James Wyatt RA was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style. Wyatt spent six years in Italy, 1762–68, in company with Richard Bagot of Staffordshire, in Venice, Wyatt studied with Antonio Visentini as an architectural draughtsman and painter. Back in England, his selection as architect of the proposed Pantheon or Winter Ranelagh in Oxford Street, brought him almost unparalleled instant success. His brother Samuel was one of the promoters of the scheme. When the Pantheon was opened in 1772, their choice was at once endorsed by the fashionable public, externally it was unremarkable, but the classicising domed hall surrounded by galleried aisles and apsidal ends, was something new in assembly rooms, and brought its architect immediate celebrity. On the 15 February 1785 Wyatt was elected an Academician of the Royal Academy, in years, he carried out alterations at Frogmore for Queen Charlotte, and was made Surveyor-General of the Works. Between 1805 and 1808 Wyatt remodelled West Dean House in West Dean, wyatt’s work was remarkable because it is built entirely of flint, even to the door and window openings, which would normally be lined with stone.
In 1776, Wyatt succeeded Henry Keene as Surveyor to Westminster Abbey, in 1782 he became, in addition, Architect of the Ordnance. The death of Sir William Chambers brought him the post of Surveyor General, Wyatt was now the principal architect of the day, the recipient of more commissions than he could well fulfil. His widespread practice and the duties of his official posts left him time to give proper attention to the individual needs of his clients. In 1804, Jeffry Wyatt told Farington that his uncle had lost many great commissions by such neglect, Wyatt was a brilliant but facile designer, whose work is not characterized by any markedly individual style. It was not until towards the end of his life that he and his brother Samuel developed the severe, Wyatts reputation as a rival to Robert Adam had been eclipsed by his celebrity as a Gothic architect. Every Georgian architect was called upon from time to time to designs in the medieval style. In the following year, however, he was permitted to add F. S. A.
to his name by a majority of one hundred, Wyatt was elected to the Royal Academy in 1785, and took an active part in the politics of the Academy. But his election was never approved by the King. Wyatt was one of the founders of the Architects Club in 1791, in 1802 Wyatt built a new house for the 7th Earl of Bridgewater on the Ashridge estate in Hertfordshire which is now a Grade I listed building. In 1803 Thomas Johnes hired Wyatt to design Saint Michels Hafod Church, Eglwys Newydd, in Ceredigion, Wales. He died on 4 September 1813 as the result of an accident to the carriage in which he was travelling over the Marlborough Downs with his friend and employer, Christopher Codrington of Dodington Park
Boston Common is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest city park in the United States, the Boston Common consists of 50 acres of land bounded by Tremont Street, Park Street, Beacon Street, Charles Street, and Boylston Street. The Common is part of the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways that extend from the Common south to Franklin Park in Jamaica Plain, Roxbury, a visitors center for all of Boston is located on the Tremont Street side of the park. The Central Burying Ground is located on the Boylston Street side of Boston Common and contains the sites of the artist Gilbert Stuart. Also buried there are Samuel Sprague and his son, Charles Sprague, Samuel Sprague was a participant in the Boston Tea Party and fought in the Revolutionary War. The Common was designated as a Boston Landmark by the Boston Landmarks Commission in 1977, the Commons purpose has changed over the years. It was once owned by William Blaxton, the first European settler of Boston, during the 1630s, it was used by many families as a cow pasture.
However, this lasted for a few years, as affluent families bought additional cows, which led to overgrazing. After grazing was limited in 1646 to 70 cows at a time, the Common was used as a camp by the British before the American Revolutionary War, from which they left for the Battle of Lexington and Concord. It was used for public hangings up until 1817, most of which were from a large oak which was replaced with a gallows in 1769. On June 1,1660, Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged there by the Puritans for repeatedly defying a law that banned Quakers from the Colony, Dyer was one of the four Quakers executed on the Common and known as the Boston martyrs. On May 19,1713, two hundred citizens rioted on the Common in reaction to a shortage in the city. They attacked the ships and warehouses of wealthy merchant Andrew Belcher, the lieutenant governor was shot during the riot. True park status seems to have emerged no than 1830, renaming the bordering Sentry Street to Park Place in 1804 already acknowledged the reality.
A hundred people gathered on the Common in early 1965 to protest the Vietnam War, a second protest happened on October 15,1969, this time with 100,000 people protesting. Today, the Common serves as a park for all to use for formal or informal gatherings. Events such as concerts, softball games, and ice skating often take place in the park, famous individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Pope John Paul II have made speeches there
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States between c.1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period, the name Federal style is used in association with furniture design in the United States of the same time period. The style broadly corresponds to the classicism of Biedermeier style in the German-speaking lands, Regency architecture in Britain, in the early American republic, the founding generation consciously chose to associate the nation with the ancient democracies of Greece and the republican values of Rome. Grecian aspirations informed the Greek Revival, lasting into the 1850s, American Federal architecture typically uses plain surfaces with attenuated detail, usually isolated in panels and friezes. It had a flatter, smoother façade and rarely used pilasters and it was most influenced by the interpretation of ancient Roman architecture, fashionable after the unearthing of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
The bald eagle was a symbol used in this style. 1800, men such as Charles Bulfinch, architect of the Massachusetts State House, the two brothers, Robert Adam and James Adam, were Scottish architects who never visited America, but through their books were leading influences. Young Modern reassessment of the American architecture of the Federal period began with Fiske Kimball, Domestic Architecture of the American Colonies, Adam style Federal furniture Lyre arm Craig, Lois A. The Federal Presence, Architecture and National Design
Governor of Massachusetts
The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the head of the executive branch of Massachusetts state government and serves as commander-in-chief of the states military forces. The current governor is Charlie Baker, the Governor of Massachusetts is the chief executive of the Commonwealth, and is supported by a number of subordinate officers. He, like most other officers and representatives, was originally elected annually. In 1918 this was changed to a term, and since 1966 the office of governor has carried a four-year term. The Governor of Massachusetts does not receive a mansion, other official residence, instead, he resides in his own private residence. The title His Excellency is a throwback to the appointed governors of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The first governor to use the title was Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, in 1699, since he was an Earl, the title was retained until 1742, when an order from King George II forbade its further use. However, the framers of the state constitution revived it because they found it fitting to dignify the governor with this title, the governor serves as commander-in-chief of the Commonwealths armed forces.
According to the constitution, whenever the chair of the governor is vacant. The first time came into use was five years after the constitutions adoption in 1785. Most recently, Jane Swift became acting governor upon the resignation of Paul Cellucci, under this system, the lieutenant governor retains his or her position and title as lieutenant governor and becomes acting governor, not governor. The lieutenant governor, when acting as governor, is referred to as the lieutenant governor, the Massachusetts Constitution does not use the term acting governor. When the constitution was first adopted, the Governors Council was charged with acting as governor in the event that both the governorship and lieutenant governorship were vacant. This occurred in 1799 when Governor Increase Sumner died in office on June 7,1799, acting Governor Gill never received a lieutenant and died on May 20,1800, between that years election and the inauguration of Governor-elect Caleb Strong. The Governors Council served as the executive for ten days, the councils chair, the lieutenant governor does not succeed but only discharges powers and duties as acting governor.
The governor has a 10-person cabinet, each of whom oversees a portion of the government under direct administration, see Government of Massachusetts for a complete listing. The tradition of the ceremonial door originated when departing Governor Benjamin Butler kicked open the front door, incoming governors usually choose at least one past governors portrait to hang in their office. The governor-elect is escorted by the sergeant-at-arms to the House Chamber and sworn in by the president before a joint session of the House
Gridley J. F. Bryant
Gridley James Fox Bryant, often referred to as G. J. F. Bryant, was a Boston architect and industrial engineer and his designs dominated the profession of architecture in and New England, spanning his career and after. A native of Massachusetts, his life was heavily influenced by his fathers life work in construction engineering. His father, Gridley Bryant built the first commercial railroad in the United States, in his early life he did not receive formal training in architecture but taught himself industrial engineering and construction analysis as well as building design. His first informal mentor was Alexander Perris, who introduced him to neoclassical design and he often was paired with John Hubbard Sturgis to design and create luxury housing for wealthy private townspeople. Bryant was born to Maria Winship Fox and Gridley Bryant, noted railway pioneer, in Scituate, in his youth he moved to Gardiner and attended the Garrdiner Lyceum for his secondary education. He studied mathematics and engineering there before leaving joining his fathers engineering office, outside of his secondary schools studies he interned at local lithographers and artists to experiment with design and artistic manipulation.
Bryants early career started in a time in very few architects gained prominence in his hometown of Boston, Massachusetts. Although never traveling abroad, Bryant read extensively on the practices of Europe, more specifically, London. The Second Empire archtecutreal design as exampled in the Élysée Palace and he began informal training with fellow Boston architect, Alexander Perris, who introduced him to neoclassical design and the utilization of Second Empire architectural templates. His training under Perris was grounded in neoclassicism, and played an important role in his first building drafts. Primarily working as a student in his days he quickly became a paid member by moving to the newly opened architectural firm of Perris at the corner of Court. His first achievement was the design for the Broadway Savings Bank, South Boston, Bryant focused on unregulated architecture and decided to create a new template for the construction of at the time buildings in New England. Early on in his career he faced competition from larger firms that sought to monopolize construction of buildings.
As a draftsmen, he drew up minor additions and renovations to already established buildings in Boston, aged twenty-one, and amid an economic depression he established his own architectural firm called Bryant and Associates. A common fault that was dealt to Bryant is that he valued the art form of architecture over the validity of his designs which proved to be counterproductive for his budding practice. Although his firm was relatively new and had start-up funds he worked and his firm utilized thousands of un-retained draftsmen throughout its life and contributed to the construction of unprecedented amount of building being constructed throughout the United States. However, his designs specifically were reserved for high value projects, meaning those with high personal value, due to his firm being largely un-retained, he was able to provide guidance to his firms operations while in other areas of the country which contributed to increased financial success
Maine State House
The Maine State House in Augusta, Maine is the state capitol of the State of Maine. The building was completed in 1832, one year after Augusta became the capital of Maine, built using Maine granite, the State House was based on the design of the Massachusetts State House. Governor Paul LePage and the Maine Legislature convene at the State House, when Maine separated from Massachusetts and became a state in 1820, a number of cities and towns sought the honor of becoming the state capital. The principal aspirants were Portland, Hallowell, Belfast, the first capital of Maine was Portland, but it moved to Augusta because of its more central location. The Legislature passed and Governor Enoch Lincoln signed the bill establishing Augusta as the capital in 1832, the building was designed by the renowned architect Charles Bulfinch of Boston, and in its original form resembles his Massachusetts State House. Construction was of granite from Hallowell quarries and took three years to complete, the Maine Legislature held its first session in the new state Capitol on January 4,1832.
The interior of the Capitol was remodeled in 1852 and again in 1860 to provide room for state departments. In 1890–1891, a large wing was added to the rear of the building to accommodate the State Library. Major remodeling of the Capitol during 1909–1910 established the present-day appearance of the building and it was enlarged according to designs by G. Henri Desmond, necessitating the demolition of almost all the old buildings save the front and rear walls. While the noble Bulfinch front was preserved, the length of the building was doubled to 300 feet by extending the north and south wings, a dome rising to a height of 185 feet was built to replace the original cupola. A gilt copper statue of Minerva, the female figure of Wisdom, by William Clark Noble of Gardiner. The House of Representatives occupies the third and fourth floors of the north wing, the governors office is located in renovated space on the second floor at the rear of the central portion of the Capitol along with the Hall of Flags and the law library.
The governors office overlooks the massive, granite State Office Building located to the west of the State House, a recently renovated tunnel connects the State House and the State Office Building. The tunnel houses several Maine wildlife scenes, a side tunnel leads to a cold war fallout shelter, large enough to house the Maine senate and various other officials and aides. Construction of the shelter started on May 5,1983, under the pretense of renovation, completed September 3,1985, at the south side of the Capitol grounds, the Maine State Library, Maine State Museum and Maine State Archives are housed in a modern building. Throughout the building are portraits of governors and other men and women who have served Maine throughout its history as a province and a state. To the north, across from the State House, is the Executive Mansion, more known as The Blaine House. The State House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973, for its importance in the history of the state and it is the only known work of Charles Bulfinch for which a complete set of architectural drawings has survived
Boston Red Sox
The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Red Sox compete in Major League Baseball as a club of the American League East division. The Red Sox have won eight World Series championships and have played in 13, founded in 1901 as one of the American Leagues eight charter franchises, the Red Sox home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912. The Red Sox name was chosen by the owner, John I. Taylor, around 1908, following the lead of previous teams that had known as the Boston Red Stockings. Boston was a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918. Following their victory in the 2013 World Series, they became the first team to win three World Series trophies in the 21st century, including championships in 2004 and 2007. Red Sox history has marked by the teams intense rivalry with the Yankees. The Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns the Liverpool F. C.
of the Premier League in England. The Red Sox are consistently one of the top MLB teams in road attendance. From May 15,2003 to April 10,2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a professional sports record. Neil Diamonds Sweet Caroline has become an anthem for the Red Sox, the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings. The team name Red Sox had previously used as early as 1888 by a colored team from Norfolk. The Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, the official Spanish site uses the variant Los Red Sox. The Red Stockings nickname was first used by a team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings. Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league.
Other names were used before Boston officially adopted the nickname Braves in 1912
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County, although the county government was disbanded on July 1,1999. The city proper covers 48 square miles with a population of 667,137 in 2015, making it the largest city in New England. Alternately, as a Combined Statistical Area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.1 million people, One of the oldest cities in the United States, Boston was founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England. It was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston. Upon U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education, through land reclamation and municipal annexation, Boston has expanded beyond the original peninsula. Its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing over 20 million visitors per year, Bostons many firsts include the United States first public school, Boston Latin School, first subway system, the Tremont Street Subway, and first public park, Boston Common.
Bostons economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Bostons early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the renaming on September 7,1630 was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC, in 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colonys first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history, over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.
Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century, Bostons harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the War of 1812. Foreign trade returned after these hostilities, but Bostons merchants had found alternatives for their investments in the interim. Manufacturing became an important component of the economy, and the citys industrial manufacturing overtook international trade in economic importance by the mid-19th century. Boston remained one of the nations largest manufacturing centers until the early 20th century, a network of small rivers bordering the city and connecting it to the surrounding region facilitated shipment of goods and led to a proliferation of mills and factories. Later, a network of railroads furthered the regions industry. Boston was a port of the Atlantic triangular slave trade in the New England colonies
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers RA was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House and the pagoda at Kew, Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy. William Chambers was born on 23 February 1723 in Gothenburg, between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making three voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration. Returning to Europe, he studied architecture in Paris and spent five years in Italy, then, in 1755, he moved to London, where he established an architectural practice. He worked for Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales making fanciful garden buildings at Kew and he developed his Chinese interests further with his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, a fanciful elaboration of contemporary English ideas about the naturalistic style of gardening in China. His more serious and academic Treatise on Civil Architecture published in 1759 proved influential on builders and it included ideas from the works of many 16th- and 17th-century Italian architects still little known in Britain.
His influence was transmitted through a host of younger architects trained as pupils in his office, including Thomas Hardwick, who helped him build Somerset House. He was the rival of Adam in British Neoclassicism. Chambers was more international in outlook and was influenced by continental neoclassicism when designing for British clients, a second visit to Paris in 1774 confirmed the French cast to his sober and conservative refined blend of Neoclassicism and Palladian conventions. From around 1758 to the mid-1770s, Chambers concentrated on building houses for the nobility, in 1766 Chambers was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. His initial plans for an oval courtyard, connected to three smaller, narrow rectangular courts, were soon modified into a simpler rectalinear scheme. On 10 December 1768 the Royal Academy was founded and he was appointed the Academys first Treasurer. Chambers died in London in 1796, designed two garden temples, similar to those at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Within Kew Gardens, some of his buildings are lost, those remaining being the ten-storey Pagoda, the Orangery, the Ruined Arch, the Temple of Bellona, the Pagoda, in Pagoda Gardens, London is attributed to Chambers. A three-storey house built as a pavilion for the Duke and Duchess of Buccleuch, caroline of Brunswick lived here after her separation from her husband, the Prince Regent, in 1799. Somerset House in London, his most famous building, which absorbed most of his energies over a period of two decades The gilded state coach that is used at coronations. Hedsor House, the seat of Lord Boston, equerry to George III, for James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, he designed Charlemont House and the Casino at Marino, as well as the chapel and public theatre in Trinity College, Dublin. He is associated with Gothic additions to Milton Abbey in Dorset, wick House, Richmond Hill, commissioned in 1771 by painter Sir Joshua Reynolds
Alexander Jackson Davis
Alexander Jackson Davis, or A. J. Davis, was one of the most successful and influential American architects of his generation, known particularly for his association with the Gothic Revival style. Davis was born in New York City to Cornelius Davis, a bookseller and editor of theological works and he spent his early years in New Jersey and attended elementary school in upstate New York. In 1818, Davis went to Alexandria, Virginia, to learn the trade from a half-brother. Living mostly in New York City from 1823 onward, he studied at the American Academy of Fine Arts, the New-York Drawing Association, and from the Antique casts of the National Academy of Design. Davis made a first independent career as an illustrator in the 1820s. Picturesque siting and contrasts remained essential to his work, in 1826, Davis went to work in the office of Ithiel Town and Martin E. From 1829, in partnership with Town, Davis formed the first recognizably modern architectural office and designed many late Classical buildings, in Washington, Davis designed the Executive Department offices and with Robert Mills the first Patent Office building.
He designed the Custom House of New York City, bridgeport City Hall, constructed in 1853 and 1854, is a government building Davis designed in the Classical style. Rague, who was at work on the Iowa State Capitol at the same time and he continued in partnership with Town until shortly before Towns death in 1844. In 1831, he was elected a member of the National Academy. Unfortunately the Panic of 1837 cut short his plans for a series of like volumes, additions to Vesper Cliff were built in 1834. The 1840s and 1850s were Daviss two most fruitful decades as a designer of country houses and his villa Lyndhurst at Tarrytown, New York, is his single most famous house. The village of Skaneateles, New York, has at least two buildings designed by Davis, innovative interior features, including his designs for mantels and sideboards, were widely imitated in the trade. Other influential interior details include pocket shutters at windows, bay windows, the Greek Revival style William Walsh House was built at Albany, New York, and Gothic Revival style Belmead was built near Powhatan, Virginia, in 1845.
This building, fondly called Station 10, still exists and can be found in Newport, Davis built a similar pavilion for his colleague and fellow NYYC founder, John Clarkson Jay, on Jays Hudson River waterfront property in Rye, New York, in 1849. Although this building was taken down in the 1950s, the setting and garden where it was once located is part of a National Historic Landmark site. In 1851, Davis completed Winyah Park, one of eighteen or more Italianate houses he designed in the 1850s. Winyah was built for Richard Lathers, who had studied architecture with Davis in New York in the 1830s and it was situated on Latherss estate in the town of New Rochelle in Westchester County, New York
Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places