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Maryland Toleration Act

The Maryland Toleration Act known as the Act Concerning Religion, was religious tolerance for Trinitarian Christians. It was passed on April 21, 1649, in St. Mary's City, it was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created one of the pioneer statutes passed by the legislative body of an organized colonial government to guarantee any degree of religious liberty. The bill, now referred to as the Toleration Act, granted freedom of conscience to all Christians. Historians argue that it helped inspire legal protections for freedom of religion in the United States; the Calvert family, who founded Maryland as a refuge for English Catholics, sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and those of other religions that did not conform to the dominant Anglicanism of Britain and her colonies. The Act allowed freedom of worship for all Trinitarian Christians in Maryland, but sentenced to death anyone who denied the divinity of Jesus, it was revoked in 1654 by William Claiborne, a Virginian, appointed as a commissioner by Oliver Cromwell.

When the Calverts regained control of Maryland, the Act was reinstated, before being repealed permanently in 1692 following the events of the Glorious Revolution, the Protestant Revolution in Maryland. As the first law on religious tolerance in the British North America, it influenced related laws in other colonies and portions of it were echoed in the writing of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which enshrined religious freedom in American law; the Maryland colony was founded by Cecil Calvert in 1634. Like his father George Calvert, who had originated the efforts that led to the colony's charter, Cecil Calvert was Catholic at a time when England was dominated by the Anglican Church; the Calverts intended the colony as a haven for Catholics fleeing England and as a source of income for themselves and their descendants. Many of Maryland's first settlers were Catholic, including at least two Catholic priests, one of whom became the earliest chronicler of the colony's history.

But whatever Calvert's intentions, Maryland was a colony of an Anglican nation. Its charter had been granted by an Anglican king and seems to have assumed that the Church of England would be its official church. Anglican and Puritan newcomers came to outnumber the early Catholic settlers. Thus, by 1649 when the law was passed, the colonial assembly was dominated by Protestants, the law was in effect an act of Protestant tolerance for Catholics, rather than the reverse. From Maryland's earliest days, Cecil Calvert had enjoined its colonists to leave religious rivalries behind. Along with giving instructions on the establishment and defense of the colony, he asked the men he appointed to lead it to ensure peace between Protestants and Catholics, he asked the Catholics to practice their faith as as possible, so as not to disturb that peace. The Ordinance of 1639, Maryland's earliest comprehensive law, expressed a general commitment to the rights of man, but did not detail protections for religious minorities of any kind.

Peace prevailed until the English Civil War, which opened religious rifts and threatened Calvert's control of Maryland. In 1647, after the death of Governor Leonard Calvert, Protestants seized control of the colony. Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore regained power, but recognized that religious tolerance not enshrined in law was vulnerable; this recognition was combined with the arrival of a group of Puritans whom Calvert had induced to establish Providence, now Annapolis, by guaranteeing their freedom of worship. To confirm the promises he made to them, Calvert wrote the Maryland Toleration Act and encouraged the colonial assembly to pass it, they did so on April 21, 1649. The Maryland Toleration Act was an act of tolerance, allowing specific religious groups to practice their religion without being punished, but retaining the ability to revoke that right at any time, it only granted tolerance to Christians who believed in the Trinity. The law was explicit in limiting its effects to Christians:... no person or persons... professing to believe in Jesus Christ, shall from henceforth be anyways troubled, Molested or discountenanced for or in respect of his or her religion nor in the free exercise thereof within this Province...

Settlers who blasphemed by denying either the Trinity or the divinity of Jesus Christ could be punished by execution or the seizure of their lands. That meant that Jews and other dissenters from Trinitarian Christianity were practicing their religions at risk to their lives. Any person who insulted the Virgin Mary, the apostles, or the evangelists could be whipped, jailed, or fined. Otherwise, Trinitarian Christians' right to worship was protected; the law outlawed the use of "heretic" and other religious insults against them. The law was used in at least one attempt to prosecute a non-Christian. In 1658 a Jew named Jacob Lumbrozo was accused of blasphemy after saying that Jesus was not the son of God and that the miracles described in the New Testament were conjuring tricks. Lumbrozo did not deny having said such things, but argued that he had only been responding to questions asked of him, he was held for trial but the case was dismissed, he was given full citizenship as a condition of the restoration of Calvert's rule following the English Civil War.


Cops & Doughnuts

Cops & Doughnuts is a bakery in Clare, United States. Opened in 2009 in the former Clare City Bakery, the shop is notable for being owned by members of the city's police department. Cops & Doughnuts first opened in 2009 when nine officers in the police department of Clare purchased the Clare City Bakery, about to go out of business due to the economic decline at the time. Greg Rynearson, one of the officers, retired to focus on the bakery full time. In addition to a full-scale bakery serving coffee and doughnuts, the store features a diner and gift shop which sells police officer-related merchandise. In 2015, the store had more than 500,000 visitors; the owners began distributing their doughnuts and coffee to other local retailers, including a "precinct" inside the Jay's Sporting Goods store in Gaylord. A second location was opened in the former McDonald's Bakery in Ludington in 2016, plans were announced to open a third location in Bay City; the bakery has been publicized for the novelty of a doughnut shop being owned by police officers.

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Handley Page H.P.20

The Handley Page H. P.20 was an experimental monoplane modification of a de Havilland DH.9A, built to study controllable slots and slotted ailerons as high lift devices. It was the first aircraft to fly with controllable slots. Frederick Handley Page obtained his master patent for controllable slots on the edge of an aircraft wing on 24 October 1919, he knew that the lift coefficient of all wings increased linearly until the stall was approached fell away. In Germany Gustav Lachmann had the same idea, though through a wish to avoid the dangers of stalling. Rather than going to litigation an agreement was reached in which Lachmann, working with Prandtl at the advanced Goettingen air tunnel acted as consultant to Handley Page. Lachmann heard about the Handley Page work when they modified a standard DH.9A with fixed slots and demonstrated it at the Handley Page airfield at Cricklewood on 21 October 1920. That machine was retrospectively designated the H. P.17. The first aircraft with pilot controllable slots, designed by Handley Page and wind tunnel tested by Lachmann was called the X.4B in the company's contemporary notation but became, the H.

P.20. The Air Ministry met the cost. Like the H. P.17 it used a D. H.9A engine and empennage, but fitted with an new wing. The H. P.20 was a high-wing monoplane, using a thick wing with a straight leading edge but taper on the trailing edge. It was a semi-cantilever structure bolted to a small cabane on the fuselage and braced to the lower fuselage longerons with a pair of steeply rising struts on each side; the heaviness of early cantilever wing structures is shown by a comparison of the loaded weight of the H. P.20 with that of the loaded standard biplane DH.9A. The undersurface was flat and the front edge cropped to allow the full span slats, when closed, to form the true leading edge; the slats were hinged ahead at their leading edges. In addition, slots opened in front of the ailerons; this was done via a groove in the wing just in front of the aileron hinge, narrowing towards the top surface. The spans and wing areas of the DH.9A and H. P.20 were about the same, so the wing chord of the monoplane was about double that of the biplane.

As a result, the tailing edge extended aft beyond the DH.9A's pilot's cockpit and so the H. P. 20 was flown from. There was a small cut out in the trailing edge to enhance the pilot's view; as there was no upper wing to house the fuel, the H. P.20 had a round-ended cylindrical tank mounted high over the centre section to provide gravity feed. Because high angles of attack were used in landing and take off with the slots open, the undercarriage was lengthened, as it had been on the H. P.17. There was an airflow direction indicator mounted on a little boom which projected forward of the starboard wing; the H. P. 20 was first flown. About a month it was flying with controllable slots. In one test it landed at 43 mphh at a wing loading of 11 lb/ft2, about the same as a Cessna 152; this corresponds to a lift coefficient of 1.17. Aerodynamic loads made the slats hard to operate reliably. After manufacturer's tests, the Air Ministry agreed to take on the aircraft, but the Ministry's pilot made a heavy landing at Cricklewood during acceptance flights and the H.

P.20 remained there for repairs until final delivery in February 1922. Data from Barnes & James 1987, pp. 229General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 30 ft 0 in Wingspan: 47 ft 6 in Wing area: 500 ft2 Gross weight: 6,500 lb Powerplant: 1 × Liberty 12-N water cooled V-12, 400 hp

The International Journal of Aging and Human Development

The International Journal of Aging and Human Development is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering gerontology from multiple disciplinary perspectives. It was established in 1970 as Aging and Human Development, obtaining its current name in 1973, it is published eight times per year by SAGE Publications and the editor-in-chief is Julie Hicks Patrick. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 0.881, ranking it 6th out of 7 journals in the category "Gerontology" and 67th out of 73 journals in the category "Psychology, Developmental". Smith, Gregory C.. "International Journal of Aging and Human Development". The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Family Studies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 1–2. Doi:10.1002/9781119085621.wbefs424. ISBN 9781119085621. Official website

Chuck Hanger

Charles E. Hanger was an American basketball player, known for his career as a collegian at the University of California, Berkeley and as an All-American player in the Amateur Athletic Union in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Hanger attended Berkeley High School in California before moving to hometown Cal. After playing his first two seasons at Cal, Hanger enlisted in the United States Army in 1943 to fight in World War II. While in combat in Belgium, Hanger was captured on December 19, 1944 and held until released by American forces in April, 1945. Following his service, Hanger returned to the Bears' lineup for the 1946 -- 1947 -- 48 seasons; as a senior, he was honored as an All-Pacific Coast Conference selection alongside teammate Andy Wolfe. Following the close of his college career, Hanger was drafted by the Minneapolis Lakers in the 1948 BAA draft. However, he decided to instead play closer to home in the AAU, a common route for players of his generation; the 6'6" forward played for the Oakland Bittners and Oakland Blue n' Gold Atlas for four seasons.

He won an AAU championship alongside Hall of Fame player Don Barksdale with the Bittners in 1949 and was twice named an AAU All-American. After leaving basketball, Hanger was an attorney in the Bay Area for over 30 years, he died on July 23, 1995. Cal Golden Bears HOF bio

Sir Edward Stradling, 5th Baronet

Sir Edward Stradling, 5th Baronet was a Welsh landowner and politician and a baronet in the peerage of England. He was the eldest surviving son of Sir Edward Stradling, 4th Baronet of St Donat's Castle and educated at Christ Church, Oxford, he succeeded his father in 1685. Stradling was Member of Parliament for Cardiff, 1698, 1700–01, 1710–22, Sheriff of Glamorgan, 1709-10, he died in 1735, having married Elizabeth, the daughter of Sir Edward Mansel, 4th Baronet, M. P. of Margam, with whom he had two sons. The elder son, predeceased him in 1726, the younger son and heir, Sir Thomas, who died in mysterious circumstances in Montpelier in 1738, was the last Stradling of St Donat's; as a result of an understanding between Thomas Stradling and his friend Sir John Tyrwhitt, whereby each promised the other his inheritance in the event of his death, St Donat's passed to the Tyrwhitts. Leigh Rayment's list of baronets