Massachusetts known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. It is home to the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine. Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.

In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful scientific and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements. In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively.

In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard and MIT in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance.

S. states. The state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive; the Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative". It has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts". While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications.

Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states. It may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis. Between 1617 and 1619, what was smallpox killed 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Ame

Ishmael (Moby-Dick)

Ishmael is a fictional character in Herman Melville's Moby-Dick. Ishmael, the only surviving crewmember of the Pequod, is the narrator of the book, his importance relies on his role as narrator. The Biblical name has come to symbolize orphans and social outcasts; because he was the first person narrator, most of the criticism of Moby-Dick either confused Ishmael with the author himself or overlooked him. From the mid-twentieth century onward, critics distinguished Ishmael from Melville, establishing the character's mystic and speculative consciousness as a central force in contrast to Captain Ahab's monomaniacal force of will. By contrast with his namesake Ishmael from Genesis, banished into the desert, Ishmael is wandering upon the sea; each Ishmael, experiences a miraculous rescue. Both Ahab and Ishmael are fascinated by the whale, but whereas Ahab perceives him as evil, Ishmael keeps an open mind. Ahab has a static world view, blind to new information, but Ishmael's world view is in flux as new insights and realizations occur.

"And flux in turn... is the chief characteristic of Ishmael himself." In the chapter "The Doubloon," Ishmael reports how each spectator sees his own personality reflected in the coin, but does not look at it himself. Only fourteen chapters in "The Guilder," does he participate in "what is a recapitulation" of the earlier chapter; the difference is that the surface of the golden sea in "The Guilder" is alive, whereas the surface of the doubloon is unalterably fixed, "only one of several contrasts between Ishmael and Ahab."Ishmael meditates on a wide range of topics. In addition to explicitly philosophical references, in Chapter 89, for instance, he expounds on the legal concept, "Fast-Fish and Loose-Fish", which he takes to mean that possession, rather than a moral claim, bestows the right of ownership. Ishmael travels from Manhattan Island to New Bedford, he is a seasoned sailor, having served on merchant vessels in the past, but this would be his first time aboard a whaling ship. The inn is crowded and he must share a bed with the tattooed Polynesian, Queequeg, a harpooneer whom Ishmael assumes to be a cannibal.

The next morning Queequeg head for Nantucket. Ishmael signs up under Captain Ahab. Ahab is obsessed by Moby-Dick, who on a previous voyage has severed his leg. In his quest for revenge Ahab has lost all sense of responsibility, when the whale sinks the ship, all crew-members drown, with the exception of Ishmael: "And I only am escaped alone to tell thee" says the epigraph. Ishmael keeps himself afloat on a coffin until he is picked up by the Rachel; the name Ishmael is Biblical in origin: in Genesis 16:1-16. In 16:11-12, the most significant verses for Melville's allegory, Hagar was cast off after the birth of Isaac, who inherited the covenant of the Lord instead of his older half-brother. Melville shapes his allegory to the Biblical Ishmael as follows: Biblical Ishmael is banished to "the wilderness of Beer-sheba," while the narrator of Moby-Dick wanders, in his own words in "the wilderness of waters." In the Bible the desert or wilderness is a common setting for a vision of another. By contrast, Melville's Ishmael takes to sea searching for insights.

In Genesis, Hagar was visited by an angel who instructed her to call her still unborn child Yishma'el, meaning "God shall hear." The prophecy for this name was fulfilled when Ishmael, perishing in the desert, was saved by a miracle: the sudden appearance of a well of water. In Moby-Dick, only Ishmael escapes the sinking of the Pequod, described as "that by a margin so narrow as to seem miraculous." In direct translation from the Hebrew Bible. Wright says that all Melville's heroes—with the exception of Benito Cereno and Billy Budd—are manifestations of Ishmael, four are identified with him: Redburn, Ishmael and Pitch from The Confidence-Man. Critics have come to different conclusions on the question whether the protagonist is Ishmael or Ahab; the novel, says critic Walter Bezanson, is not so much about Ahab or the White Whale as it is about Ishmael, “the real center of meaning and the defining force of the novel.” According to M. H. Abrams, Ishmael is "only a minor or peripheral" participant in the story he tells.

The reader is not told how long after the voyage Ishmael begins to tell his adventure, the second sentence's "some years ago" being the only clue. This Ishmael is only the first of two Ishmaels, suggests Bezanson, he is the narrator, “the enfolding sensibility of the novel” and “the imagination through which all matters of the book pass.” He shapes his narrative with use of many different genres including sermons, stage plays, emblematical readings. The “second Ishmael," continues Bezanson, is the young man who, among others, is the subject of the story "narrator Ishmael" tells us, he is “simply one of the characters in the novel, though, to be sure, a major one whose significance is next to Ahab’s.” This is “forecastle Ishmael,” or the “younger Ishmael of'some years ago.'... Narrator Ishmael is young Ishmael grown older." From time to time shifts of tense indicate that "while forecastle Ishmael is busy huntin

Wagner Manufacturing Company

The Wagner Manufacturing Company was a family-owned manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products based in Sidney, Ohio, US. It made products for domestic use such as frying pans, casseroles and baking trays, made metal products other than cookware. Wagner was active between 1891 and 1952, at one time dominated the cookware market, selling in Europe and the US; the purchasers of the company in 1952 continued the brand, Wagner products are still manufactured today. The original items are prized by collectors; the Wagner Manufacturing Company was founded by the brothers Milton M. and Bernard P. Wagner in Sidney, Shelby County, Ohio; the architect Joseph Altenbach started construction of the Wagner manufacturing complex in 1890. He was a friend of the family head Mathias Wagner, was responsible for many of the major buildings in Sidney during that period; the company was incorporated in 1891. The principal owners were Bernard, Milton and William Wagner; the brothers were joined by R. O. Bingham, who had in the past worked at the Marion Stove Works and the Sidney Manufacturing Company, who became superintendent of the company.

At first producing only cast-iron products, the company added nickel-plated ware in 1892. In 1894 Wagner was one of the first to make aluminum cookware; the company acquired their competitor Sidney Hollow Ware from Phillip Smith in 1897. A third brother, William H. Wagner, joined the company to run this operation. In 1903 Sidney Hollow Ware was sold back to Smith. By 1913 Wagner was distributing its products globally; the company said in its early advertisements: We do not strive to manufacture hollow ware as cheaply as possible, but as good as it can be made. We can not afford to put on the market ware; the name ‘Wagner’ is cast on the bottom of each piece of ware. Wagner grew into a major manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products, selling in the US and Europe. In addition to cookware it manufactured furnace grates, feed troughs, rubbish burners and chemists' mortars; the company won many awards, at one point had a 60% market share in cookware. Brand names included Wagner Ware, Long Life and Ward's Cast Iron.

The "Magnalite" line of cast aluminum products was introduced in the early 1930s, made from a patented aluminum alloy. The company employed the industrial designer John Gordon Rideout to overhaul the design of Wagner's products in an effort to counter falling sales during the Great Depression. In 1933 Rideout and his partner Harold Van Doren designed a Magnalite teakettle with varying thickness to maximize heat conductivity, in 1934 they designed an Magnalite aluminum covered casserole for Wagner. Starting in 1946 the heirs of the founding Wagner brothers divested their holdings in the company; the Randall Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, a car parts manufacturer, bought the Wagner Manufacturing Company in 1952. In 1957 Randall's Wagner division acquired Griswold Manufacturing from McGraw-Edison. In 1959 Randall was itself acquired by Textron. Textron sold the Wagner and Griswold lines to General Housewares Corporation in 1969. In 1996 GHC sold rights to the Griswold lines to Slyman Group. After being allowed to fall into receivership, the Wagner factory and Wagner and Griswold trademarks were bought by the American Culinary Corporation of Willoughby, Ohio.

As of 2014 American Culinary continued to market products branded Wagner, Wagnerware and Griswold. The Wagner and Griswold brands are valued by collectors