Mason Durell Betha, better known by his mononym Mase, is an American rapper and minister. In the late 1990s he recorded at Bad Boy Records alongside Sean "Diddy" Combs. From 1996 to 1999, as a lead or featured artist, Mase had six Billboard Hot 100 Top 10 singles and five US Rap No. 1 singles. His 1997 album Harlem World was Grammy nominated and certified quadruple Platinum by RIAA, his two other albums, Double Up and Welcome Back, are both certified Double platinum and Gold by RIAA. Mase was born Mason Durell Betha in Jacksonville, Florida, on August 27, 1975, as a fraternal twin born two months premature, to P. K. Betha and Mason Betha, he grew up with two brothers and three sisters, including his twin sister, born a few minutes after him. The father left the family. In 1982 his mother moved herself and her children to Harlem, New York, where Mase spent the majority of his childhood. During his early teenage years, Betha began getting into trouble on the streets of Harlem, when he was 13 his mother sent him back to Jacksonville to live with relatives.

While living in Jacksonville, Betha first began attending church. After returning to live in Harlem at age 15, Betha began showing promise as a basketball player, becoming the leading point guard for his team at Manhattan Center high school during the 1993 season, where he played alongside Cameron Giles, who went on to be the rapper known as Cam'ron, he had hopes of joining the National Basketball Association, but was unable to make it into a Division I College due to his poor academic scores. He attended State University of New York at Purchase, where he grew to realize he was unlikely to make the NBA and instead began focusing more on writing music, producing demo tapes and performing at local nightclubs. Betha dropped out of college and focused on his music career full time. After Betha returned to Harlem, he and his childhood friend Cam'ron began rapping as a hobby under the names Murda Mase and Killa Cam forming a group known as the Children of the Corn with fellow Harlem rappers Big L, Herb McGruff and Bloodshed.

Damon Dash, a fellow Manhattan Center student, was the group's manager for a while. In 1996, Mase's sister Stason introduced him to Cudda Love, a road manager for The Notorious B. I. G. Cudda took the 20-year-old Mase to Atlanta, where Jermaine Dupri and Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs were attending a rap convention. Shortly after meeting and rapping for Puff Daddy at the Hard Rock Café, Mase signed a $250,000 deal with Bad Boy Records. Within a week of signing to the label, Betha had his stage name shortened from Murda Mase to Mase to make him more marketable, was featured on and in the video for 112's "Only You" with the Notorious B. I. G, he appeared on many hit songs with other Bad Boy artists, including Puff Daddy's “Can't Nobody Hold Me Down” and “Been Around the World” and the Notorious B. I. G.'s “Mo' Money, Mo' Problems”, which reached number 1 on the Billboard Hot 100. Mase's first studio album, Harlem World, debuted at #1 on the Billboard Pop and R&B LP charts, selling over 270,000 copies in the U.

S. during its first week of release. It has since achieved 4x Platinum status in the United States; the album spawned hit singles such as "Feel So Good" and "Lookin' at Me", which both reached #1 on the Rap Billboard charts, as well as "What You Want", which peaked at #3 on both the Rap and R&B Billboard charts. During 1997, Mase appeared on more songs with Puff Daddy, Mariah Carey's "Honey", Brian McKnight's "You Should Be Mine", Brandy's "Top of the World". In 1998, Mase formed his own record label, All Out Records, he signed his group Harlem World, which included his twin sister, Stason, to the label while they were under So So Def Recordings. He and Harlem World member Blinky Blink were featured on Blackstreet & Mýa's song "Take Me There", which appeared on the soundtrack of The Rugrats Movie. Mase's second album, Double Up, was released in 1999 on Bad Boy and sold 107,000 copies in its first week, debuting at #11 on the US Top 200 chart. In Double Up Mase's lyrics became more aggressive. On April 20, 1999, during an interview with Funkmaster Flex on New York radio station Hot 97, Mase announced his retirement from music to pursue a "calling from God".

He claimed he was "leading people, friends and others down a path to hell", stating that he left to find God in his heart and follow him. He said it was time for him to serve God in "his" way, saying rap was not real, that he wanted to deal with reality and had become unhappy with what he did, no matter how much money it had made him; the same year, Mase enrolled as a freshman at Clark Atlanta University, a black college, began taking classes on August 19. Unlike other freshmen, Mase was permitted to live off campus and commute, but he is said to have downplayed his past as a rapper and stayed low-key while on campus. After a five-year hiatus from music, during which he became an ordained minister, Mase made his return to music with Welcome Back in summer 2004. Before the album's release, Mase was featured on Nelly's "In My Life" as well as the remix to Fat Joe's "Lean Back". Welcome Back was accompanied by a single of the same name and was released on August 24, 2004, through Bad Boy Records and distributed by Universal Music Group.

It debuted at #4 in the US, selling 188,000 copies in its first week of release, went gold, selling 559,000 copies in the United States. The album portrayed "cleaner" image. Mase dubbed himself "a Bad Boy gone clean" on the lead single titled "Welcome Back"; this new approach had a mixed reception. Although th

Gongylonema pulchrum

Gongylonema pulchrum is the only parasite of the genus Gongylonema capable of infecting humans. Gongylonema pulchrum infections are due to humans acting as accidental hosts for the parasite. There are seven genera of spirudia nematodes that infect human hosts accidentally: Gnathostoma, Gongylonema, Spirocerca, Rictularia; the G. pulchrum parasite is a nematode worm of the order Spirurida. It is a thin nematode, like other worms within its class, it has no circulatory or respiratory system. Most other Gongylonema species infect birds and mammals: there are 25 species found in mammals and 10 species found in birds; this parasite is multi-cellular, capable of movement. They have numerous rear mucosal projections, which assumedly assist propulsion through the thin layer of skin on the inside of the human host's mouth, they have an excretory system possessing lateral canals. This parasite eats epithelial cells. Often the canals are a place of inflammation, with accumulation of exudates in them. Gongylonema swallows these exudates.

Gongylonema pulchrum was first named and presented with its own species by Molin in 1857. The first reported case was in 1850 by Dr. Joseph Leidy, when he identified a worm "obtained from the mouth of a child" from the Philadelphia Academy, he described it as Filariae hominis oris, considered the worm was a guinea worm, but because of the unique location of the worm, the short size compared to the guinea worm, the hypothesis was disregarded. There have only been around 50 reported human cases of G. pulchrum worldwide since 1864, these infections have been widespread and globally ubiquitous. G. pulchrum infections have been notoriously and hard to diagnose due to symptom complaints by patients. Morphological diagnosis of the parasite is somewhat complicated because of the variable size of adult worms, the tendency of the worm to be different lengths depending on what host the worm is recovered from. Transmission to humans is due to unsanitary conditions and the ingestion of infected coprophagous insects dung beetles and cockroaches.

Beyond direct ingestion of infected intermediate hosts, foods can become contaminated if unsanitary conditions pervade in the production of the food- coprophagous insects are found in the food, or in the production chain. Contaminated water sources, again with the intermediate hosts or the infective third stage larva, can lead to transmission to humans; the infection occurs when someone drinks contaminated water, or consumes an infected beetle. The buccal mucosa, the ideal environment for the parasite, is the mucous membrane of the inside of the cheek, it is non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, is continuous with the mucosae of the soft palate, the undersurface of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. Gongylonema pulchrum, along with most other Gongylonema nematodes, has a broad natural host range; this includes hedgehogs, dogs, ruminants and skunks. The vector and intermediate host for Gongylonema pulchrum infections are coprophagous insects. In humans, there can be an up to six week incubation period for worm development and symptoms may not appear until the second molting of the worm, in which the young adult worms begin migration from the esophagus to the buccal and oral palate tissue.

It is this movement through the mucosa of the mouth and lips that causes patients to complain of symptoms. Gongylonema pulchrum burrows in the mucosal lining of the esophagus and other parts of the buccal cavity. There the 14 cm females lay their thick shelled eggs containing first stage larvae; the larvae all possess a cephalic hook and rows of tiny spines around a blunt anterior end, so when they hatch they may further infest their hosts. The morphology of the worm is as follows, from a 2000 Veterinary Medicine study: "The anterior end in both sexes was covered by numerous cuticular platelets. There was a pair of lateral cervical papillae; the buccal opening was small and extended in the dorsoventral direction. Around the mouth a cuticular elevation enclosed the labia, eight papillae were located laterodorsally and lateroventrally. Two large lateral amphids were seen. On the lateral sides of the female's tail, phasmidal apertures were observed; the caudal end of the male was asymmetrically alate and bore 10 pairs of papillae and two phasmidal apertures."

The average length for male worms is 29.1 mm. The worm is mobile, as observed in patients’ mouths and as evidenced by the morphological design of the worm. In humans, the hypothesized life cycle is as follows: Ingestion of contaminated food, water, or infected dung beetle. Infects upper esophagus, moves around and lays eggs in buccal cavity of human host, ingested eggs locate near esophagus and mature into adult worms after two subsequent molting stages, migrate into buccal cavity, no eggs are found in human feces, which strengthens the assumption that humans are incidental and dead end hosts for the Gongylonema pulchrum parasite life cycle; the G. pulchrum parasite has been studied in vivo in rabbits. The life cycle is as follows: Infective third stage larva from infected dung beetles, were orally given to rabbits; the larvae entered the upper gastrointestinal tract of the rabbits, migrated upward into the buccal cavity- pharyngeal mucosa and tongue. A third molt took place 11 days after primary infection, the final molt took place

Lawrence W. Jennings

Lawrence W. "Larry" Jennings was an American Thoroughbred racehorse trainer whom the January 5, 1972 edition of The Miami News called "one of the most successful horse trainers in the country."Before becoming a racehorse trainer, Jennings graduated from Mount Saint Joseph High School in Baltimore and went on to earn degrees from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and Frostburg State University. Among his top-graded wins in Thoroughbred racing was a victory in the Monmouth Invitational Handicap with Delta Flag and the Widener Handicap with Launch a Pegasus, his best result in the U. S. Triple Crown series was a second in the 1974 Preakness Stakes with Neapolitan Way. Due to declining health, Lawrence Jennings retired in early 1992 having won more than 1,100 races during his 38 years as a trainer, he died of cancer on July 6 of that year. His son, Lawrence Jennings, Jr. followed in his father's footsteps and trained thoroughbreds for 23 years. Lawrence W. Jennings, Jr. died in Florida on November 6, 2011