Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are laid in and bound together by mortar. The common materials of masonry construction are brick, building stone such as marble and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, adobe. Masonry is a durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and workmanship, the pattern in which the units are assembled can affect the durability of the overall masonry construction. A person who constructs masonry is called a bricklayer; these are both classified as construction trades. Masonry is used for walls and buildings. Brick and concrete block are the most common types of masonry in use in industrialized nations and may be either weight-bearing or a veneer. Concrete blocks those with hollow cores, offer various possibilities in masonry construction, they provide great compressive strength and are best suited to structures with light transverse loading when the cores remain unfilled. Filling some or all of the cores with concrete or concrete with steel reinforcement offers much greater tensile and lateral strength to structures.
Masonry workers are paid hourly depending on their position. The use of material such as bricks and stones can increase the thermal mass of a building. Masonry can protect the building from fire. Masonry walls are more resistant to projectiles, such as debris from tornadoes. Extreme weather, under certain circumstances, can cause degradation of masonry due to expansion and contractions forces associated with freeze-thaw cycles. Masonry tends to be heavy and must be built upon a strong foundation, such as reinforced concrete, to avoid settling and cracking. Other than concrete, masonry construction does not lend itself well to mechanization, requires more skilled labor than stick-framing. Masonry consists of loose components and has a low tolerance to oscillation as compared to other materials such as reinforced concrete, wood, or metals. Masonry has high compressive strength under vertical loads but has low tensile strength unless reinforced; the tensile strength of masonry walls can be increased by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers at intervals.
Where practical, steel reinforcements such as windposts can be added. A masonry veneer wall consists of masonry units clay-based bricks, installed on one or both sides of a structurally independent wall constructed of wood or masonry. In this context the brick masonry is decorative, not structural; the brick veneer is connected to the structural wall by brick ties. There is an air gap between the brick veneer and the structural wall; as clay-based brick is not waterproof, the structural wall will have a water-resistant surface and weep holes can be left at the base of the brick veneer to drain moisture that accumulates inside the air gap. Concrete blocks and cultured stones, veneer adobe are sometimes used in a similar veneer fashion. Most insulated buildings that utilize concrete block, adobe, veneers or some combination thereof feature interior insulation in the form of fiberglass batts between wooden wall studs or in the form of rigid insulation boards covered with plaster or drywall. In most climates this insulation is much more effective on the exterior of the wall, allowing the building interior to take advantage of the aforementioned thermal mass of the masonry.
This technique does, require some sort of weather-resistant exterior surface over the insulation and is more expensive. The strength of a masonry wall is not dependent on the bond between the building material and the mortar; the blocks sometimes have grooves or other surface features added to enhance this interlocking, some dry set masonry structures forgo mortar altogether. Solid brickwork is made of two or more wythes of bricks with the units running horizontally bound together with bricks running transverse to the wall; each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different'bonds' such as the common bond, the English bond, the Flemish bond. Bonds can differ in insulating ability. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond; the wide selection of brick styles and types available in industrialized nations allow much variety in the appearance of the final product. In buildings built during the 1950s-1970s, a high degree of uniformity of brick and accuracy in masonry was typical.
In the period since this style was thought to be too sterile, so attempts were made to emulate older, rougher work. Some brick surfaces are made to look rustic by including burnt bricks, which have a darker color or an irregular shape. Others may use antique salvage bricks, or new bricks may be artificially aged by applying various surface treatments, such as tumbling; the attempts at rusticity of the late 20th century have been carried forward by masons specializing in a free, artistic style, where the courses are intentionally no
"Riding in Town Cars With Boys" is the tenth episode of season 5 of the TV series Gossip Girl. The episode was written by Amanda Lasher, it was aired on December 5, 2011, on the CW. It is the winter finale with the fifth season starting again on January 16, 2012. Similar to previous names in the series, the title of the episode references a work of literature; the title reference is from the 2001 film Riding in Cars with Boys starring Drew Barrymore. The episode starts with a recap of the previous episode, "Rhodes to Perdition", the title sequence. Charlie is shown cutting her old IDs. Serena, Charlie and Dan are seen at breakfast celebrating the upcoming announcement of Charlie to New York's Upper East Side society, she mentions that she works at The Spectator with Nate again. Dan announces. Serena and he have a small tiff and Lily mentions they need to move on from Serena ruining Dan's book's chances of becoming a movie. Nate is on the phone with an employee and Chuck is looking at an article about how Blair's wedding may be off.
Nate suggests that he should call Blair but Chuck doesn't because "Louis is the father of her child, there's no way she'll give that up". Blair is continuing to have trouble with Louis. Dorota suggests, she shoots them down. Serena and Dan seem as if they may be making up. Serena says, she says. Dan says maybe she needs to dethrone Gossip Girl. Rufus suggests to Dan that he is still in love with BLair and he needs to tell her how he feels if Blair doesn't reciprocate those feelings and Dan seems like he may listen to his father's advice. Nate is at the office. Nate mentions. Tripp wasn't invited. Blair decides she needs to leave her penthouse, she ends up at his loft in Brooklyn. Dan asks Blair. Blair admits that she has some feelings for Chuck because he has become the man she's always wanted him to be, but Louis has too, they start a list of pro's and con's but Blair comes to the conclusion that Louis is the father of her child and that she has to stay with him. She asks Dan how it would feel to be a father to another man's baby and he said that it would be worth it.
Max asks Charlie for more money or he will reveal her lies. She says. Serena is looking through old Gossip Girl blasts and comes upon the revelation that, besides Nate, Dan was the last good man she's dated. Blair calls Chuck, she asks him if he expresses how scared she is to choose a man. He tells her. Nate confronts William van der Bilt about Tripp and his wife and the truth comes out that he had arranged Nate's job at The Spectator, he tells Nate that Nate is the one who knows which way their family needs to go in order to stay leaders. William leaves and Max enters, he pleads to Nate to listen to his story but Nate shuts him out. Serena tells Dan. Louis comes to see her and they hang up. Charlie comes to see Nate. Nate tells her about Max coming to sell Charlie's story. Nate expresses. Charlie reassures him. Lily asks if he is okay with Blair, she tells him to come to talk to her. Chuck says. Lily says that she's always loved Chuck as her own and she hopes he can feel that love for someone some day. Louis expresses his concern for Blair to Serena.
Serena tells him he gives him her location. Blair tells Dan that Chuck said she needs to marry Louis and she is unable to hide her unhappiness. Dan asks her what she wants and she says she wants to be happy again but doesn't know how to. Dan says. William goes to speak with Tripp and is angry with him that Tripp tried to undermine his relationship with Nate. Tripp begs William not to drop him because he needs him to have a career but William ignores him and leaves. Max offers to help him if Tripp with help Max. Louis is shown banging on Dan's loft doors, they get in to the loft but Blair and Dan are not there. Dan takes Blair to the party in a fire-lit room, he says. Max shows up to Charlie's party but Nate stops him. Max tells him. Nate tells him he will make sure that he tells Charlie that Max is at the party. Dan takes Chuck to Blair. Blair asks Chuck why he's here and he says that Dan arranged it, he says he should have fought for Blair and tells her he wants to raise her baby together. Gossip Girl sends a blast with Blair's location.
She decides she needs to leave and Chuck tells her he's leaving with her. Nate helps them leave unnoticed. Lily calls a speech in front of all, she expresses her admiration for her niece and Charlie sees Chuck and Blair leaving. As Blair and Chuck pull away in a limo, a puddle of oil is shown. Dan tells Serena that he didn't tell Blair his feelings because he realized he
The following list is a discography of production by AraabMuzik. 01. "Intro" 01. "Intro" 11. "I'm the Shit" 12. "Respect Me" 01. "Intro" 02. "Get Ready" 04. "Think of A Problem" 11. "Rumors" 05. "Dolla Bills" 06. "Money Over Here" 10. "My Life" 12. "Marry You" 14. "Loaded Gun" 00. Red Dot 06. "Curve" Sample Credit: Manfred Mann's Earth Band - "For You" 08. "Get It in Ohio" 12. "Spend the Night" Sample Credit: Kay Cee - "Escape" 15. "Chalupa" 08. "Extermination" 09. "Gorilla Musik" 08. "Skit" 05. "Monster Music" 13. "Scarface" 1. "Intro" 2. "Like Shiiiiit" 3. "Throw It Up" 4. "Its Your Party" 6. "Butta" 7. "Fuck The Other Side" 8. "Cuffin" 9. "Fed Story" 11. "Horror Story" 12. "On My Shiznit" 13. "La Bumba" 14. "Ride With Me" 07. "Drops Is Out" 16. "Salute" 01. "Killa" 02. "American Greed" 03. "Heat in Here" 04. "Face-Off vmo" 05. "I-Luv U" 06. "Put A Bird Up" 07. "Monster Muzik" 10. "Lights, Action" 11. "Stop It 5" 14. "We All Up in Here" 15. "Be With Me" 15. "Get in Tune" 17. "Rapper Down" 01. "1,2,3 Grind" Leftover00. "Love Me in the Hood" 04.
"Ryde on da Regular" 01. "Narcotic Lines" 04. "Presidential Rolex" 05. "Gesucht und gefunden" 03. "Murder One" 05. "Hammer Dance" 08. "Dope and Hoes" 10. "Y. N. R. E." 02. "Araab Styles" "Street Knock" 02. "Words of a Chameleon" 05. "Through My Eyes" 09. "So Good" 11. "Beauty" 03. "Molly Ringwald" 02. "Money Talks" 00. "Vampire" 01. "Here To Stay" 09. "Ransom Note" 01. "My City" 02. "Welcome to Rhode Island" 03. "Get It Started" 04. "Right Here" 06. "Ends Tonight" 08. "Hands Up" 09. "Southside" 10. "Pain In My Eyes" 11. "Over There" 02. "Monster" 03. "Sierra Leone Feat. Freshly Ground AraabMuzik Remix" 15. "Regretful" 05. "Keep It 100" 09. "I Ain't Bullshittin'" 09. "Ice Princess" 07. "R. N. S." 06. "Love, I'm Good" 08. "Slaughtermouse" 02. "Angel Dust" 11. "Started Something" 06. "The Banjo" 06. "4AM Flex" 12. "Ah Man" 05. "Body" 01. "Three" 02. "Uncle Joe" 03. "Serious" 04. "By Law" 05. "Flex" 06. "Forget" 07. "I Gotta Ask" 08. "Time for Work" 09. "Wrong One" 10. "I Wanna Know" 11. "Idols" 01. "Orbit" 02. "Dear Lord" 03. "Blow Out" 04. "Royal" 06.