Masculinity is a set of attributes and roles associated with boys and men. Although masculinity is constructed, some research indicates that some behaviors considered masculine are biologically influenced. To what extent masculinity is biologically or influenced is subject to debate, it is distinct from the definition of the biological male sex, as both males and females can exhibit masculine traits. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across historical periods. Traits traditionally viewed as masculine in Western society include strength, independence and assertiveness. Machismo is a form of masculinity that emphasizes power and is associated with a disregard for consequences and responsibility. Virility is similar to masculinity, but emphasizes strength and sex drive. Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, expected of boys and men; the academic study of masculinity received increased attention during the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the number of courses on the subject in the United States rising from 30 to over 300.
This has sparked investigation of the intersection of masculinity with concepts from other fields, such as the social construction of gender difference. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior; those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification. The concept of masculinity varies and culturally. Since what constitutes masculinity has varied by time and place, according to Raewyn Connell, it is more appropriate to discuss "masculinities" than a single overarching concept. Ancient literature dates back to about 3000 BC, with explicit expectations for men in the form of laws and implied masculine ideals in myths of gods and heroes. According to the Code of Hammurabi: Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death." Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."In the Hebrew Bible of 1000 BC, when King David of Israel drew near to death, he told his son Solomon: "I go the way of all the earth: be thou strong therefore, shew thyself a man".
In his book Germania, Tacitus stated that the men from the ancient Germanic tribes fought aggressively in battle to protect their women from capture by the enemy."It stands on record that armies wavering and on the point of collapse have been rallied by the women, pleading heroically with their men, thrusting forward their bared bosoms, making them realize the imminent prospect of enslavement - a fate which the Germans fear more for their women than for themselves." -Tacitus Tacitus presented the Germanic warrior Arminius as a masculine hero in his account of ancient Germany whose violent nature was further heightened by the abduction of his beloved wife Thusnelda by the Roman general Germanicus. In his rage Arminius demanded war against the Roman empire. Jeffrey Richards describes a European "medieval masculinity, Christian and chivalric". Courage, respect for women of all classes and generosity characterize the portrayal of men in literary history. According to David Rosen, the traditional view of scholars that Beowulf is a tale of medieval heroism overlooks the similarities between Beowulf and the monster Grendel.
The masculinity exemplified by Beowulf "cut men off from women, other men and the household". During the Victorian era, masculinity underwent a transformation from traditional heroism. Scottish philosopher Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1831: "The old ideal of Manhood has grown obsolete, the new is still invisible to us, we grope after it in darkness, one clutching this phantom, another that. Boxing was professionalized in Europe in the 19th century. Bare-knuckle fighting without gloves represented "the manly art" in 19th-century America. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a traditional family consisted of the father as breadwinner and the mother as homemaker. Despite women's increasing participation in the paid labor force and contributions to family income, men's identities remained centered on their working lives and their economic contributions. In 1963, social theorist Erving Goffman's seminal work on stigma management presented a list of traits prescribed as categorically masculine for American men:In an important sense there is only one complete unblushing male in America: a young, white, northern, heterosexual Protestant father of college education employed, of good complexion and height, a recent record in sports.:128 Writing in 1974, R. Gould asserted that the provider role was central to adult men's identities, as masculinity is measured by the size of a man's economic contribution to the family.
Masculinity is secured by denying any semblance of softness, femininity, or any characteristic associated with women. Overwhelmingly, the construction of masculinity most valued in the latter part of the twentieth century and the early 21st century is one, independent, sexually assertive, athletic, among other normative markers of manhood. There is some evidence of masculinities undergoing shifts in the contemporary social landscape. Characteristic of pr
The Great Lines Heritage Park is a complex network of open spaces in the Medway Towns, connecting Chatham, Gillingham and the Historic Dockyard. The long military history of the towns has dominated the history of the park; the Great Lines Heritage Park, consists of Fort Amherst, Chatham Lines, the Field of Fire, Inner Lines, Medway Park together with the Lower Lines. The Lines, were constructed in Napoleonic times, they were never used but they have been used to be a barrier to development, keeping the fort and the Lines untouched. Most of the park is accessible to all at most times, it has many cycle links for residents of the two towns of Gillingham and Chatham. The Lines are known as a'Bastion trace fortification', a linear defence with projecting bastions allowing covering fire to be directed into the ditches flanking them. In England, they were rare, were principally adopted for dockyard and coastal defences, they stretch from northwards across Brompton towards St Mary's creek near Gillingham.
During World War II, they were massively re-fortified, with the Lines ditch acting as an anti-tank barrier, as part of the Medway war defences. Air raid shelters, anti-aircraft gun emplacements, an emergency water reservoir, a pillbox and a spigot mortar, was added. At one stage, there were up to 31 anti-aircraft batteries in the Medway District and about 20 other temporary light batteries in 1944. After World War I and World War II, they fell into disuse. Parts around Brompton were used for post-war housing; the Chatham Lines are designated a Scheduled Ancient Monument. This is an open stretch of land in front of the Chatham Lines fortifications, if the outer fortification was breached the enemy would have to cross the field of fire, its openness would allow for a clear view, shot, of the approaching enemy. In 1709, by an Act of Parliament, the Government compulsorily purchased the land in'Westcourt', along with a part of'Upbury Manor' and some land in Chatham, for the building of the Dockyard defences and the lines.
A cricket pitch was set-up on the land pre-1700s. But when the lines were extended and the Field of Fire was extended, it upset the locals of Gillingham. On 14 June 1758, Captain George Brisac was threatened with murder. Between 1755 and 1756, the Chatham Lines were built as a large earthwork ditch around Fort Amherst; this open land was used to graze cattle between 1760 and 1812. In 1770, the parish surveyed the crown property around the lines. In 1781, it listed 16 public rights of way crossing the lines. Between 1778 -- 1783, the lines were enhanced. In 1800, Edward Hasted notes "Westward of the village is the manor house of Westcourt; the ditch walls were rebuilt in brick. In 1804, additional land was purchased by the government; this meant that West Upbury Farmhouses were demolished. From 1812, the Royal Engineers took over Brompton Barracks from the artillery; the Field of Fire provided the main exercise ground for the Engineers and their horses from 1824 until 1877. They were used to test defensive and offensive techniques and to test tactics in siege warfare, prior to foreign campaigns.
The sieges became major spectator events, including being recorded by Charles Dickens in The Pickwick Papers and in the Illustrated London Gazette. Between 1822–1838, the Lines were used to hold horse-racing events, they were popular. They were held for two days in August in 1838. In 1862, the Royal Engineers cricket team was established; the Great Lines was the home training pitch of the Royal Engineers. In 1893, New Brompton Football Club was established; this became Gillingham Football Club. In 1872, plans for a railway line were drawn up by the Royal Commission to connect the forts. In June 1897, the Great Lines were used to host a celebration of the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. A huge bonfire was a grand finale of the day festivities. In 1902, on the coronation of King Edward VII, 8,000 children were assembled on the lines, to sing'the Old Hundredth' and the'National anthem'. In 1904, the'Ravelin Building' was built of Brompton Road and Prince Arthur Road, in front of the Chatham Lines.
It was used as Electrical engineer's school for the Royal Engineers. Designed by Major E. C. S. Moore. In 1978, it was converted to a museum,'The Royal Engineers Museum', it was classed as Grade II listed on 5 December 1996. Between 1914 -- 18, the Lines were used by the engineers to train in trench mining; the Lines were bombed several times. The Field of Fire became a tented camp and parts of the Inner Lines gained accommodation huts, supplementing pre-existing barracks defending the Dockyard. On 19 July 1919, Peace Day was celebrated in Medway, which included a'Big Tea Party' and evening fireworks display. The'Garrison Sports Ground' was built in the 1920s on the Great Lines, beside Brompton Road. Which was the site of a large underground bomb shelter; the Lines were used for Home Guard
The following radio stations broadcast on AM frequency 1520 kHz: 1520 AM is a United States clear-channel frequency. WWKB in Buffalo, New York and KOKC in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma share Class A status on 1520 AM. LRI721 in Chascomús, Buenos Aires LT38 in Gualeguay, Entre Rios La Voz del Sur in Luis Guillon, Buenos Aires Norteña in Los Polvorines, Buenos Aires XEEH-AM in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora Stations in bold are clear-channel stations