sequence of stories and events only when they agree with Mark. Mark appears as the second New Testament gospel because it was traditionally thought to be an epitome of Matthew, but most scholars now regard it as the earliest written gospel. In the 19th century this led to the belief; this conclusion was shaken by two works published in the early decades of the 20th century: in 1901 William Wrede argued that the "Messianic secret" motif in Mark was a creation of the early church rather than a reflection of the historical Jesus. The gospel is still seen as the most reliable of the four in terms of its overall description of Jesus's life and ministry. Christianity began within Judaism, with a Christian "church" that arose shortly after his death, when some of his followers claimed to have witnessed him risen from the dead. From the outset, Christians depended on Jewish literature, supporting their convictions through the Jewish scriptures.
Those convictions involved a nucleus of key concepts: the messiah, the son of God and the son of man, the Day of the Lord, the kingdom of God. Uniting these ideas was the common thread of apocalyptic expectation: Both Jews and Christians believed that the end of history was at hand, that God would soon come to punish their enemies and establish his own rule, that they were at the centre of his plans. Christians read the Jewish scripture as a figure or type of Jesus Christ, so that the goal of Christian literature became an experience of the living Christ; the new movement spread around the eastern Mediterranean and to Rome and further west, an
Chester Cathedral is a Church of England cathedral and the mother church of the Diocese of Chester. It is located in the city of Chester, England; the cathedral is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Since 1541 it has been the seat of the Bishop of Chester; the cathedral is a Grade I listed building, part of a heritage site that includes the former monastic buildings to the north, which are listed Grade I. The cathedral, typical of English cathedrals in having been modified many times, dates from between 1093 and the early 16th century, although the site itself may have been used for Christian worship since Roman times. All the major styles of English medieval architecture, from Norman to Perpendicular, are represented in the present building; the cathedral and former monastic buildings were extensively restored during the 19th century, a free-standing bell-tower was added in the 20th century. In addition to holding services for Christian worship, the buildings are a major tourist attraction in Chester and the cathedral is used as a venue for concerts and exhibitions.
The city of Chester was an important Roman stronghold. There may have been a Christian basilica on the site of the present cathedral in the late Roman era, while Chester was controlled by Legio XX Valeria Victrix. Legend holds that the basilica was dedicated to Saint Peter; this is supported by evidence that in Saxon times the dedication of an early chapel on this site was changed from Saint Peter to Saint Werburgh. During the Early Middle Ages Barloc of Norbury, a Catholic Celtic saint and hermit, was venerated at Chester Cathedral with a feast day on 10 September, he is known to history through the hagiography of the Secgan Manuscript. In 907 Chester was refortified against the threat from the Vikings, shortly afterwards the minster was founded or refounded, Werburgh's remains were transferred there from Hanbury by Æthelflæd, Lady of the Mercians; the collegiate church, as it was was restored in 1057 by Leofric, Earl of Mercia and Lady Godiva. This church was razed to the ground around 1090, with the secular canons evicted, no known trace of it remains.
In 1093 a Benedictine abbey was established on the site by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, with the assistance of St Anselm and other monks from Bec in Normandy. The earliest surviving parts of the structure date from that time; the abbey church was not at that time the cathedral of Chester. In 1538, during the dissolution of the monasteries, the monastery was disbanded and the shrine of Saint Werburgh was desecrated. In 1541 St Werburgh's abbey became a cathedral of the Church of England, by order of Henry VIII. At the same time, the dedication was changed to the Blessed Virgin; the last abbot of St Werburgh’s Abbey, Thomas Clarke, became the first dean of the new cathedral, at the head of a secular chapter. Although little trace of the 10th-century church has been discovered, save some Saxon masonry found during a 1997 excavation of the nave, there is much evidence of the monastery of 1093; this work in the Norman style may be seen in the northwest tower, the north transept and in remaining parts of the monastic buildings.
The abbey church, beginning with the Lady Chapel at the eastern end, was extensively rebuilt in Gothic style during the 13th and 14th centuries. At the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, the cloister, the central tower, a new south transept, the large west window and a new entrance porch to the south had just been built in the Perpendicular style, the southwest tower of the façade had been begun; the west front was given a Tudor entrance. In 1636 the space beneath the south west tower became a bishop's consistory court, it was furnished as such at that time, is now a unique survival in England, hearing its last case, that of an attempted suicide of a priest, in the 1930s. Until 1881, the south transept, unusually large took on a separate function as an independent ecclesiastical entity: the parish church of St Oswald. Although the 17th century saw additions to the furnishings and fittings, there was no further building work for several centuries. By the 19th century, the building was badly in need of restoration.
The present homogeneous appearance that the cathedral presents from many exterior angles is the work of Victorian restorers George Gilbert Scott. The 20th century has seen continued restoration. In 1922, the Chester War Memorial was installed in the cathedral grounds and dedicated to the fallen soldiers of the First World War and the Second World War. In 1973–75 a detached belfry, the Addleshaw Tower, designed by George Pace, was erected in the grounds of the cathedral. In 2005 a new Song School was added to the cathedral. During the 2000s, the cathedral library was relocated, it was reopened in September 2007. The cathedral and the former monastic buildings were designated as Grade I listed buildings on 28 July 1955. Chester Cathedral has an east-west axis, common to many cathedrals, with the chancel at the eastern end, the façade to the west; the plan is cruciform, with a central tower, but is asymmetrical, having a small transept on the north side remaining from an earlier building, an unusually large south transept.
As the plan shows, the asymmetry extends to the west front, where the north tower remains from the Norman buildin
Crucifixion of Jesus
The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most between AD 30 and 33. Jesus' crucifixion is described in the four canonical gospels, referred to in the New Testament epistles, attested to by other ancient sources, is established as a historical event confirmed by non-Christian sources, although there is no consensus among historians on the exact details. According to the canonical gospels, Jesus was arrested and tried by the Sanhedrin, sentenced by Pontius Pilate to be scourged, crucified by the Romans. Jesus was stripped of his clothing and offered wine mixed with myrrh or gall to drink after saying I am thirsty, he was hung between two convicted thieves and, according to the Gospel of Mark, died some six hours later. During this time, the soldiers affixed a sign to the top of the cross stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was written in three languages, they divided his garments among themselves and cast lots for his seamless robe, according to the Gospel of John.
According to the Gospel of John after Jesus' death, one soldier pierced his side with a spear to be certain that he had died blood and water gushed from the wound. The Bible describes seven statements that Jesus made while he was on the cross, as well as several supernatural events that occurred. Collectively referred to as the Passion, Jesus' suffering and redemptive death by crucifixion are the central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement; the baptism of Jesus and his crucifixion are considered to be two certain facts about Jesus. James Dunn states that these "two facts in the life of Jesus command universal assent" and "rank so high on the'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus. Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him. John Dominic Crossan states that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.
Eddy and Boyd state that it is now "firmly established" that there is non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus. Craig Blomberg states that most scholars in the third quest for the historical Jesus consider the crucifixion indisputable. Christopher M. Tuckett states that, although the exact reasons for the death of Jesus are hard to determine, one of the indisputable facts about him is that he was crucified. While scholars agree on the historicity of the crucifixion, they differ on the reason and context for it. For example, both E. P. Sanders and Paula Fredriksen support the historicity of the crucifixion but contend that Jesus did not foretell his own crucifixion and that his prediction of the crucifixion is a "church creation". Geza Vermes views the crucifixion as a historical event but provides his own explanation and background for it. John P. Meier views the crucifixion of Jesus as historical fact and states that, based on the criterion of embarrassment, Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.
Meier states that a number of other criteria, e.g. the criterion of multiple attestation and the criterion of coherence help establish the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical event. Although all ancient sources relating to crucifixion are literary, the 1968 archeological discovery just northeast of Jerusalem of the body of a crucified man dated to the 1st century provided good confirmatory evidence that crucifixions occurred during the Roman period according to the manner in which the crucifixion of Jesus is described in the gospels; the crucified man was identified as Yehohanan ben Hagkol and died about 70 AD, around the time of the Jewish revolt against Rome. The analyses at the Hadassah Medical School estimated. Another relevant archaeological find, which dates to the 1st century AD, is an unidentified heel bone with a spike discovered in a Jerusalem gravesite, now held by the Israel Antiquities Authority and displayed in the Israel Museum; the earliest detailed accounts of the death of Jesus are contained in the four canonical gospels.
There are other, more implicit references in the New Testament epistles. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate places. All four Gospels conclude with an extended narrative of Jesus' arrest, initial trial at the Sanhedrin and final trial at Pilate's court, where Jesus is flogged, condemned to death, is led to the place of crucifixion carrying his cross before Roman soldiers induce Simon of Cyrene to carry it, Jesus is crucified and resurrected from the dead, his death is described as other books of the New Testament. In each Gospel these five events in the life of Jesus are treated with more intense detail than any other portion of that Gospel's narrative. Scholars note that the reader receives an hour-by-hour account of what is happening. After arriving at Golgotha, Jesus was offered wine mixed with gall to drink. Matthew's and Mark's Gospels record, he was crucified and hung between two convicted thieves. According to some translations of the original Greek, the thieves may have been bandits or Jewish rebels.
According to Mark's Gospel, he endured the torment of crucifixion for some six hours from the third hour, at 9 am, until his death at the ninth hour, corresponding to about 3 pm. The soldiers affixed a sign above his head stating "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews" which, according to the Gospel of John, was in three languages, divided his garments and cast l