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Masonic Temple

A Masonic Temple or Masonic Hall is, within Freemasonry, the room or edifice where a Masonic Lodge meets. Masonic Temple may refer to an abstract spiritual goal and the conceptual ritualistic space of a meeting. In the early years of Freemasonry, from the 17th through the 18th centuries, it was most common for Masonic Lodges to form their Masonic Temples either in private homes or in the private rooms of public taverns or halls which could be rented out for Masonic purposes; this was less than ideal, however. Lodges began to look for permanent facilities, dedicated purely to Masonic use; the first Masonic Hall was built in 1765 in France. A decade in May, 1775, the cornerstone of what would come to be known as Freemasons' Hall, was laid in solemn ceremonial form spurring a trend that would continue to present day. Most lodges, could not afford to build their own facilities and instead rented rooms above commercial establishments. With permanent facilities, the term "Masonic Temple" began to be applied not just to the symbolic formation of the Temple, but to the physical place in which this took place.

It began to be applied to the lodge rooms themselves. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, as the popularity of Freemasonry grew and more lodges began to have the financial wherewithal to own their own premises. In many locations this was spurred by changing tax laws that allowed fraternal and benevolent societies to own property and lease space without being taxed as commercial landlords. In larger towns and cities, where there were many lodges, it became economical for groups of lodges to band together and either purchase or build their own buildings with both commercial space and lodge rooms in the same building; the rents from the commercial space going to the upkeep of the lodge rooms. This was true in cities where the Grand Lodge met; these buildings, began to be referred to as "Masonic Temples", "Masonic Halls", or "Masonic Lodges". In smaller towns the trend was different. Here, instead of building large impressive buildings in the hopes of attracting multiple commercial tenants, the local lodges tended to build more modest structures, with space for a single tenant, a small meeting hall for public rental, or no rental space at all.

In addition in the United States, lodges founded in established communities would purchase buildings that had historic value as lodge members wanted their new lodge to be associated with the history of their local community like their older counterparts. Thus they looked to purchase old churches and the homes of community founders, which they would convert into lodge meeting space; these too began to be known as "Masonic Temples". The 1920s marked a heyday for Freemasonry in the United States. By 1930, over 12% of the adult male population of the United States were members of the fraternity; the dues generated by such numbers allowed state Grand Lodges to build on monumental scales. Typical of the era are Detroit Masonic Temple; the Great Depression hit Freemasonry as hard as it hit the rest of the world, both local Lodges and Grand Lodges turned away from erecting buildings and towards helping those in need. World War II saw resources focused on supporting the War effort. While there was something of a resurgence in the 1950s, the anti-establishment attitudes of the 1960s and 1970s affected membership numbers further.

Lodges began to close and merge, with those that could no longer afford to maintain their buildings selling these to developers. Many Masonic Temples and Halls were converted to non-masonic uses including commercial spaces, night clubs, condominiums. Many lodges have returned to renting rooms, there is a small movement calling for Freemasonry to return to its roots and open their Masonic Temples in taverns; when Freemasons first began building dedicated structures the more used term for a Masonic Temple was Masonic Hall. This began to change in the mid 19th Century when the larger Masonic Halls most found in major cities began to be named with the term Masonic Temple; as time went on more and more American buildings began using the name Masonic Temple regardless of their size or location. In US Freemasonry today the term Masonic Hall is experiencing a revival motivated in part by the public misconception that Masons conduct a form of religious worship in their Temples. Though Masonic Temples in their most basic definition serve as a home to a Masonic Lodge they can serve many other purposes as well.

Smaller Masonic Temples will consist of nothing more than a meeting room with a kitchen/dining area attached. Larger Masonic Temples can contain multiple meeting rooms, concert halls and museums as well as non-masonic commercial and office space. Since their inception the proper design of a Masonic Temple has been a serious subject debate among Masonic scholars, and because of that ongoing debate a number of different standards have been proposed throughout time. Despite attempts at standardization, Masonic Temples vary in design; the layout of the lodge room will differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. List of Masonic buildings

Robert George (RAF officer)

Air Vice Marshal Sir Robert Allingham George, was a senior officer in the Royal Air Force and Governor of South Australia from 23 February 1953 until 7 March 1960. He was born in the County of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, on 27 July 1896, educated at Invergordon and Inverness. In May 1927, he married Sybil Elizabeth Baldwin; when the First World War began in 1914, George enlisted in the Seaforth Highlanders and was sent to France. He was transferred to the Royal Flying Corps and was awarded the Military Cross for his night bombing. In 1919 he was appointed to a permanent commission in the Royal Air Force, he was appointed Officer Commanding No. 100 Squadron in 1930 and Officer Commanding No. 33 Squadron in 1932. George served as Senior Air Staff Officer at Headquarters RAF Far East in Singapore from 1934 and as Station Commander at RAF Hawkinge from 1937. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was Air Attaché in Ankara, he went on to be Air Officer Commanding AHQ Iraq and Persia in 1944. After the War he served as Air Attaché in Paris until he retired in 1952.

He was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1944 and a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1948, promoted to substantive air vice marshal in 1950 and knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1952. Sir Robert was appointed Governor of South Australia in August 1952, he and Lady George arrived in Adelaide early the following year. The Premier, Sir Thomas Playford, noted in his welcome address to Sir Robert that governors were expected to be "an inspiration in times of danger." Playford's words turned out to be portentous – South Australia would suffer through earthquake and flood in consecutive years during Sir Robert's tenure. In March 1954, the worst earthquake in Adelaide's history damaged Government House, along with many other buildings in the city. Less than a year the Governor's summer residence at Marble Hill was destroyed in the Black Sunday bushfires of January 1955, he and his wife and staff sheltered under wet blankets in the driveway, were lucky to escape with their lives.

In a cruel twist of fate, all Sir Robert and Lady George's possessions were lost in the fire, having been relocated to Marble Hill while Government House was undergoing repairs for the damage suffered in the earthquake. The 1956 Murray River flood was the largest in recorded history. On 20 August, Sir Robert surveyed the flood-hit areas in a light aircraft, said he was "appalled at the tremendous area underwater and the terrific damage which had resulted."Sir Robert was a colourful governor, once demanding a personal helicopter from Premier Playford. Although admired for his bravery, Sir Robert was considered old-fashioned by the masses due to his impatience, polo-playing, his habit of carrying a fly-whisk and a cane. Lady George was an ardent supporter of many charities, but her support for traditional family roles was not popular with the emerging feminists; the prosecuting lawyer was future Labor premier Don Dunstan. Playford negotiated an out-of-court settlement on condition that Dunstan and his Labor colleagues in the House would not debate the budget item.

Labor maverick Samuel Lawn did not honour the agreement, tried to raise a public scandal. Playford responded by extending George's term. George was appointed Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of South Australia in 1956. George and his family retired to England in 1959 after which he held no further government appointments, he died in a London Hospital on 13 September 1967, after being accidentally hit by a car and not regaining consciousness

Frederic Rhinelander King

Frederic Rhinelander King, was an American architect, the co-founder with Marion Sims Wyeth of the architecture firm Wyeth and King. Frederic Rhinelander King was born in 1887, he was the son of LeRoy King and the former Ethel Ledyard Rhinelander of New York and Newport, Rhode Island. His siblings included LeRoy King, Jr. who married Mary Isabel Lockwood, Katharine Bulkeley Lawrence, Pamela Anne Sutherland Woodbury. The Kings' Newport residence was designed for his father by Stanford White, at the corner of Berkeley and Bellevue Avenues, his paternal grandparents were Mary Augusta King. Through his father, he was a direct descendant of both Nicholas Fish and Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch Director-General of New Netherland, his great-aunt, Elizabeth Stuyvesant Dresser was the mother of D. LeRoy Dresser and Edith Stuyvesant Dresser, married to George Washington Vanderbilt II and U. S. Senator from Rhode Island, Peter Goelet Gerry, his maternal grandparents were Frederic William Rhinelander and the president of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Frances Davenport Rhinelander.

King's mother was Edith Wharton's first cousin and King served as the executor of Wharton's American estate. He was educated at St. George's School, Newport after which he entered Harvard College, where he graduated from in 1908 with a Bachelor of Arts cum laude, he studied architecture at Columbia University from 1908-1911, followed by studies at the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts, in Paris, from 1912-1914. King apprenticed at the prominent beaux-arts architecture firm McKim, Mead & White from 1914–1917, was associated with architect Lawrence Grant White between 1915 and 1917, his career was interrupted by the First World War. He served with the American Red Cross Commission in 1917, following America's entry into the war, served as First Lieutenant in the US Army from 1918 until 1919. Following the war, King continued his apprenticeship at the architecture firm Carrère and Hastings from 1919-1920, he formed an association in 1920 with the architect Marion Sims Wyeth, a friend from his student days in Paris.

They formally joined in partnership in 1932, known as Wyeth and King and after 1944 as Wyeth and Johnson. Speaking and Johnson were responsible for the work in Florida, while King was responsible for the work in Newport and New York City. Designed by King Leroy King House, Indian Spring, Rhode Island. Stuyvesant LeRoy House, Royden, 22 Castle Hill Avenue, Rhode Island. Seamen's Church Institute, Market Square, Rhode Island. New facade and interior alterations, 14 East 81st Street, New York City. Designed in partnership with Marion Sims Wyeth Women's National Republican Club, 23 West 51st Street, New York City. Episcopal Church of the Epiphany, York Avenue and 74th Street, New York City. Alterations to Millbank Hall, Barnard College, New York City. Reginald B. Rives House, Bellevue Avenue at Bancroft Avenue, Rhode Island. Addition to Council on Foreign Relations building, East 68th Street, New York City. Honyman Hall, Trinity Church, Rhode Island. Garden Library, Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC. In 1924, King married Edith Percy Morgan, the daughter of David Percy Morgan and Edith Morgan, at the Church of the Epiphany when it was at Lexington Avenue and East 35th Street.

Edith was the granddaughter of president of the New York City Bar Association. They had a weekend home in Syosset, New York on Long Island. Together, they were the parents of twin sons: Rev. David Rhinelander King, who married Mary Sue Griffith. David was the rector of St. John's Episcopal Church in New Jersey. Rev. Jonathan LeRoy King, who married Jacqueline Patricia Esmerian in 1958. Jaqueline was the daughter of Raphael Esmerian, who lived at 988 Fifth Avenue, was president of R. Esmerian Inc. jewelers. Jonathan was the canon at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine. King died at his residence in New York City on March 20, 1972, his funeral was held at the Church of the Epiphany in New York City. Through his son David, he was the grandfather of Nicholas Rhinelander King, married to Colleen Ellen Dunphy, the daughter of Joanne and Edward P. Dunphy, in 2000. Through his son Jonathan, he was the grandfather of four, including Cynthia Bayard King, who married Lee Gregory Vance, a son of Lee N. Vance, in 1986.

Frederic Rhinelander King at Find a Grave

Siege of Albazin

The Siege of Albazin was a military conflict between the Tsardom of Russia and the Qing dynasty from 1685 to 1686. It ended in the surrender of Albazin to the Qing and Russian abandonment of the Amur River area in return for trading privileges in Beijing. After the Battle of Hutong, the Russians made no formal attempt to gain control of the Amur River valley; however they did compete with the Manchus for the allegiance of nearby peoples. In 1667, the Hamnigan Buryat leader Gantimur refused a Qing request to join them in military operations against the Russians and went over to the other side; the Qing tried to win him back with gifts, when that didn't work, demanded that the Russians extradite him, which didn't work. The Qing were unable to mount a military expedition against the Russians at this time due to being hampered by a lack of supplies in the Amur region. Russian territory west of Lake Baikal was consolidated in 1661 with the foundation of Irkutsk, however expansion south was halted in 1663 with a defeat in Uriankhai territory.

Russian migration into the area intensified with the relocation of exiles from Lithuania and Poland. From these exiles came the Polish Nikifor Chernigovsky, who in 1665 murdered his guards at Ilimsk, fled with a gang of escaped prisoners to Albazin, where they rebuilt the fort. While technically a refugee, Cherigovsky collected tribute from the local peoples and sent part of it to the authorities in Nerchinsk. In 1672, the Russian authorities in Nerchinsk formally claimed Albazin. Cherigovsky was sent back to Moscow, where he was pardoned and sent back to the Amur. Unlike other parts of the Russian Far East, Albazin's lands were fertile and the fort grew to a settlement with buildings multiplying and farms spreading throughout the valley. Qing presence in the region expanded in the 1680s with the construction of forts at Aigun and Mergen, a dock at Girin. An office was set up at Butha to administrate the hunter gatherers of the Greater and Lesser Khingan ranges. In June 1686, Langtan led a force of 3,000 Qing soldiers to lay siege on Albazin.

According to Russians sources, the Qing had a "great might of guns" and more powerful cannons than the Hongyipao, called "miraculous-power general cannons". More than a hundred Russians died from bombardment on the first day of the siege; the Russian side surrendered the next day and were allowed to leave for Nerchinsk, however many Russians decided to defect to the Qing instead. Albazin and the nearby villages and the monastery were razed, but for some reason the crops were left untouched; the Russians returned to Albazin to reap the crops. This time they built a stout bastion fort with the help of a Prussian military expert by the name of Afanasii Ivanovich Beiton, captured in 1667 by the Russians and sent as a prisoner to Siberia; the new walls, made of an earthen core, were reinforced with a weave of clay and tree roots, making them uncommonly strong. In July 1686, Langtan laid siege to Albazin again; this time the Qing forces were unable to penetrate the walls despite many attempts. On 23 July, the Qing made a direct assault on the southern wall after bombardment from cannons, but were forced to retreat with heavy losses.

The Russians however made several successful sallies, sometimes taking prisoners. They became too confident at one point and fell into an ambush while trying to dismantle the enemy siegeworks. Due to the bastions and design of the fortress, the Qing were unable to gain an advantageous position to bombard the defending forces. In early August, the Qing cut off Russian access to the river; the Russians failed after fighting for four days straight. A complete blockade had been erected around Albazin by the end of August; the Russians became sick and started dying from scurvy and cholera. Of the 800 defenders who held Albazin at the beginning of the siege, no more than 150 remained alive by early November; the Qing forces too suffered although not as much as the Russians, by November less than half of the original 3,000 remained. In October 1686, Russian envoys from Moscow arrived in Beijing seeking peace; the Kangxi Emperor sent a messenger to Albazin, arriving in December, announced the cessation of the siege.

Of the 800 defenders, only 24 survived. They were provided with provisions by the Qing forces. Albazin was relinquished to the Qing in the Treaty of Nerchinsk the following year in return for Russian trading privileges in Beijing. Fearing that the Khori and Solon wound side with the Russians, the Qing had their communities relocated to Manchu lands. Most of them either were assimilated into the Eight Banners. In August 1689, the Treaty of Nerchinsk, which saw the official surrender of the Amur region by the Russians to the Manchus, was agreed upon under threat of arms from the Qing; the treaty allowed the Russians to trade in Beijing and a caravan route was set up from Nerchinsk via the Nonni River. The Qing further consolidated their presence in Heilongjiang with garrisons in Qiqihar and Butha in 1691, however they made no attempt to patrol their Amur frontier, rather opting to depopulate the northern bank of the Amur river. In the Qing view, the possibility of tribal peoples raiding Qing territory from Russian territory was a greater threat than a direct Russian incursion.

The Treaty of Kyakhta was signed in 1728 demarking the international border between the two empires in northern Mongolia. Kyakhta became a trading town with both a Chinese populace. Midway between the Chinese town and Russian fortress two posts were planted, one inscribed with Russian and the other with Manchu writing. Andrade, Tonio

My Love of This Land

"My Love of This Land" is Killing Joke's second single from their seventh studio album, Outside the Gate. It was released by E. G. Records on 3 July 1988."My Love of this Land" reached No. 89 on the UK Singles Chart. "My Love of This Land" was first released as a 7" single, backed by B-side "Darkness Before Dawn". "My Love of This Land" was released as a 10" single in the UK, featuring a remix of the song by Glenn Skinner on the A-side, along with "Darkness Before Dawn", "Follow the Leaders-Dub" and "Sun Goes Down" on the B-side. A third release of the single as a 12" featured the same A-side as the 10" release, while the B-side included a live version of "Pssyche" with "Follow the Leaders-Dub". Side A"My Love of This Land" – 04:14Side B"Darkness Before Dawn" – 05:18 Side A"My Love of This Land" – 03:58 "Darkness Before Dawn" – 05:18Side B"Follow the Leaders-Dub" – 04:00 "Sun Goes Down" – 04:19 Side A"My Love of This Land" – 03:58 "Darkness Before Dawn" – 05:18Side B"Follow the Leaders-Dub" – 04:00 "Pssyche" – 04:38 "My Love of This Land" music video on YouTube

Lone Mountain State Forest

Lone Mountain State Forest is a state forest in Morgan County, located in the southeastern United States. The forest consists of 3,624 acres managed by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. Lone Mountain is a detached ridge-like mountain rising to an elevation of 2,530 feet in the southern half of Morgan County. Although the mountain's altitude isn't notable, its isolation makes it one of the 25 most prominent mountains in the state of Tennessee. Lone Mountain is located on the western fringe of the Crab Orchard Mountains, which rise atop the Cumberland Plateau just west of the plateau's Walden Ridge escarpment; the mountain's western base is formed by the Emory River, which flows down from its source near the summit of Bird Mountain to the northeast and winds around the base of the range before descending the plateau and emptying into the Watts Bar Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River. Lone Mountain's northern base is formed by a tributary of the Emory. Bitter Creek, which flows parallel to the Emory, slices a substantial valley along Lone Mountain's eastern base, splitting the mountain off from the rest of the Crab Orchard range.

Lone Mountain spans much of the stretch of U. S. Route 27 between Harriman and Wartburg; the community of Mossy Grove is situated at the mountain's eastern base in the Bitter Creek valley. Lone Mountain State Forest was created from a land donation by the Lone Mountain Land Company in 1938 and a large land purchase by the Morgan County Chancery Court the following year. Lone Mountain was managed as part of Morgan State Forest until 1970, when it became an independent state forest; the State Forestry Division managed Lone Mountain with a "hands-off" approach to allow the forest to recover from damage caused by the Lone Mountain Land Company. Timber harvests within the forest are therefore rare. In 2002, a tornado swept across Morgan County, devastating the community of Mossy Grove and wiping out some 500 acres of trees in Lone Mountain State Forest; the tornado caused the closure of the Carl Black Spur trail which remains closed as of 2008. Forestry officials plan to have the Carl Black Spur trail open for the public again soon.

The tornado opened up the opportunity for a new trail aptly named Twister Pass which runs from the South West trail up to Todds Landing. Southern pine beetle infestations in the 1970s and 1990s killed off a large number of the forest's pine trees, leaving hardwoods. Lone Mountain has 15 miles of trails, the most popular of which leads to Coyote Point, an overlook just below the summit on the south slope of the mountain; the trails were developed in the late 1980s for horseback riding, are well-equipped with watering holes and hitching posts. The trails are open to hikers and mountain bikers; the trailhead is located just west of US-27 along Clayton Howard Road. Official website Lone Mountain State Forest Trail Map — provided by East Tennessee Mountain Bike Rides - Lone Mountain — contains trail information and trail maps