Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
San Agustin, Las Palmas
San Agustín is a sea resort on the south coast of the island of Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain. It is part of Maspalomas, in the municipality of San Bartolomé de Tirajana; the GC-1 motorway connects it with the province capital Las Palmas. San Agustín, still a modest resort community, was one of the first resort developments of what would be known as Maspalomas among the fast growing resorts on the southern part of Gran Canaria from Maspalomas to Puerto de Mogan. Media related to San Agustín at Wikimedia Commons San Agustin Gran Canaria
A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. While the term bus depot refers to a bus station, it can refer to a bus garage. A bus station is larger than a bus stop, simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop, it may be intended as a terminal station for a number of routes, or as a transfer station where the routes continue. Bus station platforms may be assigned to fixed bus lines, or variable in combination with a dynamic passenger information system; the latter requires fewer platforms, but does not supply the passenger the comfort of knowing the platform well in advance and waiting there. An accessible station is a public transportation passenger station which provides ready access, is usable and does not have physical barriers that prohibit and/or restrict access by people with disabilities, including those who use wheelchairs. At 37 acres, the Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus in Chennai, India, is the largest bus station in Asia.
As of 2010, the terminus handled more than 501 buses at a time, 3,000 buses and 250,000 passengers a day. The largest underground bus station in Europe is Kamppi Centre of Helsinki, Finland completed in 2006; the terminal took 3 years to design and build. Today, the bus terminal, is the busiest bus terminal in Finland; every day, the terminal has around 700 bus departures. Bus depot Bus stop Bus terminus Intermodal passenger transport Railway station Ticket
For stations controlling unmanned aerial vehicles, see Ground control station. A ground station, earth station, or earth terminal is a terrestrial radio station designed for extraplanetary telecommunication with spacecraft, or reception of radio waves from astronomical radio sources. Ground stations may be located either in its atmosphere. Earth stations communicate with spacecraft by transmitting and receiving radio waves in the super high frequency or high frequency bands; when a ground station transmits radio waves to a spacecraft, it establishes a telecommunications link. A principal telecommunications device of the ground station is the parabolic antenna. Ground stations may have either a itinerant position. Article 1 § III of the ITU Radio Regulations describes various types of stationary and mobile ground stations, their interrelationships. Specialized satellite earth stations are used to telecommunicate with satellites—chiefly communications satellites. Other ground stations communicate with unmanned space probes.
A ground station that receives telemetry data, or that follows a satellite not in geostationary orbit, is called a tracking station. When a satellite is within a ground station's line of sight, the station is said to have a view of the satellite, it is possible for a satellite to communicate with more than one ground station at a time. A pair of ground stations are said to have a satellite in mutual view when the stations share simultaneous, line-of-sight contact with the satellite. A telecommunications port—or, more teleport—is a satellite ground station that functions as a hub connecting a satellite or geocentric orbital network with a terrestrial telecommunications network, such as the Internet. Teleports may provide various broadcasting services among other telecommunications functions, such as uploading computer programs or issuing commands over an uplink to a satellite. In May 1984, the Dallas/Fort Worth Teleport became the first American teleport to commence operation. In Federal Standard 1037C, the United States General Services Administration defined an earth terminal complex as the assemblage of equipment and facilities necessary to integrate an earth terminal into a telecommunications network.
FS-1037C has since been subsumed by the ATIS Telecom Glossary, maintained by the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions, an international, business-oriented, non-governmental organization. The Telecommunications Industry Association acknowledges this definition; the ITU Radiocommunication Sector, a division of the International Telecommunication Union, codifies international standards agreed-upon through multinational discourse. From 1927 to 1932, standards and regulations now governed by the ITU-R were administered by the International Consultative Committee for Radio. In addition to the body of standards defined by the ITU-R, each major satellite operator provides technical requirements and standards that ground stations must meet in order to communicate with the operator's satellites. For example, Intelsat publishes the Intelsat Earth Station Standards which, among other things, classifies ground stations by the capabilities of their parabolic antennas, pre-approves certain antenna models.
Eutelsat publishes similar requirements, such as the Eutelsat Earth Station Standards. The Teleport innovation was conceived and developed by Joseph Milano in 1976 as part of a National Research Council study entitled, Telecommunications for Metropolitan Areas: Near-Term Needs and Opportunities." UplinkStation.com, a corporate directory of commercial teleports, satellite television operators, et al. Accessed on 22 April 2009. World Teleport Association Accessed on 22 April 2009
Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, co-official with Spanish; the capital of the island, Palma, is the capital of the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands. The Balearic Islands have been an autonomous region of Spain since 1983. There are two small islands off the coast of Mallorca: Dragonera; the anthem of Mallorca is "La Balanguera". Like the other Balearic Islands of Menorca and Formentera, the island is an popular holiday destination for tourists from Germany and the United Kingdom; the international airport, Palma de Mallorca Airport, is one of the busiest in Spain. The name derives from Classical Latin insula maior, "larger island". In Medieval Latin, this became Maiorica, "the larger one", in comparison to Menorca, "the smaller one". Little is recorded of the earliest inhabitants of the island. Burial chambers and traces of habitation from the Neolithic period have been discovered the prehistoric settlements called talaiots, or talayots.
They raised Bronze Age megaliths as part of their Talaiotic culture. A non-exhaustive list is the following: Capocorb Vell Necròpoli de Son Real Novetiforme Alemany Poblat Talaiòtic de S'Illot Poblat Talaiòtic de Son Fornés Sa Canova de Morell Ses Païsses Ses Talaies de Can Jordi S'Hospitalet Vell The Phoenicians, a seafaring people from the Levant, arrived around the eighth century BC and established numerous colonies; the island came under the control of Carthage in North Africa, which had become the principal Phoenician city. After the Second Punic War, Carthage lost all of its overseas possessions and the Romans took over; the island was occupied by the Romans in 123 BC under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Balearicus. It flourished under Roman rule, during which time the towns of Pollentia, Palmaria were founded. In addition, the northern town of Bocchoris, dating back to pre-Roman times, was a federated city to Rome; the local economy was driven by olive cultivation and salt mining. Mallorcan soldiers were valued within the Roman legions for their skill with the sling.
In 427, Gunderic and the Vandals captured the island. Geiseric, son of Gunderic, governed Mallorca and used it as his base to loot and plunder settlements around the Mediterranean, until Roman rule was restored in 465. In 534, Mallorca was recaptured by the Eastern Roman Empire, led by Apollinarius. Under Roman rule, Christianity thrived and numerous churches were built. From 707, the island was attacked by Muslim raiders from North Africa. Recurrent invasions led the islanders to ask Charlemagne for help. In 902, Issam al-Khawlani conquered the Balearic Islands, ushering in a new period of prosperity under the Emirate of Córdoba; the town of Palma was reshaped and expanded, became known as Medina Mayurqa. On, with the Caliphate of Córdoba at its height, the Moors improved agriculture with irrigation and developed local industries; the caliphate was dismembered in 1015. Mallorca came under rule by the Taifa of Dénia, from 1087 to 1114, was an independent Taifa. During that period, the island was visited by Ibn Hazm.
However, an expedition of Pisans and Catalans in 1114–15, led by Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona, overran the island, laying siege to Palma for eight months. After the city fell, the invaders retreated due to problems in their own lands, they were replaced by the Almoravides from North Africa, who ruled until 1176. The Almoravides were replaced by the Almohad dynasty until 1229. Abú Yahya was the last Moorish leader of Mallorca. In the ensuing confusion and unrest, King James I of Aragon known as James the Conqueror, launched an invasion which landed at Santa Ponça, Mallorca, on 8–9 September 1229 with 15,000 men and 1,500 horses, his forces entered the city of Medina Mayurqa on 31 December 1229. In 1230 he annexed the island to his Crown of Aragon under the name Regnum Maioricae. From 1479, the Crown of Aragon was in dynastic union with that of Castile; the Barbary corsairs of North Africa attacked the Balearic Islands, in response, the people built coastal watchtowers and fortified churches.
In 1570, King Philip II of Spain and his advisors were considering complete evacuation of the Balearic islands. In the early 18th century, the War of the Spanish Succession resulted in the replacement of that dynastic union with a unified Spanish monarchy under the rule of the new Bourbon Dynasty; the last episode of the War of Spanish Succession was the conquest of the island of Mallorca. It took place on 2 July 1715. In 1716, the Nueva Planta decrees made Mallorca part of the Spanish province of Baleares the same to present-day Illes Balears province and autonomous community. A Nationalist stronghold at the start of the Spanish Civil War, Mallorca was subjected to an amphibious landing, on 16 August 1936, aimed at driving the Nationalists from Mallorca and reclaiming the island for the Republic. Although the Republicans outnumbered their opponents and managed to push 12 km inland, superior Nationalist air power, provided mainly
An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, governments, or non-governmental organisations. Migrant workers, they earn more than they would at home, less than local employees. However, the term'expatriate' is used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country, it has referred to exiles. The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms patria. Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include: Expatriate:'A person who lives outside their native country', or'living in a foreign land'; these contrast with definitions of other words with a similar meaning, such as: Migrant:'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions', or'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves in order to find work in harvesting crops'.
The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving and race. This has caused controversy, with many asserting that the traditional use of the word has had racist connotations. For example, a British national working in Spain or Portugal is referred to as an'expatriate', whereas a Spanish or Portuguese national working in Britain is referred to as an'immigrant', thus indicating Anglocentrism. An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile. Alternatively, when used as a verb, expatriation can mean the act of someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the preamble to the United States Expatriation Act of 1868 which says,'the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life and the pursuit of happiness.'Some neologisms have been coined, including: flexpatriate, an employee who travels internationally for business.
Since antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period. In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of train. People could more choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers; the table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time: During the 1930s, Nazi Germany revoked the citizenship of many opponents, such as Albert Einstein, Oskar Maria Graf, Willy Brandt and Thomas Mann expatriating entire families. After World War II, decolonisation accelerated. However, lifestyles which had developed among European colonials continued to some degree in expatriate communities. Remnants of the old British Empire, for example, can still be seen in the form of gated communities staffed by domestic workers. Social clubs which have survived include the Royal Selangor.
Homesick palates are catered for by specialist food shops, drinkers can still order a gin and tonic, a pink gin, or a Singapore Sling. Although pith helmets are confined to military ceremonies, civilians still wear white dinner jackets or Red Sea rig on occasion; the use of curry powder has long since spread to the metropole. From the 1950s, scheduled flights on jet airliners further increased the speed of international travel; this enabled a hypermobility which led to the jet set, to global nomads and the concept of a perpetual traveler. In recent years, terrorist attacks against Westerners have at times curtailed the party lifestyle of some expatriate communities in the Middle East; the number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine, since there is no governmental census. The international market research and consulting company Finaccord estimated the number to be 56.8 million in 2017. That would resemble the population of Italy. In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2 per cent of the world population, lived outside their home country.
Many multinational corporations send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more control its foreign subsidiaries, they can improve global coordination. A 2007 study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international careers were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment, high levels of autonomy of international posts and cultural differences. However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher cost of living or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an international school. There is th
The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef