Sāmarrā is a city in Iraq. It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate,125 kilometers north of Baghdad, in 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700. Samarra was once in the Sunni Triangle of violence during the violence in Iraq. In the medieval times, Samarra was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, in 2007, UNESCO named Samarra one of its World Heritage Sites. The remains of prehistoric Samarra were first excavated between 1911 and 1914 by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld, Samarra became the type site for the Samarra culture. Since 1946, the notebooks, unpublished excavation reports and photographs have been in the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, the civilization flourished alongside the Ubaid period, as one of the first town states in the Near East. It lasted from 5,500 BCE and eventually collapsed in 3,900 BCE, a city of Sur-marrati is insecurely identified with a fortified Assyrian site of Assyrian at al-Huwaysh on the Tigris opposite modern Samarra.
The State Archives of Assyria Online identifies Surimarrat as the site of Samarra. In 836 the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutasim founded a new capital at the banks of the Tigris, here he built extensive palace complexes surrounded by garrison settlements for his guards, mostly drawn from Central Asia and Iran or North Africa. Although quite often called Mamluk slave soldiers, their status was quite elevated, for his son al-Mutazz he built the large palace Bulkuwara. Samarra remained the residence of the caliph until 892, when al-Mutadid eventually returned to Baghdad, the city declined but maintained a mint until the early 10th century. After the collapse of the Abbasid empire in about 940 Samarra was abandoned and its population returned to Baghdad and the city rapidly declined. Its field of ruins is the only metropolis of late antiquity which is available for serious archaeology. This has made it an important pilgrimage centre for the Twelvers, in addition and Narjis, female relatives of the Muhammad and the Imams, held in high esteem by Muslims, are buried there, making this mosque one of the most significant sites of worship.
In the eighteenth century, one of the most bloody battles of the 1730–1735 Ottoman–Persian War, the Battle of Samarra, took place, the engagement decided the fate of Ottoman Iraq and kept it under Istanbuls suzerainty until the First World War. Many local people were displaced by the dam, resulting in an increase in Samarras population, Samarra is a key city in Saladin Governorate, a major part of the so-called Sunni Triangle where insurgents were active during the Iraq War. Though Samarra is famous for its Shii holy sites, including the tombs of several Shii Imams, tensions arose between Sunnis and the Shia during the Iraq War. On February 22,2006, the dome of the al-Askari Mosque was bombed, setting off a period of rioting
Wit is a form of intelligent humour, the ability to say or write things that are clever and usually funny. A wit is a person skilled at making clever and funny remarks, forms of wit include the quip and repartee. As in the wit of Dorothy Parkers set, the Algonquin Round Table, witty remarks may be intentionally cruel, and perhaps more ingenious than funny. A quip is an observation or saying that has some wit but perhaps descends into sarcasm, or otherwise is short of a point, repartee is the wit of the quick answer and capping comment, the snappy comeback and neat retort. English poet John Donne is the representative of this style of poetry, more generally, ones wits are ones intellectual powers of all types. Native wit — meaning the wits with one is born — is closely synonymous with common sense. To live by ones wits is to be an opportunist, to have ones wits about one is to be alert and capable of quick reasoning. To be at the end of ones wits is to be immensely frustrated, hartford Wits New Oxford Wits Oxford Wits D. W.
Jefferson, Tristram Shandy and the Tradition of Learned Wit in Essays in Criticism,1, 225-49
A caliphate is an area containing an Islamic steward known as a caliph —a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, and a leader of the entire Muslim community. During the history of Islam after the Rashidun period, many Muslim states, the Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt, before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root. The term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means successor, however, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was successor selected by God. There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation, candidates were usually, but not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual heir, Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was chosen by the community and that this was the proper procedure.
Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus, the Shia believe that Ali, the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was chosen by Muhammad as his spiritual and temporal successor as the Mawla of all Muslims in the event of Ghadir Khumm. The caliph was often known as Amir al-Muminin, Muhammad established his capital in Medina, after he died, it remained the capital during the Rashidun Caliphate, before Kufa was reportedly made the capital by Caliph Ali. At times there have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, according to Sunni Muslims, the first caliph to be called Amir al-Muminin was Abu Bakr, followed by Umar, the second of the Rashidun. Uthman and Ali were called by the title, while the Shia consider Ali to have been the only truly legitimate caliph. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the system of Caliphate in Islam as part of his secular reforms, the Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amir al-Muminin for the Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate.
Some Muslim countries, including Somalia and Malaysia, were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, these countries had their own, sultans or rulers who did not fully accept the authority of the Caliph. Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. His successor, was elected by a council of electors, Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali took control but was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt and he faced two major rebellions and was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Khawarij. Alis tumultuous rule lasted only five years and this period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. The followers of Ali became the Shia minority sect of Islam, the followers of all four Rashidun Caliphs became the majority Sunni sect. Under the Rashidun each region of the Caliphate had its own governor, Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor of Syria, succeeded Ali as Caliph
Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine persons of Jesus. It was advanced by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to 431, following that, many of Nestoriuss supporters relocated to the Sasanian Empire, where they affiliated with the local Christian community, known as the Church of the East. Over the next decades the Church of the East became increasingly Nestorian in doctrine, Nestorianism is a form of dyophysitism. It can be seen as the antithesis to monophysitism, which emerged in reaction to Nestorianism, where Nestorianism holds that Christ had two loosely united natures and human, monophysitism holds that he had but a single nature, his human nature being absorbed into his divinity. Both Nestorianism and monophysitism were condemned as heretical at the Council of Chalcedon, monophysitism survived and developed into the Miaphysitism of the Oriental Orthodoxy. Nestorianism never again became prominent in the Roman Empire or Europe, though the diffusion of the Church of the East in and after the seventh century, despite this initial Eastern expansion, the Nestorians missionary success was eventually deterred.
Isolated pockets of Christianity survived only in India, Nestorius took his Antiochene leanings with him when he was appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by Byzantine emperor Theodosius II in 428. Nestoriuss teachings became the root of controversy when he challenged the long-used title Theotokos for Mary. He suggested that the title denied Christs full humanity, arguing instead that Jesus had two persons, the divine Logos and the human Jesus, as a result of this duality, he proposed Christotokos as a more suitable title for Mary. Nestorius opponents found his teaching too close to the heresy of adoptionism – the idea that Christ had been born a man who had been adopted as Gods son. Nestorius was especially criticized by Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria, a more elaborate Nestorian theology developed from there, which came to see Christ as having two natures united, or hypostases, the divine Logos and the human Christ. However, this formulation was never adopted by all churches termed Nestorian, the modern Assyrian Church of the East, which reveres Nestorius, does not fully subscribe to Nestorian doctrine, though it does not employ the title Theotokos.
Nestorianism became a distinct sect following the Nestorian Schism, beginning in the 430s, Nestorius had come under fire from Western theologians, most notably Cyril of Alexandria. Cyril and Nestorius asked Pope Celestine I to weigh in on the matter, Celestine found that the title Theotokos was orthodox, and authorized Cyril to ask Nestorius to recant. Cyril, used the opportunity to further attack Nestorius, in 431 Theodosius called the Council of Ephesus. However, the council sided with Cyril, being a monophysite. The council accused Nestorius of heresy, and deposed him as patriarch, Nestorianism was officially anathematized, a ruling reiterated at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. However, a number of churches, particularly associated with the School of Edessa, supported Nestorius – though not necessarily his doctrine –
Slavs are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe. They are native to Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeastern Europe, Northeastern Europe, North Asia, Slavs speak Slavic languages of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, states with Slavic languages comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area. Present-day Slavic people are classified into West Slavs, East Slavs, there are an estimated 360 million Slavs worldwide. The Slavic autonym is reconstructed in Proto-Slavic as *Slověninъ, plural *Slověne, the oldest documents written in Old Church Slavonic and dating from the 9th century attest the autonym as Slověne. The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλῆς, whence comes the name Pericles, Latin clueo, some other theories have limited support. The English term slave eventually derives from the ethnonym Slav, Slavs were captured and enslaved by the Muslims of Spain during the ninth century AD.
The Slavs under name of the Antes and the Sclaveni make their first appearance in Byzantine records in the early 6th century. Procopius wrote in 545 that the Sclaveni and the Antae actually had a name in the remote past. He described them as barbarians, who lived under democracy, and that believe in one god. They lived in scattered housing, and constantly changed settlement, regarding warfare, they were mainly foot soldiers with small shields and battleaxes, lightly clothed, some entering battle naked with only their genitals covered. And they live a life, giving no heed to bodily comforts. Jordanes described the Sclaveni having swamps and forests for their cities, another 6th-century source refers to them living among nearly impenetrable forests, rivers and marshes. Menander Protector mentions a Daurentius that slew an Avar envoy of Khagan Bayan I. The Avars asked the Slavs to accept the suzerainty of the Avars, he declined and is reported as saying, Others do not conquer our land. The relationship between the Slavs and a called the Veneti east of the River Vistula in the Roman period is uncertain.
The name may refer both to Balts and Slavs, perhaps some Slavs migrated with the movement of the Vandals to Iberia and north Africa. Around the 6th century, Slavs appeared on Byzantine borders in great numbers, the Byzantine records note that grass would not regrow in places where the Slavs had marched through, so great were their numbers
Dissection, is the dismembering of the body of a deceased animal or plant to study its anatomical structure. Autopsy is used in pathology and forensic medicine to determine the cause of death in humans and it is carried out by or demonstrated to biology and anatomy students in high school and medical school. Less advanced courses typically focus on subjects, such as small formaldehyde-preserved animals. Consequently, dissection is typically conducted in a morgue or in an anatomy lab, dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy. Objections to the use of cadavers have led to the use of alternatives including virtual dissection of computer models and animal bodies are dissected to analyze the structure and function of its components. Dissection is practised by students in courses of biology, botany and veterinary science, in medical schools, students dissect human cadavers to learn anatomy. Dissection is used to help to determine the cause of death in autopsy and is an part of forensic medicine. A key principle in the dissection of human cadavers is the prevention of disease to the dissector.
Specimens are dissected in morgues or anatomy labs, when provided, they are evaluated for use as a fresh or prepared specimen. A fresh specimen may be dissected within some days, retaining the characteristics of a living specimen, a prepared specimen may be preserved in solutions such as formalin and pre-dissected by an experienced anatomist, sometimes with the help of a diener. This preparation is sometimes called prosection, most dissection involves the careful isolation and removal of individual organs, called the Virchow technique. An alterative more cumbersome technique involves the removal of the organ body. This technique allows a body to be sent to a director without waiting for the sometimes time-consuming dissection of individual organs. Dissection of individual organs involves accessing the area in which the organ is situated, for example, when removing the heart, connects such as the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are separated. If pathological connections exist, such as a fibrous pericardium, this may be deliberately dissected along with the organ, Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC.
During this period, the first exploration into full human anatomy was performed rather than a base knowledge gained from problem-solution delving and after this time investigators appeared to largely limit themselves to animals. While there was a taboo within the Greek culture concerning human dissection. For a time, Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body, for example, dissected the Barbary macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans
Baghdad is the capital of the Republic of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000 making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world, and the second largest city in Western Asia. Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century, within a short time of its inception, Baghdad evolved into a significant cultural and intellectual center for the Islamic world. This, in addition to housing several key institutions, garnered the city a worldwide reputation as the Centre of Learning. Throughout the High Middle Ages, Baghdad was considered to be the largest city in the world with a population of 1,200,000 people. The city was destroyed at the hands of the Mongol Empire in 1258, resulting in a decline that would linger through many centuries due to frequent plagues. With the recognition of Iraq as an independent state in 1938, in contemporary times, the city has often faced severe infrastructural damage, most recently due to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the subsequent Iraq War that lasted until December 2011.
In recent years, the city has been subjected to insurgency attacks. As of 2012, Baghdad was listed as one of the least hospitable places in the world to live, the site where the city of Baghdad developed has been populated for millennia. By the 8th century AD, several villages had developed there, including a Persian hamlet called Baghdad, the name is of Indo-European origin and a Middle Persian compound of Bagh god and dād given by, translating to Bestowed by God or Gods gift. In Old Persian the first element can be traced to boghu and is related to Slavic bog god, a similar term in Middle Persian is the name Mithradāt, known in English by its Hellenistic form Mithridates, meaning gift of Mithra. There are a number of locations in the wider region whose names are compounds of the word bagh, including Baghlan. The name of the town Baghdati in Georgia shares the same etymological origins, when the Abbasid caliph, al-Mansur, founded a completely new city for his capital, he chose the name Madinat al-Salaam or City of Peace.
This was the name on coins and other official usage. By the 11th century, Baghdad became almost the exclusive name for the world-renowned metropolis, after the fall of the Umayyads, the first Muslim dynasty, the victorious Abbasid rulers wanted their own capital whence they could rule. They chose a site north of the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, on 30 July 762, the caliph Al-Mansur commissioned the construction of the city, mansur believed that Baghdad was the perfect city to be the capital of the Islamic empire under the Abbasids. Mansur loved the site so much he is quoted saying, This is indeed the city that I am to found, where I am to live, and where my descendants will reign afterward. The citys growth was helped by its excellent location, based on at least two factors, it had control over strategic and trading routes along the Tigris, the abundance of water in a dry climate
The simians are the monkeys, cladistically including the apes, the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes. The simian line and the line diverged about 60 million years ago. Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, the remaining simians split 25 million years ago into apes and Old World monkeys. Under modern classification, the tarsiers and simians are grouped under the suborder Haplorhini while the strepsirrhines are placed in suborder Strepsirrhini, in anthropoidea, evidences indicate that the Old and the New World primates went through parallel evolution. Primatology, paleoanthropology, and other related fields are split on their usage of the synonymous infraorder names and Anthropoidea. According to Robert Hoffstetter, the term Simiiformes has priority over Anthropoidea because of the taxonomic term Simii by van der Hoeven, from which it is constructed, dates to 1833. In contrast, Anthropoidea by Mivart dates to 1864, while Simiiformes by Haeckel dates to 1866, Hoffstetter argued that Simiiformes is constructed like a proper infraorder name, whereas Anthropoidea ends in -oidea, which is reserved for superfamilies.
He noted that Anthropoidea is too easily confused with anthropoïdes, the simians are split into three distinct groups. The New World monkeys in parvorder Platyrrhini split from the rest of the line about 40 mya. This group split about 25 mya between the Old World monkeys and the apes
George Alfred Leon Sarton, a Belgian-American chemist and historian, is considered the founder of the discipline of history of science. He has a significant importance in the history of science and his most influential work was the Introduction to the History of Science, which consists of three volumes and 4,296 pages. Sarton ultimately aimed to achieve an integrated philosophy of science provided a connection between the sciences and the humanities, which he referred to as the new humanism. George Alfred Leon Sarton was born in Ghent, Belgium on August 31,1884 and his parents were Alfred Sarton and Léonie Van Halmé, his mother died when he was less than a year old. He graduated from the University of Ghent in 1906 and two years won a gold medal for one of his papers on chemistry. He received his PhD in mathematics at the University of Ghent in 1911 and he emigrated to the United States from Belgium due to First World War, and worked there the rest of his life and writing about the history of science.
In 1911, he married Mabel Eleanor Elwes, an English artist and their daughter Eleanore Marie was born the following year in 1912. Although he and his emigrated to England after World War I broke out, they immigrated to the United States in 1915. He worked for the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace and lectured at Harvard University, at Harvard, he became a lecturer in 1920, and a professor of the history of science from 1940 until his retirement in 1951. He was an associate of the Carnegie Institution of Washington from 1919 until 1948. By the time of his death, he had completed only the first three volumes, Sarton had been inspired for his project by his study of Leonardo da Vinci, but he had not reached this period in history before dying. After his death, a selection of his papers was edited by Dorothy Stimson. It was published by Harvard University Press in 1962, in honor of Sartons achievements, the History of Science Society created the award known as the George Sarton Medal. It is the most prestigious award of the History of Science Society and it has been awarded annually since 1955 to an outstanding historian of science selected from the international scholarly community.
The medal honors a scholar for lifetime scholarly achievement, Sarton was the founder of this society and of its journals and Osiris, which publish articles on science and culture. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication no.376, baltimore and Wilkins, Co. George Sarton, The Incubation of Western Culture in the Middle East, a George C. Keiser Foundation Lecture, March 29,1950, Washington, D. C, Introduction to the History of Science. Ancient science through the Golden Age of Greece, Mass, hellenistic science and culture in the last three centuries B. C
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd, better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh, was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842. A younger son of Harun al-Rashid, he rose to prominence through his formation of an army composed predominantly of Turkish slave-soldiers. When al-Mamun died unexpectedly on campaign in August 833, al-Mutasim was thus well placed to succeed him, overriding the claims of his nephew, al-Mutasim continued many of his brothers policies, like the partnership with the Tahirids, who ruled Khurasan and Baghdad on behalf of the Abbasids. With the support of the powerful chief qādī, Ahmad ibn Abi Duwad, he continued to implement the doctrine of Mutazilism, although personally disinterested in literary pursuits, al-Mutasim nurtured the scientific renaissance begun under al-Mamun. In other ways, his reign marks a departure and a moment in Islamic history, with the creation of a new regime centred on the military. In 836, a new capital was established at Samarra to symbolize this new regime and this strengthened the position of the Turks and their principal leaders, Wasif and Bugha.
Another prominent member of al-Mutasims inner circle, the prince of Ushrusana, al-Afshin, fell foul of his enemies at court and was overthrown, al-Mutasims reign was marked by continuous warfare. His generals led the fight against internal rebellions, al-Mutasim himself led a major campaign in 838 against the Byzantine Empire, with his armies defeating Emperor Theophilos and sacking the city of Amorium. The Amorium campaign was celebrated, and became a cornerstone of caliphal propaganda. October 796, or in AH179 and his parents were the Caliph Harun al-Rashid and Marida, an otherwise unknown slave concubine. Marida was born in Kufa, but her family hailed from Soghdia, as an adult, including during his caliphate, he was commonly called by his kunya, Abu Ishaq. Al-Tabari describes the adult Abu Ishaq as fair-complexioned, with a beard the hair tips of which were red and the end of which was square and streaked with red. As one of Haruns younger sons, Abu Ishaq was initially of little consequence, during his stay in Mecca, his troops defeated and captured a pro-Alid leader who had raided the pilgrim caravans.
He led the pilgrimage in the year, but no details are known. 814/5, Abu Ishaq began forming his corps of Turkish troops, the nature and identity of al-Mutasims Turkish slave soldiers is a controversial subject, with both the ethnic label and the slave status of its members disputed. Al-Tabari mentions that in 819 Abu Ishaq commanded a force sent against some Kharijite rebels, during this campaign, one of the Turkish ghilmān placed himself between a Kharijite lancer and the future caliph, Recognize me. To express his appreciation, Abu Ishaq on that same day granted this man the name Ashinas, Egypt had just been brought back under caliphal authority and pacified after the tumults of the civil war by Ibn Tahir, but the situation remained volatile. When Abu Ishaqs governor, Umayr ibn al-Walid, tried to raise taxes, in 830, Umayr tried to forcibly subdue the rebels, but was ambushed and killed along with many of his troops
Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Assyrian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur. He was a Nestorian and spoke the Syriac language, grandson of Jirjis ibn Jibril, he lived in the second half of the eighth century. He was physician to Jafar the Barmakide, in 805-6 to Harun al-Rashid and to al-Mamun, died in 828-29 and he wrote various medical works and exerted much influence upon the progress of science in Baghdad. Works attributed to him include Kitāb ṭabā’i‘ al-ḥayawān wa-khawāṣṣihā wa-manāfi‘ a‘ḍā’ihā, written for Nasir al-Dawla, Risāla fī al-ṭibb wa-al-aḥdāth al-nafsāniyya and he was a member of the Bakhtyashu family. He took pains to obtain Greek medical manuscripts and patronized the translators, list of Persian scientists The Bukhtishu family. Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu F. Wüstenfeld, Arabische Aerzte, max Meyerhof, New Light on Hunain ibn Ishaq
Pharmacists, known as chemists or druggists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the care team directly involved with patient care. This is mated to anatomy and pathophysiology, Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy, in most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing and administering certain medications in some jurisdictions. Pharmacists may practice in a variety of settings, including industry, research, military. Historically, the role of pharmacists as a healthcare practitioner was to check. Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe, Pharmacists may practice compounding, many medicines are now produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and drug delivery form.
One of the most important roles that pharmacists are currently taking on is one of pharmaceutical care, Pharmaceutical care involves taking direct responsibility for patients and their disease states and management of each to improve outcomes. Pharmacists are often the first point-of-contact for patients with health inquiries, thus pharmacists have a significant role in assessing medication management in patients, and in referring patients to physicians. In most countries, pharmacists must obtain a university degree at a school or related institution. In many contexts, students must first complete pre-professional coursework, followed by four years of professional academic studies to obtain a degree in pharmacy. Additional curriculum may cover diagnosis with emphasis on tests, disease state management, therapeutics. On graduation, pharmacists are licensed, either nationally or regionally, some may undergo further specialized training, such as in cardiology or oncology. Specialties include, The Australian Pharmacy Council is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists and it conducts examinations on behalf of the Pharmacy Board of Australia towards eligibility for registration.
The Australian College of Pharmacy provides continuing education programs for pharmacists, wages for pharmacists in Australia appear to have stagnated. The award wages for a pharmacist is $812 a week, Pharmacist graduates are the lowest paid university graduates most years. Most pharmacists do earn above the wage, the average male pharmacist earns $65,000