Francis John Williamson
Francis John Williamson was a British portrait sculptor, reputed to have been Queen Victoria's favourite. After studying under John Bell he was an articled pupil of John Henry Foley for seven years, his studio assistant for a further fourteen. Williamson exhibited with the Royal Academy of Arts 38 times from 1853–1897. and with the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists in 1868, when he showed several items, including a medallion depicting Mrs W. Wills, 1887 and 1902, it was during his time with Foley. In 1870, she commissioned a memorial to George IV's daughter Princess Charlotte and her husband Prince Leopold, erected inside their former home, Claremont. Many members of the royal family subsequently sat for him, in 1887 he sculpted the Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria, replicated for display around the British Empire. Williamson received a number of commissions from the municipal authorities in Birmingham; these included a marble bust of the Shakespearian scholar Samuel Timmins, now in the Library of Birmingham, a statue of the dissenting theologian and natural philosopher Joseph Priestley, now in Chamberlain Square, a statue of Sir Josiah Mason, a statue of preacher and reformer George Dawson, a statue of John Skirrow Wright, the decoration on the pediment of the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, a work known as the Allegory of Fame Rewarding the Arts.
A plaster cast of his bust of Tennyson is in the National Portrait Gallery. He met his future wife, Elizabeth Smith, while staying in Esher and they married in 1857 In 1860, they set up a home and him a studio at Fairholme, 79, High Street, where he died; the building is extant, carries a blue plaque, erected by the Esher Residents Association in 2010, in commemoration of Williamson. His younger brother John Henry Williamson was a silversmith. Bust of Samuel Timmins, now in the Library of Birmingham Statue of Sister Dora, Walsall Memorial to Prince Leopold and Princess Charlotte, now at St George's Church, Surrey Memorial Bust of the Duke of Albany, Christ Church, Esher Diamond Jubilee Memorial, Esher Tomb of William Brett, 1st Viscount Esher and Viscountess Esher, Christ Church churchyard, Esher The Shrubsole Memorial, Market Place, Kingston upon Thames Bust of Lord Tennyson Queen Victoria, many copies life size marble statue of Queen Victoria at Kings Park, Perth Hypatia His Royal Highness Prince Edward of York Monument to James Young Gibson in Dean Cemetery, Edinburgh Jesus as the Good Shepherd Allegory of Fame Rewarding the Arts, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery a statue of Sir Josiah Mason bronze cast of the bust, by William Bloye statue of George Dawson bronze cast of bust, by Bloye statue of John Skirrow Wright bronze cast of bust, by Bloye Joseph Priestley statue, now in Chamberlain Square, Birmingham Memorial to Dean Milman, St Paul's Cathedral statue of Hugh Stowell Brown, now restored and in Hope Street, Liverpool George Phoenix, collaborator Plaque #4406 on Open Plaques
Birmingham Central Library
Birmingham Central Library was the main public library in Birmingham, from 1974 until 2013. For a time the largest non-national library in Europe, it closed on 29 June 2013 and was replaced by the Library of Birmingham; the building was demolished in 2016, after 41 years, as part of the redevelopment of Paradise Circus by Argent Group. Designed by architect John Madin in the brutalist style, the library was part of an ambitious development project by Birmingham City Council to create a civic centre on its new Inner Ring Road system. Two previous libraries occupied the adjacent site before Madin's library opened in 1974; the previous library, designed by John Henry Chamberlain, opened in 1883 and featured a tall clerestoried reading room. It was demolished in 1974. Despite the original vision not being implemented, the library gained architectural praise as an icon of British brutalism with its stark use of concrete, bold geometry, inverted ziggurat sculptural form and monumental scale, its style was seen at the time as a symbol of social progressivism.
Based on this, English Heritage failed twice for the building to gain listed status. However, due to strong opposition from Birmingham City Council the building gained immunity from listing until 2016. In 2010–11, Central Library was the second-most visited library in the country, with 1,197,350 visitors; the first Central Library occupied a site to west of the Town Hall. The site had been acquired from the Birmingham and Midland Institute in 1860 after the construction of their own building in 1857 on the corner of Paradise Street and Ratcliff Place; the BMI building was to include a library, but under the Public Libraries Act 1850 a referendum took place on the creation of a municipal library. After the first vote failed, a second one passed in 1860 causing the BMI and the Corporation to cooperate on the joint site. E. M. Barry was the architect for the BMI building and it was hoped he could be retained as the architect for the adjoining library, but his plans were deemed too expensive for the Corporation.
Martin & Chamberlain's plans were approved in October 1862 for a tender price of £8,600 with E. M. Barry's classical facade retained in the design; the Lending Library was opened on 6 September 1865 and the Reference Library was opened just over a year on 26 October 1866. Initial use of the library was so heavy that the need for an extension was agreed in 1872 but deferred until 1878. On 11 January 1879 a fire broke out behind a wooden partition serving as a temporary wall during building operations; the fire caused extensive damage, with only 1,000 volumes saved from a stock of 50,000. Plans to rebuild the library after the fire had been approved as early as May 1879; the library was rebuilt on the same site by J. H. Chamberlain in a Lombardic Renaissance style with a tall clerestoried Reading Room. At a cost of £54,975 the second Central Library opened on 1 June 1882; as the number of books increased, the Council resolved in 1938 that a new library was an "urgent necessity", but the outbreak of World War II meant that it was not until 1960, the development of a new Inner Ring Road through the site of the old library, that a general specification was agreed.
The library and the BMI building were demolished, the site is now part of the Birmingham Conservatoire and its gardens. The 1970s Central Library was constructed on a site occupied by Mason Science College and Liberal Club; the new Central Library opened on 12 January 1974. It was designed by a Birmingham-based architect, its inverted ziggurat form was a powerful example of the Brutalist style. With the Rotunda and the Alpha Tower, it became one of Birmingham's key Modernist buildings. Madin designed the Central Library as part of a large civic centre scheme on the newly created Paradise Circus site. Planned to be built alongside the library was a School of Music, Drama Centre, Athletic Institute, shops, public house, a car park with 500 spaces and a bus interchange; the collection of civic buildings were all to be connected by high level walkways and the network of galleries which bridge the roads. The School of Music and a public house were the only other buildings in the original plans to be built and the high level walkways were never completed.
The Central Library consisted of two elements: the extrovert lending library and the introvert reference library. The lending library was designed for short visits, it formed a wing to the reference library and was of three storeys with a curved façade facing the Town Hall. The reference library was an eight-storey square block designed around an open atrium above a public square, designed to be entered from four sides. Above the square floated the cantilevered floors of the library in a distinctive inverted ziggurat formation; the designers drew inspiration for the design from Antonio Sant'Elia's drawings of Casa a gradinata, Marcel Breuer's 1928 scheme for a hospital at Elberfeld, Indiana. It has been suggested that they were influenced by the similar design for Boston City Hall, but a member of Madin's design team said they had only seen this design after the library was complete; the central atrium was glazed behind deep concrete balconies. Although there was good natural light, the design was an early recognition of solar gain and the damage it can cause to books.
The large windows of the referenc
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Henry Poynting
John Henry Poynting was an English physicist. He was a professor of physics at Mason Science College, from 1880 to 1900, the successor institution, the University of Birmingham until his death. Poynting was the youngest son of a Unitarian minister, he was born at the parsonage of the Monton Unitarian Chapel in Eccles, Lancashire In his boyhood he was educated at the nearby school operated by his father. From 1867 to 1872 he attended Owens College, now the University of Manchester, where his physics teachers included Osborne Reynolds and Balfour Stewart. From 1872 to 1876 he was a student at Cambridge University, where he attained high honours in mathematics after taking grinds with Edward Routh. In the late 1870s he worked in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge under James Clerk Maxwell, he was the developer and eponym of the Poynting vector, which describes the direction and magnitude of electromagnetic energy flow and is used in the Poynting theorem, a statement about energy conservation for electric and magnetic fields.
This work was first published in 1884. He performed a measurement of Newton's gravitational constant by innovative means during 1893. In 1903 he was the first to realise that the Sun's radiation can draw in small particles towards it: this was named the Poynting–Robertson effect, he discovered the torsion-extension coupling in finite strain elasticity. This is now known as the Poynting effect in torsion. Poynting and the Nobel prizewinner J. J. Thomson co-authored a multi-volume undergraduate physics textbook, in print for about 50 years and was in widespread use during the first third of the 20th century. Poynting wrote most of it, he was awarded an honorary MSc in Pure Science in 1901 by Birmingham University. Poynting lived at Edgbaston with his family and servants for some years, he lived at 66 Beaufort Road and died of a diabetic coma, aged 61, at 10 Ampton Road, Edgbaston in 1914. Poynting's most famous student may have been Alfred J. Lotka, inspired by Poynting to apply the ideas of physical chemistry to biology.
Lotka dedicated his classic book on mathematical population biology to Poynting. Craters on Mars and the Moon are named in his honour, as is the main Physics building at the University of Birmingham and the departmental society there, the Poynting Physical Society, he is credited with coining the expression "greenhouse effect" in 1909 to explain how human behaviour might increase global temperatures. 1884 A Comparison of the Fluctuations in the Price of Wheat and in the Cotton and Silk Imports into Great Britain, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Pts. I and II: Static electricity and magnetism London, C. Griffin 1920 Collected Scientific Papers Cambridge University Press Works written by or about John Henry Poynting at Wikisource Media related to John Henry Poynting at Wikimedia Commons
Library of Birmingham
The Library of Birmingham is a public library in Birmingham, England. It is situated on the west side of the city centre at Centenary Square, beside the Birmingham Rep and Baskerville House. Upon opening on 3 September 2013, it replaced Birmingham Central Library; the library, estimated to have cost £188.8 million, is viewed by the Birmingham City Council as a flagship project for the city's redevelopment. It has been described as the largest public library in the United Kingdom, the largest public cultural space in Europe, the largest regional library in Europe. 2,414,860 million visitors came to the library in 2014 making it the 10th most popular visitor attraction in the UK. Birmingham City Council looked into relocating the library for many years; the original plan was to build a new library in the emerging Eastside district, opened up to the city centre following the demolition of Masshouse Circus. A library was designed by Richard Rogers on a site in the area. However, for financial reasons and reservations about the location this plan was shelved.
The Council suggested that the Library be split between a new building built between the Rep Theatre and Baskerville House at Centenary Square, which until 2009 was a public car park and a building at Millennium Point in "Eastside". In August 2006, the Council confirmed the area between the Rep Theatre and Baskerville House as the future site for the library. Capita Symonds had been appointed as Project Managers for the Library of Birmingham; the council's intention was to create a "world class" landmark civic building in Centenary Square. Not long after this, the two-sites idea was scrapped and the archives and special collections will move to the site at Centenary Square. After an international design competition, run by the Royal Institute of British Architects, a shortlist of seven architects was announced on 27 March 2008, they were chosen from a list of over 100 architects. The architects chosen were: Foreign Office Architects and Partners, Hopkins Architects, Mecanoo, OMA, Schmidt hammer lassen and Wilkinson Eyre.
In early August 2008, Mecanoo and multi-discipline engineers, Buro Happold, were announced as the winner of the design competition. More detailed plans for the library were revealed by the council in conjunction with the architects at a launch event held on 2 April 2009; the previous Central Library failed for the second time to gain status as a listed building. Work was scheduled to begin on demolishing the old library early in 2015 to make way for the redevelopment of Paradise Circus. Reaction to the planned library was positive. Then-Poet Laureate Andrew Motion said that "These plans are properly ambitious to preserve the best traditional practice, while opening the building to new ideas about what a library should be — the heart of the community, fulfilling all manner of social needs as well as scholarly, research-based and pleasurable ones." Philip Pullman said "The new Library of Birmingham sounds as if it will be lovely and should attract more users than the present one with its impressive visitor total of 5,000 a day."
Sir Alan Ayckbourn said "I wholeheartedly support the proposed exciting new plans to develop the new Birmingham library" and Irvine Welsh said " an audacious and compelling initiative which promises to redefine and modernise the entire notion of public library services, in the process create the greatest public information resource in Europe... Writers will love it, so will readers." Architect of the Birmingham Central Library, John Madin, criticised the building as not fit for purpose in 2011. Madin said "They are spending all this money on a new library, no better than the existing one. Eighty per cent of it will not have natural light and does not meet the standards of the existing building." In the first year of opening 2.7 million visitors passed through the doors of the library. In 2015 visitor numbers dropped to 1.8 million visits. Preparation of the ground for building, archaeological work between Baskerville House and The Rep had begun before planning permission had been granted. Planning permission was granted and approved by Birmingham City Council in December 2009.
Building work, undertaken by Carillion, commenced in January 2010, with a completion schedule for 3 September 2013. A topping out ceremony to mark the completion of the highest part of the building took place on 14 September 2011; the formal opening on 3 September 2013 was conducted by Malala Yousafzai, the Pakistani schoolgirl who survived a Taliban assassination attempt, who now lives in Birmingham. Before unveiling a plaque, she said "Let us not forget that one book, one pen, one teacher can change the world". At the 2014 RIBA West Midlands Awards, the Library of Birmingham was named overall West Midlands building of the year Mecanoo architect Patrick Arends won emerging architect of the year and Birmingham City Council won client of the year. In the June 2014 birthday honours, the library's director, Brian Gambles, was made MBE "for services to libraries". On 17 July 2014 the Library of Birmingham was nominated as one of the six short-listed buildings for the 2014 Stirling Prize, awarded for excellence in architecture.
In December 2014 Birmingham City Council proposed reducing the opening hours of the library because of a council funding shortfall, in February 2015 confirmed opening hours will be reduced from 73 hours per week to 40 hours per week, saving £1.3 million per year on running costs and involving making redundant about half of the 188 libra
William James Bloye was an English sculptor, active in Birmingham either side of World War II. He studied, taught at the Birmingham School of Art, where his pupils included Gordon Herickx, Roy Kitchin, Raymond Mason, John Poole and Ian Walters, he studied stone-carving and letter cutting under Eric Gill around 1921. In 1925 he became a member of the Birmingham Civic Society, having, at about that time, a studio at 111, Golden Hillock Road, Small Heath, Birmingham; as Birmingham's unofficial civic sculptor he worked on all public commissions including libraries and the University. He carved bas-relief plaques for public houses in Birmingham, decorated a number of buildings by the architect Holland W. Hobbiss. During the 1920s, he served on the Technical Committee of the Birmingham Civic Society, he became a member of the Royal British Society of Sculptors: associate in 1934, fellow in 1938. He won the latter's Otto Beit Medal. Retiring from the School of Art in 1956 he moved to Solihull, he died in Arezzo, Italy in 1975.
In December 2010, a blue plaque was unveiled on the site of his former studio. As of January 2010, Birmingham City Council are working on the restoration Bloye's statue of Pan at Aston Hall; the statue's head is missing, they have appealed for old photographs, to assist in its reconstruction. Bloye was associated with the Royal Birmingham Society of Artists. Although the two 1919 bronze plaques at the RBSA entrance are the earliest known work by Bloye in Birmingham, he only became a member in 1930. After a period as vice-president, he became president in 1948 and served in that role until 1950, he was the RBSA's Professor of Sculpture from at least the mid-1940s until at least 1961. The Society's permanent collection includes one of a life-size plaster bust, Head of Man, it is undated and not on display. The subject's name is not recorded
In a number of countries, a university college is a college institution that provides tertiary education but does not have full or independent university status. A university college is part of a larger university; the precise usage varies from country to country. In Australia, the term University College was used to refer to educational institutions that were like universities, but lacked full autonomy; the Latrobe University College of Northern Victoria was one such college. University colleges existing today cater for specific subjects. UNSW@ADFA was known as the University College, ADFA, it provides the tertiary education component of officer cadet training at the Australian Defence Force Academy, it is a branch of the University of New South Wales. Additionally, some residential colleges associated with universities are named "University College"; these halls of residence are common in Australian universities and provide accommodation to students. They may provide academic support and social activities for residents.
University College, Melbourne University Women's College, is one such residential college. It is affiliated with the University of Melbourne. In Belgium, the term University college is used to refer to state-funded institutions of higher education belonging to one of the three Communities of Belgium, that are not universities, they can issue academic or non-academic Bachelor's degrees or academic Master's degrees, but have no permission to conduct research. If they are at the same level, academic degrees issued from University colleges are different to University degrees. In the Dutch-speaking Flemish community, University colleges are called'Hogescholen' while in the French community, they are called'Hautes écoles'. However, the French community makes a difference between'Hautes écoles' and'Écoles supérieures des arts' which are specialised art schools authorized to select incoming students. Both count as University colleges. In Canada, "University College" has three meanings: a degree-granting institution.
The title "University College" is extensively used by institutions that do not have full university status, but which do extensive teaching at degree level. The title "university" is protected by regulations of the Canada Corporations Act, but the title "college" is only regulated in some Canadian provinces; some Canadian university colleges are public institutions, some are private. The Council of Ministers of Education maintains a list of accredited institutions through the Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. Institutions that are members of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada are full universities. "University College" is the name of a Canadian educational institution. University College is the name of a constituent college of the University of Toronto; the Ontario College of Art & Design University is sometimes referred to as a university college due to its history as a college prior to 2002 when it was designated as a university under the Ontario College of Art and Design University Act.
A classical university with several colleges is called yliopisto in Finnish. However, some specialized universities are called korkeakoulu, because unlike classical universities, they focus only on one discipline though they have the same status as an yliopisto; the vocational universities, are called ammattikorkeakoulu. The potential for confusion has led some korkeakoulus to change their name to yliopisto, abandoning the distinction between the terms yliopisto and korkeakoulu. Additionally three Greater Helsinki-based korkeakoulus, Helsinki University of Technology, University of Art and Design Helsinki and Helsinki School of Economics, have opted to merge to form the Aalto University, Aalto-yliopisto; the National University of Ireland and Queen's University Belfast were based on the UK university college system, were both set up in 1908 before the establishment of the Republic of Ireland and having roots in the earlier Queen's University of Ireland, a university college-type system. The university colleges of the National University have since been raised to the status of universities—as they were considered for many years before statute recognition—but the system still maintains its overall federal status.
Queen's University Belfast had no university colleges and the first university college was created in 1985 and second in 1999, these two institutions were associated with the university, offering its degrees since 1968. The term "University College" in Malaysia denotes institutions that are granted the authority to issue degrees in their own names within specialised fields and disciplines. In contrast, an institution granted the status of "University" provides courses of training in multiple disciplines; the empowering legislations governing the establishment and governance of university colleges in Malaysia include the University and University Colleges Act 1971, Universiti Teknologi MARA Act 1976, the Education Act 1995, the Private Higher Education Act 1996, the National Council of Higher Education Act 1996. In the Netherlands, the term "university college" refers to special programmes at several universities which are similar to United States liberal arts colleges in providing a broad tertiary education.