The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
An oceanic climate known as a marine climate or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, features mild summers and mild winters, with a narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental and highland climates. Oceanic climates are defined as having a monthly mean temperature below 22 °C in the warmest month, above 0 °C in the coldest month, it lacks a dry season, as precipitation is more evenly dispersed throughout the year. It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe including the United Kingdom, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southwestern South America, southeastern Australia including Tasmania, New Zealand, as well as isolated locations elsewhere. Oceanic climates are characterised by a narrower annual range of temperatures than in other places at a comparable latitude, do not have the dry summers of Mediterranean climates or the hot summers of humid subtropical.
Oceanic climates are most dominant in Europe, where they spread much farther inland than in other continents. Oceanic climates can have considerable storm activity as they are located in the belt of the stormy westerlies. Many oceanic climates have frequent cloudy or overcast conditions due to the near constant storms and lows tracking over or near them; the annual range of temperatures is smaller than typical climates at these latitudes due to the constant stable marine air masses that pass through oceanic climates, which lack both warm and cool fronts. Locations with oceanic climates tend to feature cloudy conditions with precipitation, though it can experience clear, sunny days. London is an example of an oceanic climate, it experiences constant precipitation throughout the entire year. Despite this, thunderstorms are quite rare since hot and cold air masses meet infrequently in the region. In most areas with an oceanic climate, precipitation comes in the form of rain for the majority of the year.
However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. Most oceanic climate zones, or at least a part of them, experience at least one snowfall per year. In the poleward locations of the oceanic climate zone, snowfall is more commonplace. Overall temperature characteristics of the oceanic climates feature cool temperatures and infrequent extremes of temperature. In the Köppen climate classification, Oceanic climates have a mean temperature of 0 °C or higher in the coldest month, compared to continental climates where the coldest month has a mean temperature of below 0 °C. Summers are cool, with the warmest month having a mean temperature below 22 °C. Poleward of the latter is a zone of the aforementioned subpolar oceanic climate, with long but mild winters and cool and short summers. Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland, Norway, the Scottish Highlands, the mountains of Vancouver Island, Haida Gwaii in Canada, in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere, the Tasmanian Central Highlands, parts of New Zealand.
Oceanic climates are not always found in coastal locations on the aforementioned parallels. The polar jet stream, which moves in a west to east direction across the middle latitudes, advances low pressure systems and fronts. In coastal areas of the higher middle latitudes, the prevailing onshore flow creates the basic structure of most oceanic climates. Oceanic climates are a reflection of the ocean adjacent to them. In the fall and early spring, when the polar jet stream is most active, the frequent passing of marine weather systems creates the frequent fog, cloudy skies, light drizzle associated with oceanic climates. In summer, high pressure pushes the prevailing westerlies north of many oceanic climates creating a drier summer climate; the North Atlantic Gulf Stream, a tropical oceanic current that passes north of the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States to North Carolina heads east-northeast to the Azores, is thought to modify the climate of Northwest Europe. As a result of the Gulf Stream, west-coast areas located in high latitudes like Ireland, the UK, Norway have much milder winters than would otherwise be the case.
The lowland attributes of western Europe help drive marine air masses into continental areas, enabling cities such as Dresden and Vienna to have maritime climates in spite of being located well inland from the ocean. Oceanic climates in Europe occur in Northwest Europe, from Ireland and Great Britain eastward to central Europe. Most of France, the Netherlands, Germany, the north coast of Spain, the western Azores off the coast of Portugal, the south of Kosovo and southern portions of Sweden have oceanic climates. Examples of oceanic climates are found in Glasgow, Bergen, Dublin, Bilbao, Donostia-San Sebastian, Bayonne, Züri
National University of Lesotho
The National University of Lesotho is in Roma, some 34 kilometers southeast of Maseru, the capital of Lesotho. The Roma valley is broad and is surrounded by a barrier of rugged mountains which provides magnificent scenery; the university enjoys a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The governing body of the University is the Council and academic policy is in the hands of Senate, both Council and Senate being established by the Act. Faculties and departments: Association of Commonwealth Universities Association of African Universities International Association of Universities Southern African Regional Universities Association The origins of the National University of Lesotho date to April 8, 1945, when a Catholic University College was founded at Roma by the Roman Catholic Hierarchy of Southern Africa; the establishment of this college was a realisation of a decision taken in 1938 by the Synod of Catholic Bishops in South Africa to provide African Catholic students with post-matriculation and religious guidance.
The Catholic University College was founded in an isolated valley 34 kilometers from Maseru in a temporary primary school building at Roma Mission. In 1946, the college moved from the temporary building to the present site; this was made possible by the allocation of some 52 acres of land to the college by the paramount chief. In 1950, the Catholic University College was ceded to the Congregation of Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Pius XII College prepared its students for the external degrees of the University of South Africa. By September 27, 1954, having satisfied itself that Pius XII College was an academically viable institution, UNISA agreed to enter into a formal agreement — thereby granting "Associate College" status; this development was of major significance to the Roma intellectual community as it entailed a degree of "decentralisation" in specific areas on the part of UNISA, e.g. Pius Xil College assumed greater responsibility for tuition and examinations. Indeed, between 1954 and 1960 the academic and physical growth of the college accelerated.
Fathers Beaule and Guilbeault participated in its early development. In the early 60s the college experienced financial difficulties. UNISA unilaterally decided to redefine its relationship with the college and the main benefactor directed its resources elsewhere; the denominational character of the Catholic University College made it difficult for international organizations and foundations to fund such an institution of higher learning. Despite these problems, advice received from John Lockwood and James Cook, both vice-chancellors of British universities, discouraged the college authorities from seeking an affiliation with either the University of London or any other overseas university; as early as 1952, attempts by the college to secure a special relationship with the University of London, through the Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas had been unsuccessful. In view of the prevailing difficulties, seen as a danger to the development of university education in Basutoland in 1962, the general of the Oblate Congregation requested Fathers Banim, 0.
M. I. and A. W. Hall, O. M. I. to assist the college in finding a practical solution to its problems. The South African government had declared its intention not to admit African students from outside South Africa into the University of Fort Hare and the Natal Medical School after December 31, 1953. Although this ban was relaxed for Basutoland students until 1958, the writing was on the wall; the college, which by 1959 had 171 students, 141 of whom were students from outside Basutoland — from South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, Nyasaland — was involved in contributing to the training of future civil servants and teachers for the Bechuanaland Protectorate and Swaziland. The High Commission Territories were indebted to Pius XII College for its role in producing a cadre of educated women and men to tackle developmental problems after independence. On the other hand, the college, going through a period of financial difficulties, felt that it would be most appreciative if its efforts in providing the prerequisite manpower needs for the H.
C. T. could be recognized both in kind. At the same time, it was apparent that the H. C. T. Wanted to play a more significant role in the decision-making bodies of the Catholic University College. In a curious way, the Catholic Church, the Basutoland government, the university authorities and other High Commission Territories sensed the need for a decisive step to be taken to the re-define the role and the governance of the college. Negotiations began with the view to establishing an inter-territorial, non-denominational university, principally to serve the H. C. T, it has been said that by that time the three High Commission Territories were beginning to see the college as destined to become a "University of the High Commission Territories". Progress was made to enable a deed of cession to be signed on June 13, 1963, the indemnity being met jointly by the Ford Foundation and H. M.'s government in the UK. The indemnity was signed between Hugh Stephenson newly appointed high commissioner acting on behalf of the projected new university.
At the time of signing the indemnity the facilities of the college, most of which were attributed to the period when Fr. Romeo Guilbeaut was Rector. Besides the original "temporary" houses and classrooms, residences which could accommodate 100 male and 70 female students, some 20 staff houses/flats, a modem science block, a kitchen and refectory block, administrative buildings, garage and a power plant were in existence. Under construction was
South African rand
The rand is the official currency of South Africa. The rand is subdivided into 100 cents; the ISO 4217 code is ZAR, from Zuid-Afrikaanse rand. The rand is legal tender in the Common Monetary Area between South Africa, Swaziland and Namibia, although the last three countries do have their own currencies pegged at par with the rand; when referring to the currency, the abbreviation is upper case "R", but the name is spelt "rand" in lower case in both English and Afrikaans. Before 1976, the rand was legal tender in Botswana; the rand takes its name from the Witwatersrand, the ridge upon which Johannesburg is built and where most of South Africa's gold deposits were found. The rand was introduced in the Union of South Africa on 14 February 1961, three months before the country declared itself a republic. A Decimal Coinage Commission had been set up in 1956 to consider a move away from the denominations of pounds and pence, it replaced the South African pound as legal tender, at the rate of 2 rand to 1 pound, or 10 shillings to the rand.
The government introduced a mascot, Decimal Dan, "the rand-cent man". This was accompanied by a radio jingle. One rand was worth US$1.40 from the time of its inception in 1961 until late-1971. Its value thereafter fluctuated as various exchange rate dispensations were implemented by the South African authorities. By the early-1980s, high inflation and mounting political pressure combined with sanctions placed against the country due to international opposition to the apartheid system had started to erode its value; the currency broke above parity with the dollar for the first time in March 1982, continued to trade between R 1 and R 1.30 to the dollar until June 1984, when depreciation of the currency gained momentum. By February 1985, it was trading at over R 2 per dollar, in July that year, all foreign exchange trading was suspended for three days to try to stop the depreciation. By the time that State President P. W. Botha made his Rubicon speech on 15 August 1985, it had weakened to R 2.40 per dollar.
The currency recovered somewhat between 1986–88, trading near the R 2 level most of the time and breaking beneath it sporadically. The recovery was short-lived, by the end of 1989, the rand was trading at more than R 2.50 per dollar. As it became clear in the early-1990s that the country was destined for Black majority rule and one reform after the other was announced, uncertainty about the future of the country hastened the depreciation until the level of R 3 to the dollar was breached in November 1992. A host of local and international events influenced the currency after that, most notably the 1994 general election which had it weaken to over R 3.60 to the dollar, the election of Tito Mboweni as the Governor of the South African Reserve Bank, the inauguration of President Thabo Mbeki in 1999 which had it slide to over R 6 to the dollar. The controversial land reform programme, initiated in Zimbabwe, followed by the September 11, 2001 attacks, propelled it to its weakest historical level of R 13.84 to the dollar in December 2001.
This sudden depreciation in 2001 led to a formal investigation, which in turn led to a dramatic recovery. By the end of 2002, the currency was trading under R 9 to the dollar again, by the end of 2004 was trading under R 5.70 to the dollar. The currency softened somewhat in 2005, was trading around R 6.35 to the dollar at the end of the year. At the start of 2006, the currency resumed its rally, as of 19 January 2006, was trading under R 6 to the dollar again. However, during the second and third quarters of 2006, the rand weakened significantly. In sterling terms, it fell from around 9.5p to just over 7p, losing some 25% of its international trade-weighted value in just six months. In late-2007, the rand rallied modestly to just over 8p, only to experience a precipitous slide during the first quarter of 2008; this downward slide could be attributed to a range of factors: South Africa's worsening current account deficit, which widened to a 36‑year high of 7.3% of gross domestic product in 2007.
The rand depreciation was exacerbated by the Eskom electricity crisis, which arose from the utility being unable to meet the country's growing energy demands. A stalled mining industry in late-2012 led to new lows in early-2013. In late January 2014, the rand slid to R11.25 to the dollar, with analysts attributing the shift to "word from the US Federal Reserve that it would trim back stimulus spending, which led to a massive sell-off in emerging economies." In 2014, South Africa experienced its worst year against the US dollar since 2009, in March 2015, the rand traded at its worst since 2002. At the time, Trading Economics released data that the rand "averaged R4.97 to the dollar between 1972–2015, reaching an all time high of R12.45 in December 2001 and a record low of R0.67 in June of 1973." By the end of 2014, the rand had weakened to R 15.05 per dollar due to South Africa's consistent trade account deficit with the rest of the world. From 9–13 December 2015, over a four-day period, the r
Moshoeshoe I International Airport
Moshoeshoe I International Airport is an airport serving Maseru, the capital city of Lesotho. The airport is named in honor of king of Lesotho in the 1850s, it is in the town of 18 km southeast of downtown Maseru. Runway length includes a 200 metres displaced threshold on Runway 04; the Mazenod VOR-DME is 2.0 nautical miles off the approach threshold of Runway 04. The Beria non-directional beacon is 1.35 nautical miles off the approach threshold of Runway 22. The airport has an elevation of 5,348 feet above mean sea level, it has two asphalt runways: 04/22 measuring 3,200 by 11/29 measuring 1,010 m × 23 m. Transport in Lesotho List of airports in Lesotho Moshoeshoe I International Airport at Lesotho Department of Civil Aviation OpenStreetMap - Moshoeshoe Current weather for Moshoeshoe I International Airport at NOAA/NWS Accident history for Moshoeshoe I International Airport at Aviation Safety Network Google Maps - Moshoeshoe
Joseph Leabua Jonathan was the second Prime Minister of Lesotho. He succeeded Chief Sekhonyana Nehemia Maseribane following a by-election and held that post from 1965 to 1986. Born in Leribe, Jonathan was a minor chief, like many others a great-grandson of the polygamous King Moshoeshoe I. Jonathan worked as a mine induna at Brakpan but because he was a chief he went back to Rakolo's and got involved in local government in Basutoland from 1937 and was a member of delegations to London that sought self-government in Basutoland. Jonathan converted to Catholicism and in 1959 founded the Canadian Catholic missionary-backed Basutoland National Party, renamed Basotho National Party at independence. In the 1960 election a year after its formation, Leabua's party came fourth but in the election where women were disfranchised. In the pre-independence elections of April 1965, the BNP won 31 parliamentary seats out of a total of 60 and thus became a legitimate government that took Basotho to independence in October 1966, despite protests from opposition BCP and MFP who now wanted independence postponed.
Chief Leabua had to stand for election in a safe seat later. He took office as Prime Minister on 7 July 1965. Soon after Basutoland gained independence in 1966 as Lesotho, executive power was transferred from the British High Commissioner to the Prime Minister. Jonathan's government took a pacifist stand in South Africa, this was supported by independent Southern African states such as Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania among others as they understood the unique situation Lesotho was in as it is surrounded by the Republic of South Africa and the majority of its people work in the mines there. Jonathan was hostile to the Pan Africanist Congress of South Africa who supported the Basutoland Congress Party and Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP, but friendly to the African National Congress, he forged closer links with the ANC after the PAC-backed Lesotho Liberation Army, the exiled BCP military wing, prepared to target Lesotho after 1973. Early results of the first post-independence elections in January 1970 indicated that the Basotho National Party might lose control.
Under the leadership of Prime Minister Chief Leabua Jonathan, the ruling BNP refused to cede power to the rival Basotholand Congress Party, although the BCP was believed to have won the elections. Citing election irregularities, Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan nullified the elections, declared a national state of emergency, suspended the constitution, dissolved the Parliament. In 1973, an appointed Interim National Assembly was established. With an overwhelming progovernment majority, it was the instrument of the BNP, led by Prime Minister Jonathan. In addition to the Jonathan regime's alienation of Basotho powerbrokers and the local population, South Africa had closed the country's land borders because of Lesotho support of cross-border operations of the African National Congress. Moreover, South Africa publicly threatened to pursue more direct action against Lesotho if the Jonathan government did not root out the ANC presence in the country; this internal and external opposition to the government combined to produce violence and internal disorder in Lesotho that led to a military takeover in 1986.
Under a January 1986 Military Council decree, state executive and legislative powers were transferred to the King, to act on the advice of the Military Council, a self-appointed group of leaders of the Royal Lesotho Defense Force. A military government chaired by Justin Lekhanya ruled Lesotho in coordination with King Moshoeshoe II and a civilian cabinet appointed by the King. In February 1990, King Moshoeshoe II was stripped of his executive and legislative powers and exiled by Lekhanya, the Council of Ministers was purged. Lekhanya accused those involved of undermining discipline within the armed forces, subverting existing authority, causing an impasse on foreign policy, damaging to Lesotho's image abroad. Lekhanya announced the establishment of the National Constituent Assembly to formulate a new constitution for Lesotho with the aim of returning the country to democratic, civilian rule by June 1992. Before this transition, Lekhanya was ousted in 1991 by a mutiny of junior army officers that left Phisoane Ramaema as Chairman of the Military Council.
Despite Lesotho's economic dependence on South Africa and the government's official policy during the 1970s of dialogue with its neighbour, Jonathan began criticizing the South African government's policy of apartheid supporting for the prohibited African National Congress when international advisers suggested Pretoria's days were numbered. During the late 1970s, despite his regime's protests to Libya accused the South African government of supporting the Lesotho Liberation Army. Mokhehle did go to Pretoria but only in late 1981; the main LLA force was wiped out in 1979 but recruits were assisted by a Transkei-based American mercenary with Rhodesian army service, Major Bob MacKenzie, son-in-law of the former CIA deputy-director, Ray Steiner Cline, a former member of the 1969 Nixon administration. The South African government denied these claims but admitted Mokhehle was part of the notorious Vlakplaas operation. Much of Leabua's unsavoury early political life history has been obscured by his late opportunistic alliance with the ANC, which itself was a controversial organisation despite its ostensibly principled stance against apartheid.
The best accounts o
Thaba Bosiu is a sandstone plateau with an area of 2 km2 and a height of 1,804 meters above sea level. It is located between the Orange and Caledon Rivers in the Maseru District of Lesotho, 24 km east of the country's capital Maseru, it was once the capital of Lesotho. Thaba Bosiu was used as a hideout by Moshoeshoe I and his subjects after they migrated from Butha-Buthe in 1824 escaping the ravages of the Difaqane/Mfecane Wars; the plateau formed a natural fortress. Moshoeshoe I and his people took occupation of this mountain in July 1824, he named it Thaba Bosiu because his people arrived at night. To intimidate his enemies, he spread news. Moshoeshoe I was able to offer cattle and protection to those fleeing the ravages of Mfecane/Difaqane Wars; when Moshoeshoe settled in Thaba Bosiu, he sent for many people to be wound up by his regiments. They were given shelter; the plateau's large area meant it could hold enough livestock and provisions to support the people during a lengthy siege. Once satisfied that they were safe, he sent them out.
This gave birth to the Basotho nation. Thaba Bosiu served as a capital for his new Basotho nation, it became the centre of organised resistance to European encroachment into the central plateau region of South Africa. The mountain has the main one being Khubelu pass; the other passes are known as Ramaseli, Mokachane and Rahebe. It is flat is situated in the valley of the Phuthiatsana River, it is 24 km east of the junction of the Caledon River that divides Lesotho from Free State. It rises about 106m from the surrounding valley and its summit is surrounded by a belt of perpendicular cliffs some 12m on the average. Nearby, there are San paintings. In 1837, Private David Webber from the 72nd Seaforth Highlanders reached Thaba Bosiu, where he was given refuge/sanctuary, he was a good mason and carpenter, thus built Moshoeshoe I a stone house. It was a rectangular building measuring 10 metres by five metres and was divided internally into two rooms. Moshoeshoe I had four other stone buildings erected as part of his compound – three of which were rectangular and one cylindrical.
Many Basotho believe. One belief is that if an individual takes some dirt from the mountain, he will find that it is gone in the morning, having returned to the mountain; as mentioned above, news was spread as a form of intimidation to the enemies that the mountain grew larger at night. When Mzilikazi attempted to attack Moshoeshoe I at Thaba Bosiu, trying to gather strength after escaping Shaka Zulu's rule. European invaders in 1852 and the Boers of the Orange Free State were unable to storm Moshoeshoe's mountain during the siege of Thaba Bosiu on 18 August 1865. Louw Wepener and 6 000 armed Boers volunteered to charge Thaba Bosiu, their strategy was for the Free State Artillery to bombard the top of the mountain. As they approached, only 100 Boers were still with Wepener by 5pm and others had retreated to the Boer lines. Wepener made it to the top of Khubelu pass only to be struck by a bullet on his head, he is the only enemy to reach the mountain top and has been linked to it as Khubelu pass is known as Wepener's pass.
The siege of Thaba Bosiu continued until January 1866 when General Jan Fick and his men returned to Free State to reorganise. Due to being starved after the siege, the Basotho signed a treaty in April 1866, in which they agreed to surrender 3 000 cattle, they surrendered more than two-thirds of their arable land. At the time, Basotho faced large scale starvation and thus Moshoeshoe and his subjects agreed to the Orange Free State terms; the land they forfeited during this treaty included conquered territory on the west of the bank of the Caledon River and Orange River. This left Basotho with an reduced cultivable area close to Thaba Bosiu, as well as 32km of arable soil on the east bank of the Caledon River. Villagers, did not vacate the surrendered territory and in March 1867, Orange Free State President Johannes Henricus Brand ordered both a resumption and intensification of Free State military action. After the Third Free State Basotho War, in 1867 when Free State conquered the whole Lowlands, Moshoeshoe requested British protection, granted in March 1868 when Lesotho on the eve of the Boer attack on Thaba Boisu, became a British territory.
Thaba Bosiu was the only territory. On 27 December 1966, Moshoeshoe II organised protest meetings which culminated in a prayer meeting at Thaba Bosiu; this was a reaction to Prime Minister Chief Leabua Jonathan’s governance. Moshoeshoe II contested the legitimacy of the BNP governance and his lack of executive powers in the governance of Lesotho; when the prayer meeting was held, Chief Jonathan perceived this defiance as a promotion of insurrection and banned the meeting. A conflict between the security forces and demonstrators ensued, resulting in 10 dead and arrests of many opposition party leaders. Under house arrest, Moshoeshoe II was forced to sign a document promising not to convene or address public gatherings without consent of his government and to present only speeches required and prepared by the government. In 1967, the Lesotho government declared the mountain a national monument. In the 1990s, the United Nation Development Programme in conjunction with the Basotho government, initiated the Preservation and Presentation of Thaba Bosiu, the national monum