2000 United States presidential election
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas and the eldest son of the 41st President George H. W. Bush, won the election by defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president, it was the fourth of five presidential elections in which the winning candidate lost the popular vote, is considered one of the closest elections in US history. Vice President Gore secured the Democratic nomination with relative ease, defeating a challenge by former Senator Bill Bradley. Bush was seen as the early favorite for the Republican nomination and, despite a contentious primary battle with Senator John McCain and other candidates, secured the nomination by Super Tuesday. Bush chose former Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney as his running mate, while Gore chose Senator Joe Lieberman as his; the left-wing Green Party nominated a ticket consisting of political activists Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke.
Both major party candidates focused on domestic issues, such as the budget, tax relief, reforms for federal social insurance programs, although foreign policy was not ignored. Due to Clinton's sex scandal with Monica Lewinsky and subsequent impeachment, Gore avoided campaigning with Clinton. Republicans denounced Clinton's indiscretions. On election night, it was unclear who had won, with the electoral votes of the state of Florida still undecided; the returns showed that Bush had won Florida by such a close margin that state law required a recount. A month-long series of legal battles led to the contentious, 5–4 Supreme Court decision of Bush v. Gore, which ended the recount. With the end of the recount, Bush won Florida by a margin of or 537 votes; the Florida recount and subsequent litigation resulted in a major post-election controversy, various individuals and organizations have speculated about who would have won the election in various scenarios. Bush won 271 electoral votes, one more than was necessary for the majority, despite Gore receiving 543,895 more votes.
Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that the President and Vice President of the United States must be natural-born citizens of the United States, at least 35 years old, a resident of the United States for a period of at least 14 years. Candidates for the presidency seek the nomination of one of the political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. Traditionally, the primary elections are indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate; the party's delegates officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College. President Bill Clinton, a Democrat and former Governor of Arkansas, was ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment.
In accordance with Section I of the Twentieth Amendment, his term expired at 12:00 noon EST on January 20, 2001. Democratic candidates Al Gore, Vice President of the United States Bill Bradley, former U. S. Senator from Connecticut Al Gore from Tennessee was a consistent front-runner for the nomination. Other prominent Democrats mentioned as possible contenders included Bob Kerrey, Missouri Representative Dick Gephardt, Minnesota Senator Paul Wellstone, famous actor and director Warren Beatty, who declined to run. Of these, only Wellstone formed an exploratory committee. Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the alternative to Gore, a founding member of the centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While former basketball star Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas"; the focus of his campaign was a plan to spend the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class, along with campaign finance reform and gun control.
Gore defeated Bradley in the primaries because of support from the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore painted Bradley as aloof and indifferent to the plight of farmers. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50–46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. On March 14, Al Gore clinched the Democratic nomination. None of Bradley's delegates were allowed to vote for him, so Gore won the nomination unanimously at the Democratic National Convention. Connecticut Senator Joe Lieberman was nominated for vice president by voice vote. Lieberman became the first Jewish American to be chosen for this position by a major party. Gore chose Lieberman over five other finalists: Senators Evan Bayh, John Edwards, John Kerry, House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt, New Hampshire Governor Jeanne Shaheen. Delegate totals: Vice President Albert Gore Jr. 4328 Abstentions 9 Republican candidates John McCain, Senator from Arizona Alan Keyes, former U. S. ECOSOC Ambassador from Maryland Steve Forbes, businessman from New Jersey Gary Bauer, former Undersecretary of Education from Kentucky (withd
Framingham is a city in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Incorporated in 1700, it is within Middlesex County and the MetroWest subregion of the Greater Boston metropolitan area; the city proper covers 25 square miles with a population of 68,318 in 2010, making it the 14th most populous municipality in Massachusetts. As of 2017 the estimated population was 72,032. Residents voted in favor of adopting a charter to transition from a representative town meeting system to a mayor–council government in April 2017, the municipality transitioned to city status on January 1, 2018. Framingham, sited on the ancient trail known as the Old Connecticut Path, was first settled by a European when John Stone settled on the west bank of the Sudbury River in 1647. Native American leader, Tantamous lived in the Nobscot Hill area of Framingham prior to King Philip's War in 1676. In 1660, Thomas Danforth, an official of the Bay Colony of Framlingham, received a grant of land at "Danforth's Farms" and began to accumulate over 15,000 acres.
He strenuously resisted petitions for incorporation of the town, incorporated in 1700, following his death the previous year. Why the "L" was dropped from the new town's name is not known; the first church was organized in 1701, the first teacher was hired in 1706, the first permanent schoolhouse was built in 1716. On February 22, 1775, the British general Thomas Gage sent two officers and an enlisted man out of Boston to survey the route to Worcester, Massachusetts. In Framingham, those spies stopped at Buckminster's Tavern, they watched the town militia muster outside the building, impressed with the men's numbers but not their discipline. Though "the whole company" came into the tavern after their drill, the officers remained undetected and continued on their mission the next day. Gage did not order a march along that route, instead ordering troops to Concord, Massachusetts, on April 18–19. Framingham sent two militia companies totaling about 130 men into the Battles of Lexington and Concord that followed.
In the years before the American Civil War, Framingham was an annual gathering-spot for members of the abolitionist movement. Each Independence Day from 1854 to 1865, the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society held a rally in a picnic area called Harmony Grove near what is now downtown Framingham. At the 1854 rally, William Lloyd Garrison burned copies of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, judicial decisions enforcing it, the United States Constitution. Other prominent abolitionists present that day included William Cooper Nell, Sojourner Truth, Wendell Phillips, Lucy Stone, Henry David Thoreau. During the post-World War II baby boom, like many other suburban areas, experienced a large increase in population and housing. Much of the housing constructed during that time consisted of ranch-style houses. Framingham is known for the Framingham Heart Study, as well as for the Dennison Manufacturing Company, founded in 1844 as a jewelry and watch box manufacturing company by Aaron Lufkin Dennison, who became the pioneer of the American System of Watch Manufacturing at the nearby Waltham Watch Company.
His brother Eliphalet Whorf Dennison developed the company into a sizable industrial complex which merged in 1990 into Avery Dennison, with headquarters in Pasadena and active corporate offices in the town. In 2000, Framingham celebrated its Tercentennial. On January 1, 2018, Framingham became a city and Yvonne M. Spicer was inaugurated as its first mayor, thus becoming the first popularly elected African-American woman mayor in Massachusetts. Framingham is located at 42°17′59″N 71°25′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 26.4 square miles. 25.1 square miles of it is land and 1.3 square miles of it is water. Framingham is in eastern Massachusetts, 20 miles west of Boston, midway between Boston and Worcester, it is bordered by Marlborough on the west. The city of Framingham is divided by Route 9, which passes east-to-west through the middle of the city. South Framingham includes Downtown Framingham, the villages of Coburnville and Salem End Road. North Framingham includes the villages of Nobscot, Pinefield and Saxonville plus Framingham Center.
As of the census of 2010, there were 68,318 people, 26,173 households, 16,535 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,732.7 people per square mile. There were 27,529 housing units, of which 1,356, or 4.9%, were vacant. The racial makeup of the city was 71.9% White, 5.8% Black, 0.3% Native American, 6.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 10.9% from some other race, 4.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.4% of the population. Of the 26,173 households, 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.2% were headed by married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.8% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.0% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47, the average family size was 3.03. As of 2010, 20.9% of the population were under the age of 18, 9.8% were from 18 to 24, 30.0% were from 25 to 44, 25.8% were from 45 to 64, 13.6% were 65 years of age or ol
Andover is a town in Essex County, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646; as of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover, it is twinned with its namesake: Andover, England. In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes and services; the first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich. Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source.
Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was named Andover; this name was chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover; the old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church located in what is now North Andover; the villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr. and Abigail Faulkner Sr. in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710, but despite this split, the town remained politically one unit. For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries; the name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war. Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would go on to found Phillips Academy – was appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution. During the burning of Charlestown Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft and is part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation. In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of Amer
113th United States Congress
The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives based on the results of the 2012 Senate elections and the 2012 House elections; the seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census. It first met in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2013, it ended on January 3, 2015. Senators elected to regular terms in 2008 were in the last two years of those terms during this Congress; the Senate had a Democratic majority. As of 2019, this is the most recent Congress. January 4, 2013: Joint session to count the Electoral College votes for the 2012 presidential election. January 20–21, 2013: Second inauguration of President Barack Obama; the term began January 20, but because, a Sunday, the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies scheduled the inauguration ceremony for the next day.
February 12, 2013: Joint session to hear the 2013 State of the Union Address. March 6–7, 2013: Senator Rand Paul led a filibuster of the nomination of John O. Brennan for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency with a 12-hour, 52-minute speech. June 5, 2013: The first media reports of Edward Snowden's surveillance disclosures surfaced in the media. June 25, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in Shelby County v. Holder, ending the need for some counties and states to receive "preclearance" from the Justice Department before changing election laws. June 26, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act in United States v. Windsor, forcing the federal government to acknowledge same-sex marriages granted under the laws of states. July 16, 2013: The Senate reached a deal to allow some presidential nominations to come to a vote, avoiding the "Nuclear option" for filibuster reform. September 24–25, 2013: Senator Ted Cruz delivered a 21-hour, 19-minute speech, one of the longest in Senate history, in opposition to the Affordable Care Act.
Cruz's speech was not a filibuster. October 1–17, 2013: The United States federal government was shut down as most routine operations were curtailed after Congress failed to enact legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year 2014, or a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 2014. October 3, 2013: United States Capitol shooting incident November 21, 2013: In a 52–48 vote, the Senate ended the use of the filibuster on all executive branch nominees, as well as on most judicial nominees; the filibuster remained in place for legislation. November 4, 2014: United States elections, 2014, including United States Senate elections, 2014 and United States House of Representatives elections, 2014. March 7, 2013: Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–4 March 13, 2013: Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–5 March 26, 2013: 2013 United States federal budget, Pub. L. 113–6 June 3, 2013: Stolen Valor Act of 2013, Pub.
L. 113–12 August 9, 2013: Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–23 August 9, 2013: Bipartisan Student Loan Certainty Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–28 September 30, 2013: Pay Our Military Act, Pub. L. 113–39 November 27, 2013: Drug Quality and Security Act, Pub. L. 113–54 December 26, 2013: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014, Pub. L. 113–66 January 17, 2014: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, Pub. L. 113–76 February 7, 2014: Agricultural Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–79 March 21, 2014: Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–89 April 3, 2014: Gabriella Miller Kids First Research Act, Pub. L. 113–94 April 3, 2014: Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–95 May 9, 2014: Digital Accountability and Transparency Act, Pub. L. 113–101 May 20, 2014: Kilah Davenport Child Protection Act, Pub. L. 113–104 June 10, 2014: Water Resources Reform and Development Act, Pub. L. 113–121 July 23, 2014: Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub.
L. 113–128 August 1, 2014: Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act, Pub. L. 113–144 August 7, 2014: Veterans' Access to Care through Choice and Transparency Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–146 September 29, 2014: Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act, Pub. L. 113–183 October 6, 2014: IMPACT Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–185 November 26, 2014: Presidential and Federal Records Act Amendments of 2014, Pub. L. 113–187 November 26, 2014: Government Reports Elimination Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–188 December 18, 2014: Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–242 December 18, 2014: Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act, Pub. L. 113–245 December 18, 2014: American Savings Promotion Act, Pub. L. 113–251 December 18, 2014: Credit Union Share Insurance Fund Parity Act, Pub. L. 113–252 December 18, 2014: EPS Service Parts Act of 2014 Pub. L. 113–263 December 18, 2014: Venezuela Defense of Human Rights and Civil Society Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–278 December 18, 2014: Insurance Capital Standards Clarification Act of 2014, Pub.
L. 113–279 2014 United States federal budget: H. Con. Res. 25, S. Con. Res. 8 Assault Weapons Ban of 2013 - Introduced after Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting Justice Safety Valve Act of 2013: S. 619, H. R. 1695 Marketplace Fairness Act of 2013: - Also known as the "Internet Sales Tax" Border Security, Economic Opportunity, Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 - Als
Revere is a city in Suffolk County, United States, located 5 miles from downtown Boston. Founded as North Chelsea in 1846, it was renamed in 1871 after the American Revolutionary War patriot Paul Revere. In 1914, the Town of Revere was incorporated as a city; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city has a population of 51,755 inhabitants. Revere borders the towns of Winthrop and Chelsea, the Boston neighborhood of East Boston to the south and Malden to the west and Lynn to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10 square miles, of which 5.9 square miles is land and 4.1 square miles is water. Revere’s first inhabitants were Native Americans who belonged to the Pawtucket tribe and were known to colonists as the Rumney Marsh Indians; the leader, or sachem, of the Pawtuckets was Nanepashemet of Lynn. In 1616, an epidemic smallpox, swept the region, killing thousands in its wake. Nanepashemet retired to the Mystic River, in what is now Medford, but was found murdered in 1619 at his fort on the brow of Rock Hill overlooking the river.
Three sons succeeded him in his reign. One of them, Wonohaquaham called Sagamore John, had jurisdiction over the Native Americans at Winnisemmit and Rumney Marsh; the Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the area helped the settlers in their struggle to survive. During King Philip's War, the local Native Americans were forcibly removed to what is now Deer Island, where half of those imprisoned died of starvation or exposure; some were enlisted to help the colonists defeat other native tribes. Rumney Marsh was divided and allotted to twenty-one of Boston's most prominent citizens. By 1639, the original allotments had been consolidated into seven great farms. Farming was the principal industry of Winnisemmet, Rumney Marsh in particular. In 1624, Samuel Maverick became the first colonist to settle in the area, he built his house at the site of the former Chelsea Naval Hospital. On June 17th, 1630, John Winthrop, the first Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company in New England joined him there for dinner.
On September 25, 1634, Rumney Marsh was annexed to Boston, which had received its name only four years earlier. Winnisemmet and Pullen Point were annexed to Boston; the first county road in North America stretched across Rumney Marsh from the Winnisemmet Ferry to Olde Salem in 1641. In 1739, Rumney Marsh and Pullen Point were set off from Boston and established as the Town of Chelsea; the largest of the three settlements, Rumney Marsh was selected as the Town Center. In 1775, the area played a role in the American Revolution as Rumney Marsh was the site of the first naval battle. In 1846, the town of North Chelsea was established. In 1852, Pullen Point was established as the town of Winthrop; that same year, Chelsea became its own city. On March 24, 1871, a petition went into effect, changing the name of North Chelsea to the Town of Revere in honor of Paul Revere, who gained popularity after the publication of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem "Paul Revere's Ride," ten years earlier. In 1914, the Town of Revere became the City of Revere.
On the morning of July 28, 2014, an EF2 tornado touched down in nearby Chelsea and intensified as it entered the city of Revere, causing major damage to many buildings, including the Revere City Hall. Damaged cars, power outages, downed lines and downed trees were reported all around Revere, Chelsea and Boston, it was the first tornado to hit Suffolk County since the National Weather Service began keeping records in 1950. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 51,755 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 62.4% White, 4.9% Black, 5.6% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.025% Pacific Islander, 11.7% from other races, 3.3% were multiracial. Hispanic or Latino persons were 24.4% of the population. As of the same census, there were 47,283 people, 19,463 households, 11,872 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,994.2 people per square mile. There were 20,181 housing units at an average density of 3,412.0/sq mi. There were 19,463 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39% were non-families.
32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.09. The population was spread out with 21% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $37,067, the median income for a family was $45,865. Males had a median income of $36,881 versus $31,300 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,698. About 11.9% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. "In 1637 the Massachusetts General Court adopted an order that no person or town should receive or entertain a newcomer for more than three weeks without permission.
In addition to the desire to keep their colony Puritan, they were concerned with the immi
Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, in nearly 11,100 households. Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775, it is the sixth wealthiest small city in the United States. Lexington was first settled circa 1642 as part of Massachusetts. What is now Lexington was incorporated as a parish, called Cambridge Farms, in 1691; this allowed them to have a separate church and minister, but were still under jurisdiction of the Town of Cambridge. Lexington was incorporated as a separate town in 1713, it was that it got the name Lexington. How it received its name is the subject of some controversy; some people believe that it was named in honor of an English peer. Some, on the other hand, believe that it was named after Lexington in England. In the early colonial days, Vine Brook, which runs through Lexington and Bedford, empties into the Shawsheen River, was a focal point of the farming and industry of the town.
It provided for many types of mills, in the 20th Century, for farm irrigation. For decades, Lexington grew modestly while remaining a farming community, providing Boston with much of its produce, it always had a bustling downtown area. Lexington began to prosper, helped by its proximity to Boston, having a rail line service its citizens and businesses, beginning in 1846. For many years, East Lexington was considered a separate village from the rest of the town, though it still had the same officers and Town Hall. Most of the farms of Lexington became housing developments by the end of the 1960s. Lexington, as well as many of the towns along the Route 128 corridor, experienced a jump in population in the 1960s and 70s, due to the high-tech boom. Property values in the town soared, the school system became nationally recognized for its excellence; the town participates in the METCO program, which buses minority students from Boston to suburban towns to receive better educational opportunities than those available to them in the Boston Public Schools.
On April 19, 1775, what many regard as the first battle of the American Revolutionary War was a battle at Lexington. After the rout, the British march on toward Concord where the militia had been allowed time to organize at the Old North Bridge and turn back the British and prevent them from capturing and destroying the militia's arms stores. Lexington was the Cold War location of the USAF "Experimental SAGE Subsector" for testing a prototype IBM computer that arrived in July 1955 for development of a computerized "national air defense network". Lexington is located at 42°26′39″N 71°13′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.5 square miles, of which 16.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 0.85%, is water. Lexington borders the following towns: Burlington, Winchester, Belmont, Waltham and Bedford, it has more area than all other municipalities. By the 2010 census, the population had reached 31,394; as of the census of 2010, there had been 31,394 people, 11,530 households, 8,807 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,851.0 people per square mile. There were 12,019 housing units at an average density of 691.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 68.6% White, 25.4% Asian, 1.5% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.5% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.3% of the population. There were 11,530 households out of which 38.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.1% were non-families. 20.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.10. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.4% under the age of 18, 3.5% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 28.5% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. In 2013, the mean home price for detached houses was $852,953, the median price of a house or condo was $718,300. According to a 2012 estimate, the median income for a household in the town was $191,350, the median income for a family was $218,890. Males had a median income of $101,334 versus $77,923 for females; the per capita income for the town was $70,132. About 1.8% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. By race, the median household income was highest for mixed race households, at $263,321. Hispanic households had a median income of $233,875. Asian households had a median income of $178,988. White households had a median income of $154,533. Black households had a median income of $139,398. American Indian or Alaskan Native households had a median income of $125,139. In 2010, 20% of the residents of Lexington were born outside of the United States.
Lexington's public education system
Willard Mitt Romney is an American politician and businessman serving as the junior United States senator from Utah since January 2019. He served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election. Raised in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, by his parents and Lenore Romney, he spent two-and-a-half years in France as a Mormon missionary starting in 1966, he married Ann Davies in 1969, they have five sons. By 1971, he had participated in the political campaigns of both parents. Romney earned a Bachelor of Arts in English from Brigham Young University in 1971 and a joint JD–MBA from Harvard University in 1975. Romney became a management consultant and in 1977 secured a position at Company. Serving as Bain's chief executive officer, he helped lead the company out of a financial crisis. In 1984, he co-founded and led the spin-off company Bain Capital, a profitable private equity investment firm that became one of the largest of its kind in the nation.
Active in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints throughout his adult life, Romney served as bishop of his ward and as a stake president near Boston. After stepping down from Bain Capital and his local leadership role in the LDS Church, Romney ran as the Republican candidate in the 1994 United States Senate election in Massachusetts. After losing to longtime incumbent Ted Kennedy, he resumed his position at Bain Capital. Years a successful stint as President and CEO of the then-struggling Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the 2002 Winter Olympics led to a re-launch of his political career. Elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, Romney helped develop and signed a health care reform law that provided near-universal health insurance access through state-level subsidies and individual mandates to purchase insurance, he presided over the elimination of a projected $1.2–1.5 billion deficit through a combination of spending cuts, increased fees and closing corporate tax loopholes. He did not seek re-election in 2006, instead focusing on his campaign for the Republican nomination in the 2008 U.
S. presidential election. Though he won several primaries and caucuses, Senator John McCain was chosen as the Republican Party's nominee. Romney's considerable net worth, estimated in 2012 at $190–250 million, helped finance his political campaigns prior to 2012. Romney won the 2012 Republican presidential nomination, becoming the first LDS Church member to be a presidential nominee of a major party, he was defeated by incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama in the 2012 presidential election, losing the Electoral College by a margin of 206–332 and the popular vote by a margin of 47%–51%. After re-establishing residency in Utah, Romney announced his campaign for the U. S. Senate seat held by the retiring Orrin Hatch in the 2018 election. In doing so, he became only the third individual to be elected governor of one state and U. S. senator for another state. Romney was sworn in on January 3, 2019. Willard Mitt Romney was born on March 12, 1947, at Harper University Hospital in Detroit, one of four children born to automobile executive George W. Romney and homemaker Lenore Romney.
His mother was a native of Logan and his father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico. Of English descent, he has Scottish and German ancestry. A fifth-generation member of the LDS Church, he is a great-grandson of Miles Park Romney and a great-great-grandson of Miles Romney, who converted to the faith in its first decade. Another great-great-grandfather, Parley P. Pratt, helped lead the early church. Romney has three older siblings, Margo and Scott. Mitt was the youngest by nearly six years, his parents named him after a family friend, businessman J. Willard Marriott, his father's cousin, Milton "Mitt" Romney, a former quarterback for the Chicago Bears. Romney was referred to as "Billy" until kindergarten, when he expressed a preference for "Mitt". In 1953, the family moved from Detroit to the affluent suburb of Bloomfield Hills and his father became the chairman and CEO of American Motors the following year and helped the company avoid bankruptcy and return to profitability.
By 1959, his father had become a nationally known figure in print and on television, Mitt idolized him. Romney attended public elementary schools until the seventh grade, when he enrolled as one of only a few Mormon students at Cranbrook School, a private upscale boys' preparatory school a few miles from his home. Many students there came from backgrounds more privileged than his. Not athletic, he did not distinguish himself academically, he did participate in his father's successful 1962 Michigan gubernatorial campaign, worked as an intern in the Governor's office. Romney took up residence at Cranbrook when his newly elected father began spending most of his time at the state capitol. At Cranbrook, Romney helped manage the ice hockey team, he joined the pep squad. During his senior year, he joined the cross country running team, he belonged to eleven school organizations and school clubs overall, including the Blue Key Club, a booster group that he had started. During his final year there, his academic record fell short of excellence.
Romney was involved in several pranks while attending Cranbrook. He has since apologized for those. In March of his senior year, he began dating Ann Davies.