Charles Mason Remey was a prominent and controversial American Baháʼí, appointed in 1951 a Hand of the Cause, president of the International Baháʼí Council. He was the architect for the Baháʼí Houses of Worship in Uganda and Australia, Shoghi Effendi approved his design of the unbuilt House of Worship in Haifa, Israel; when Shoghi Effendi died in 1957, he died without explicitly appointing a successor Guardian, Remey was among the nine Hands of the Cause elected as an interim authority until the election of the first Universal House of Justice in 1963. However, in 1960 Remey declared himself to be the successor of Shoghi Effendi, expected the allegiance of the world's Baháʼís. Subsequently, he and his followers were declared Covenant breakers by the Hands, they reasoned that he did not fulfill the qualifications set forth by Abdu'l-Bahá in His Will and Testament. Remey lacked a formal appointment from Shoghi Effendi, an appointment which needed to be confirmed by the rest of the Hands, that the office was confined to male descendants of Baháʼu'lláh, the Aghsan, which Remey was not.
The whole Baháʼí world rejected his claim, but he gained the support of a small group of Baháʼís. His claim resulted in the largest schism in the history of the Baháʼí Faith, with a few groups still holding a belief that Remey was the successor of Shoghi Effendi. Various dated references show membership at less than a hundred each in two of the surviving groups. Born in Burlington, Iowa, on May 15, 1874, Mason was the eldest son of Rear Admiral George Collier Remey and Mary Josephine Mason Remey, the daughter of Charles Mason, the first Chief Justice of Iowa. Remey's parents raised him in the Episcopal Church. Remey trained as an architect at Cornell University, the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France where he first learned of the Baháʼí Faith. With a background in architecture, Remey was asked to design the Ugandan and Australian Baháʼí Houses of Worship which still stand today and are the mother temples for Australasia and Africa respectively. Upon the request of Shoghi Effendi, he provided designs for a Baháʼí House of Worship in Tehran, for Haifa, the Shrine of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá, however only the Haifa temple was approved before the death of Shoghi Effendi, none have so far been built.
Remey traveled extensively to promote the Baháʼí Faith during the ministry of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi recorded that Remey and his Baháʼí companion, Howard Struven, were the first Baháʼís to circle the globe teaching the religion. A prolific writer, Remey wrote numerous published and personal articles promoting the Baháʼí Faith, including ʻAbdu'l-Bahá – The Center of the Covenant and the five volume A Comprehensive History of the Baháʼí Movement, The Baháʼí Revelation and Reconstruction, Constructive Principles of The Baháʼí Movement, The Baháʼí Movement: A Series of Nineteen Papers are a few of the titles of the many works Remey produced while ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was still alive. Remey's life was recorded in his diaries, in 1940 he provided copies and selected writings to several public libraries. Included in most of the collections were the letters ʻAbdu'l-Bahá wrote to him. According to Juliet Thompson's diary, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá suggested that she marry Remey, in 1909 asked her how she felt about it requesting of her: "Give my greatest love to Mr. Remey and say: You are dear to me.
You are so dear to me that I think of you night. You are my real son; therefore I have an idea for you. I hope it may come to pass... He told me He loved Mason Remey so much," Thompson writes, "and He loved me so much that he wished us to marry; that was the meaning of His message to Mason. He said, he asked me how I felt about it." They did not marry, although Thompson anguished over her decision, which she felt would cause ʻAbdu'l-Baha disappointment. In 1932 he married Gertrude Heim Klemm Mason. Remey lived for some time in Washington, D. C. in the 1930s and 1940s. In 1950 Remey moved his residence from Washington, D. C. to Haifa, Israel, at the request of Shoghi Effendi. In January 1951, Shoghi Effendi issued a proclamation announcing the formation of the International Baháʼí Council, representing the first international Baháʼí body; the council was intended to be a forerunner to the Universal House of Justice, the supreme ruling body of the Baháʼí Faith. Remey was appointed president of the council in March, with Amelia Collins as vice-president in December 1951 Remey was appointed a Hand of the Cause.
When Shoghi Effendi died in 1957, Remey and the other Hands of the Cause met in a private Conclave at Bahjí in Haifa, determined that he hadn't appointed a successor. During this conclave the Hands of the Cause decided that the situation of the Guardian having died without being able to appoint a successor was a situation not dealt with in the texts that define the Baháʼí administration, that it would need to be reviewed and adjudicated upon by the Universal House of Justice, which hadn't been elected yet. Remey signed a unanimous declaration of the Hands that Shoghi Effendi had died "without having appointed his successor". Three years in 1960, Remey made a written announcement that his appointment as president of the international council represented an appointment by Shoghi Effendi as Guardian, because the appointed council was a precursor to the elected Universal House of Justice, which has the Guardian as its president, he attempted to usurp the control of the Faith which the Hands had themselves assumed at the passing of Shoghi Effendi stating: It is from and through the Guardianship that infallibility is vested and that the Hands of th
Charles Winstead was an FBI agent in the 1930s–40s, famous for being one of the agents who shot and killed John Dillinger on July 22, 1934 in Chicago, Illinois. Winstead was born in Sherman, Texas in 1891. Before joining the FBI he engaged in various occupations, including decorated service with the US Army in World War I, working as a deputy sheriff in several Texas jurisdictions, just before joining the Bureau, as a law clerk in the US Attorney's office in El Paso, Texas, he joined the Bureau in July 1926. As a member of the Dallas Field Office, Winstead took part in several unsuccessful manhunts targeting outlaws Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow, played a key role in the manhunt for kidnapper George "Machine Gun" Kelly. In May 1934, Winstead and several other Western agents, including former Oklahoma City policemen Jerry Campbell and Clarence Hurt, were assigned to the Chicago Field Office to help apprehend John Dillinger and his gang of bank robbers. After the Little Bohemia fiasco in April, in which agents led by Melvin Purvis and Sam Cowley had killed a civilian and lost an agent in a failed ambush of Dillinger's gang, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover brought in the experienced Texans to augment Purvis's still-relatively inexperienced agents.
Winstead is believed to have been the agent who fired the fatal shot into Dillinger during the FBI's ambush at the Biograph Theater, shooting him in the back of the head at close range. For this, he received a personal letter of commendation from Hoover. After Dillinger's death, Winstead helped track down Dillinger's former gang mate Lester Gillis/Baby Face Nelson, narrowly missing a confrontation with Nelson when he and Nelson drove past each other on a rural Illinois road. Winstead's encounter with the outlaw led to Nelson's showdown with the FBI outside Barrington, Illinois, in which both Nelson and Agents Cowley and Hollis were fatally injured. Winstead returned west after Nelson's death, serving at the El Albuquerque offices. In 1942, he was reprimanded by Hoover for insulting a female reporter and accusing her of being a Communist sympathizer. Hoover ordered his transfer to Oklahoma City. After resigning from the FBI, he served as an Army intelligence and security officer in the years of World War II.
For a time, he was in charge of security at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project, when the first atomic bomb was being constructed by the US Army. Winstead returned to law enforcement after the war, serving various part-time jobs as a Sheriff's Deputy in New Mexico and a private investigator, before retiring and taking up horse ranching. In the 1950s, he began work on a memoir of his years with the FBI but never finished. On August 3, 1973, he died in the Albuquerque Veteran's Hospital of pneumonia, he was portrayed by actor Stephen Lang in Michael Mann's film Public Enemies. Biographical sketch of Winstead, including links to his memoirs and pertinent FBI documents His memories on the same page as PDF
The 1962–63 NBA season was the Nationals' 14th season in the NBA. In their final season in Syracuse, the Nationals finished with a record of 48–32, good for second place in the NBA Eastern Division, they qualified for the playoffs, but lost to the Cincinnati Royals, three games to two in the East semifinal. Following the season, the Nationals relocated to Philadelphia and became the 76ers, filling the void left by the Warriors, who moved to the Bay Area one year earlier. X – clinched playoff spot Syracuse Nationals vs. Cincinnati Royals: Royals win series 3-2 Game 1 @ Syracuse: Syracuse 123, Cincinnati 120 Game 2 @ Cincinnati: Cincinnati 133, Syracuse 115 Game 3 @ Syracuse: Syracuse 121, Cincinnati 117 Game 4 @ Cincinnati: Cincinnati 125, Syracuse 118 Game 5 @ Syracuse: Cincinnati 131, Syracuse 127 Hal Greer, All-NBA Second Team
The French Revolutionary Wars continued in 1801 with the French bringing the war against the Second Coalition to a close. By 9 February, the Austrians had signed the Treaty of Lunéville; the war against the United Kingdom continued. A British expedition landed in Egypt in March, fighting the Battle of Abukir, the Battle of Alexandria and laying siege to Alexandria; the French surrender there on 2 September ended their campaign in Egypt and Syria which had begun in 1798. The naval war continued, with the United Kingdom maintaining a blockade of France by sea. Non-combatants Russia, Prussia and Sweden joined to protect neutral shipping from British attacks, but were unsuccessful. British Admiral Horatio Nelson defied orders and attacked the Danish fleet in harbor at the Battle of Copenhagen, destroying much of the fleet of one of France's more steady allies during the period. An armistice prevented him from continuing into the Baltic Sea to attack the Russian fleet at Reval. Meanwhile, off Gibraltar, the outnumbered French squadron under Linois rebuffed a first British attack under Saumarez in the first battle of Algeciras, capturing a line-of-battle ship.
Louis Scolnik, of Auburn, was an American attorney and jurist who served as the 94th Associate Justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court from September 7, 1983 to July 31, 1988. Born in Lewiston, Scolnik became enamored of jazz music at the age of 12. Scolnik attended Bates College in Lewiston, where he was part of the Bates College jazz ensemble. While studying there, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Scolnik enrolled in the college's V-12 Naval Program. After graduating in 1945, he fought in World War II, first deployed as an officer on a U. S. Navy infantry landing ship. While serving, he held impromptu jam sessions. Scolnik attended Georgetown Law School, graduating in 1952, he thereafter became active in a local branch of NAACP and chaired the Maine Advisory Committee to the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, seeking to end housing discrimination against black service members stationed in Maine, he was a founding member of the Maine chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union. Scolnik was a judge of the Maine Superior Court, where in 1981, he was named presiding justice for Maine's Superior Court region II, covering seven counties.
He served on the Maine Supreme Court from 1983 to 1988. One of the first decisions he authored as a justice struck down a local obscenity statute in his hometown of Lewiston, which Scolnik observed "would reduce the aduly population to reading only what is fit for juveniles".. After retiring from the court, Scolnik again formed a jazz band, the Golden Years Trio, which played for seniors for several years, until the death of one of its members. Scolnik's wife of 67 years, died on August 5, 2018
Ehretia acuminata is a deciduous tree found in Japan, Bhutan, Laos, New Guinea and Australia. Fossil evidence suggests an ancient Laurasian origin; this group of plants spread to Australia and South America via Africa, when these continents were still joined. Known as Koda in Australia, Ehretia acuminata is a common tree found from near Bega in south east New South Wales to Cape York in far north eastern Australia; the Australian habitat are different forms of rainforest near the margins or in disturbed areas. Ehretia acuminata is a medium to large size tree reaching 30 metres in height and a 90 cm in trunk diameter; the bark is with vertical fissures. Koda is easily identified in winter as being deciduous and of the characteristic flutings at the base of the trunk; the leaves are tapering to a tip, finely toothed, 8 to 13 cm long. Smooth and green on both surfaces hairy above; the midrib and lateral veins are distinct on both sides of the leaf, raised beneath. Flowers are white, sweetly scented, in panicles.
Individual flowers are without about 4 mm in diameter. Flowers appear in September to November in the southern hemisphere; the fruit matures from January to April in Australia, in China in September, being a yellow or orange drupe, 4 to 5 mm in diameter, containing four seeds. The fruit is edible to humans with a sweet taste. Fruit are eaten by many rainforest birds, including the Lewin's honeyeater, rose-crowned fruit-dove, brown cuckoo dove, wompoo fruit dove and Australasian figbird. Seed germination is easy. Ensure the flesh is removed from the fruit, expect rapid germination. Ehretia acuminata is used for roadside plantings and furniture timber, as well as in Traditional Chinese medicine. Floyd, A. G. Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 1989, ISBN 0-909605-57-2 acuminata @ eFloras.org Brown, Robert. "Ehretia". Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van-Diemen:exhibens characteres plantarum /quas annis 1802-1805 per oras utriusque insulae collegit et descripsit Robertus Brown.
Norimbergae: Sumtibus L. Schrag. P. 353. Retrieved 2009-03-31