click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority

The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority is the public agency responsible for operating most public transportation services in Greater Boston, Massachusetts. Earlier modes of public transportation in Boston were independently operated; the MTA was replaced in 1964 with the present-day MBTA, established as an individual department within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts before becoming a division of the Massachusetts Department of Transportation in 2009. The MBTA and Philadelphia's Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority are the only US transit agencies that operate all five major types of terrestrial mass transit vehicles: light rail vehicles. In 2016, the system averaged 1,277,200 passengers per weekday, of which heavy rail averaged 552,500 and the light-rail lines 226,500, making it the fourth-busiest subway system and the busiest light rail system in the United States; the MBTA is the largest consumer of electricity in Massachusetts, the second-largest land owner. In 2007, its CNG bus fleet was the largest consumer of alternative fuels in the state.

The MBTA operates an independent law enforcement agency, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Police. Mass transportation in Boston was provided by private companies granted charters by the state legislature for limited monopolies, with powers of eminent domain to establish a right-of-way, until the creation of the MTA in 1947. Development of mass transportation both shaped economic and population patterns. Shortly after the steam locomotive became practical for mass transportation, the private Boston and Lowell Railroad was chartered in 1830; the rail, which opened in 1835, connected Boston to Lowell, a major northerly mill town in northeast Massachusetts' Merrimack Valley, via one of the oldest railroads in North America. This marked the beginning of the development of American intercity railroads, which in Massachusetts would become the MBTA Commuter Rail system and the Green Line "D" Branch. Starting with the opening of the Cambridge Railroad on March 26, 1856, a profusion of streetcar lines appeared in Boston under chartered companies.

Despite the change of companies, Boston is the city with the oldest continuously working streetcar system in the world. Many of these companies consolidated, animal-drawn vehicles were converted to electric propulsion. Streetcar congestion in downtown Boston led to the subways in 1897 and elevated rail in 1901; the Tremont Street subway was the first rapid transit tunnel in the United States. Grade-separation avoided delays caused by cross streets; the first elevated railway and the first rapid transit line in Boston were built three years before the first underground line of the New York City Subway, but 34 years after the first London Underground lines, long after the first elevated railway in New York City. Various extensions and branches were added at both ends; as grade-separated lines were extended, street-running lines were cut back for faster downtown service. The last elevated heavy rail or "El" segments in Boston were at the extremities of the Orange Line: its northern end was relocated in 1975 from Everett to Malden, MA, its southern end was relocated into the Southwest Corridor in 1987.

However, the Green Line's Causeway Street Elevated remained in service until 2004, when it was relocated into a tunnel with an incline to reconnect to the Lechmere Viaduct. The Lechmere Viaduct and a short section of steel-framed elevated at its northern end remain in service, though the elevated section will be cut back and connected to a northwards viaduct extension in 2017 as part of the Green Line Extension; the old elevated railways proved to be an eyesore and required several sharp curves in Boston's twisty streets. The Atlantic Avenue Elevated was closed in 1938 amidst declining ridership and was demolished in 1942; as rail passenger service became unprofitable due to rising automobile ownership, government takeover prevented abandonment and dismantlement. The MTA purchased and took over subway, elevated and bus operations from the Boston Elevated Railway in 1947. In the 1950s, the MTA ran new subway extensions, while the last two streetcar lines running into the Pleasant Street Portal of the Tremont Street Subway were substituted with buses in 1953 and 1962.

In 1958 the MTA purchased the Highland Branch from the Boston and Albany Railroad, reopening a year as rapid transit line. While the operations of the MTA were stable by the early 1960s, the operated commuter rail lines were in freefall; the New Haven Railroad, New York Central Railroad, Boston and Maine Railroad were all financially struggling. The 1945 Coolidge Commission plan assumed that most of the commuter rail lines would be replaced by shorter rapid transit extensions, or feed into them at reduced service levels. Passenger service on the entire Old Colony Railroad system serving the southeastern part of the state was abandoned by the New Haven Railroad in 1959, triggering calls for state intervention. Betw

Peter Velits

Peter Velits is a retired Slovak professional road racing cyclist. His career highlights include third place overall and a stage win at the 2010 Vuelta a España, the 2007 World Under-23 Road Race Championships gold and the 2012 Tour of Oman overall victory. Velits is known as strong time-trialist, winning three consecutive team time trials as a part of Omega Pharma–Quick-Step in 2012 and 2013 and riding on the BMC Racing Team in 2014 UCI Road World Championships, his twin brother, Martin Velits rides for Etixx–Quick-Step, having raced on the same teams every year until the end of the 2013 season. After two seasons with the team, Velits left Omega Pharma–Quick-Step at the end of the 2013 season to join the BMC Racing Team. Velits retired at the end of the 2016 season. Did not finish = DNF Peter Velits at ProCyclingStats Palmares on Cycling Base

Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero

Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero was a 48,861-acre Mexican land grant in present-day Riverside County, California given in 1846 by Governor Pío Pico to Miguel Pedrorena. At the time of the US Patent, Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero was a part of San Diego County; the County of Riverside was created by the California Legislature in 1893 by taking land from both San Bernardino and San Diego Counties. The grant encompassed present-day Lake Perris. Miguel Pedrorena was married to Antonia Estudillo, daughter of José Antonio Estudillo, grantee of Rancho San Jacinto Viejo. José Antonio Estudillo was appointed administrator and major domo at Mission San Luis Rey in 1840. Three grants, comprising over 133,000 acres of the former Mission San Luis Rey lands in the San Jacinto area were made to the Estudillo family: Rancho San Jacinto Viejo to José Antonio Estudillo in 1842. With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored.

As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to T. W. Sutherland, guardian of the minor children of Miguel Pedrorena in 1883. In 1853, José Antonio Aguirre of Rancho San Jacinto Sobrante bought Rancho San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero from the estate of Miguel Pedrorena. Rancho San Jacinto Sobrante Rancho San Jacinto Viejo Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California

Scott Brockenshire

Scott Brockenshire is an Australian Paralympic swimmer, who has won six medals at the 1996 Atlanta and 2000 Sydney Paralympics. Brockenshire was born in the Melbourne suburb of Prahran and lives in the Northern Rivers of New South Wales, he was born without a tibia and a shortened femur on his left leg, at the age of eighteen months, his left foot was amputated. He began swimming at the age of about ten to improve his fitness, he won medals in able-bodied surf lifesaving competitions and was the state surf ski champion in 1987. He was inspired to take up competitive swimming after watching the events for people with disabilities at the 1994 Victoria Commonwealth Games in Canada. At the 1996 Atlanta Paralympics, he won a silver medal in the Men's 4x100 m Freestyle S7–10 event and two bronze medals in the Men's 100 m Butterfly S10 and Men's 50 m Freestyle S10 events. In the final for the men's 4x100 m freestyle event, he was responsible for narrowing the British lead and keeping his relay team competitive.

At the 2000 Sydney Paralympics, he won a silver medal in the Men's 4x100 m Freestyle 34 pts event and two bronze medals in the Men's 100 m Butterfly S10 and Men's 100 m Freestyle S10 events. Brockenshire inspired New Zealand Paralympian Steven Yates to take up disabled sport, he worked in Ballina, New South Wales as the manager of a gym

Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Red Flag

Communist Party of India Red Flag was a political party in India. CPI Red Flag was formed in 1988 as a break-away from the Central Reorganisation Committee, CPI; the party's main base of support was in Kerala. It expanded to other states including Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal and Odisha; the party head office was located in Delhi. The first All India Secretary of the party was Arup Majumdar, followed by K. N. Ramachandran. In 2003 a large section of the party in Kerala, including the majority in the Kerala State Committee, broke away, to create a parallel CPI Red Flag; the split was led by the Kerala state secretary of the party, P. C. Unnichekkan, M. S. Jayakumar; this party supports Left Democratic Front in Kerala. The main mass organisation of the party was the Trade Union Centre of India. Regional mass organisations of the party included Yuvajanavedi, Kerala Vidyarthi Sanghatana and Janakeeya Kala Sahitya Vedi in Kerala, Adivasi Democratic Front in Madhya Pradesh. CPI Red Flag published Iykya Horatta and Saghavu.

Ahead of the Lok Sabha elections in 2004 CPI Red Flag and CPI took the initiative to form a united front of revolutionary communists. In that front they were able to gather, more than CPI and CPI Red Flag, Centre of Communist Revolutionaries, Lal Nishan Party, Marxist Communist Party of India, Marxist-Leninist Committee, New Socialist Movement, Provisional Central Committee, Communist Party of India and Bhagat Singh Vichar Manch. In Kerala a Left Front was formed ahead of the elections together with BTR-EMS-AKG Janakeeya Samskarika Vedi of V. B. Cheriyan. CPI Red Flag merged with Kanu Sanyal's Communist Party of India at a unity conference in Vijayawada January 2005 Category:Mass organisations of CPI Red Flag

Wild Child (Kenny Chesney and Grace Potter song)

"Wild Child" is a song recorded by recording artists Kenny Chesney and Grace Potter. The song was co-written by Chesney, Shane McAnally, Josh Osborne, it was released in February 2015 as the third single from the Chesney's album The Big Revival. Potter had collaborated with Chesney for his singles "You and Tequila" and "El Cerrito Place". In a cover story for Billboard, Chesney drew a comparison between "Wild Child" and bro country songs: “Over the last several years, it seems like anytime anybody sings about a woman, she’s in cutoff jeans, drinking and on a tailgate — they objectify the hell out of them! But I’m at a point where I want to say something different about women”, he told Taste of Country that he wasn’t searching for another Grace Potter duet, but when he finished writing the song, he knew it was unavoidable. “When you write about women, the best place to start is their spirit, there’s not a woman that has a better free spirit than Grace Potter”. "Wild Child" finds its narrator falling for a strong and independent woman, whose spirit is free and whose nature is rebel.

Giving it a B+, Bob Paxman of Country Weekly wrote that "Those who prefer party guy Kenny might find this a bit too mellow for their tastes. But give this bit of introspection a chance and you'll find some cool lyrics…and a fine message." The music video was directed by Shaun Silva and premiered on the USA Today website on February 11, 2015. The song has sold 242,000 copies in the United States as of June 2015