Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Prog is based on fusions of styles and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
The genre coincided with the mid 1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Prog faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Music critics, who labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to ignore it. After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms; some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog"; the Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog.
In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s; the term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" and "symphonic rock". "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. The first is progressive rock as it is understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more to have experimental or avant-garde influences. "Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but became a transferable adjective suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.
Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music and the moving image. Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes; when the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic. Critics of the genre limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While progressive rock is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s on Internet forums dedicated to prog. According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics.... They each do so unconsciously." Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Author Kevin Holm-Hudson ag
William Otis Laswell is an American bass guitarist, record producer, record label owner. He has been involved in thousands of recordings with many collaborators from all over the world, his music draws from funk, world music, jazz and ambient styles. According to music critic Chris Brazier, "Laswell's pet concept is'collision music' which involves bringing together musicians from wildly divergent but complementary spheres and seeing what comes out." The credo of one record label run by Laswell which typifies much of his work is "Nothing Is True, Everything Is Permitted". Although his bands may be credited under the same name and feature the same roster of musicians, the styles and themes explored on different albums can vary dramatically. Material began as a noisy dance music band, but albums concentrated on hip hop, jazz, or spoken word readings by William S. Burroughs. Most versions of the band Praxis have included guitarist Buckethead, but they have explored different permutations on albums.
Laswell got his earliest professional experience as a bass guitarist in R&B and funk bands in Detroit and Ann Arbor, Michigan. He saw shows that combined genres, such as Iggy and the Stooges, MC5, Funkadelic, he was influenced by jazz musicians John Coltrane, Albert Ayler, Miles Davis. In the late 1970s Laswell moved to New York City, immersing himself in the thriving New York music scene, he moved into producer Giorgio Gomelsky's loft and became part of a group of musicians that would become the first version of Material. Material became the backing band for New York Gong; the band consisted of Laswell, keyboardist Michael Beinhorn, drummer Fred Maher. They were supplemented by guitarists Cliff Cultreri or Robert Quine, he worked with Brian Eno, Fred Frith, John Zorn, Daniel Ponce, Ginger Baker, Peter Brötzmann, Kip Hanrahan, Sonny Sharrock, with musicians in no wave, a genre that combined avant-garde jazz and punk. He met Jean Karakos, owner of Celluloid Records. Under the Material name Laswell became the de facto house producer for Celluloid until the label was sold in the 1980s.
He recorded music, experimental, combining jazz, pop, R&B, by musicians such as Whitney Houston, Sonny Sharrock, Archie Shepp, Henry Threadgill, the band Massacre with Fred Frith and Fred Maher. His association with Celluloid allowed his first forays into "collision music", a term coined by British writer Chris May of Black Music & Jazz Review. Recordings with the Golden Palominos and production on albums by Shango, Toure Kunda, Fela Kuti appeared on the label. Celluloid was an early advocate of hip hop, producing albums by Fab 5 Freddy, GrandMixer D. ST, Phase II, Afrika Bambaataa; the album World Destruction paired John Lydon with Afrika Bambaataa years before Aerosmith and Run–D. M. C. Collaborated on their rock/hip hop version of "Walk This Way". In 1982, Laswell released his solo debut album. A year he had a breakthrough with "Rockit", a song he co-wrote and produced for Herbie Hancock's album Future Shock, he played bass guitar and co-wrote other songs on the album, leading to collaborations with Hancock through the 2000s.
He won a Grammy Award for producing Sound-System. He became a member of the band Last Exit in 1986 with Peter Brötzmann, Ronald Shannon Jackson, Sonny Sharrock. Aside from one album that Laswell cobbled together in the studio, the band was a live one, showing up at gigs with no rehearsal; the first time the four members played together was on stage at their first show. Laswell produced albums for Sly and Robbie, Mick Jagger, PiL, Motörhead, Iggy Pop and Yoko Ono. Many of these bands afforded Laswell the opportunity to hire his working crew to record on more mainstream records. Sly and Robbie hired him to produce their 1985 album 1987 album Rhythm Killers. Chris Blackwell, founder of Island Records, gave him the opportunity to begin a label with the backing of Island, thus Axiom Records was started in 1990. In addition to albums by Material that included Sly and Robbie, William S. Burroughs, Bootsy Collins, Wayne Shorter, Bernie Worrell, he produced and released albums by Ginger Baker, Ronald Shannon Jackson, Sonny Sharrock, Nicky Skopelitis, Umar Bin Hassan.
Among the studio-based albums, Palestinian oud and violinist Simon Shaheen recorded an album of music by Egyptian composer Mohammed Abdel Wahab. Gambian virtuoso Foday Musa Suso recorded an album of dance music with his electric Kora, Turkish saz master Talip Oezkan recorded an album. Master Musicians of Jajouka recorded an album in their village in the Rif Mountains. There were albums by Mandinka and Fulani recorded at Suso's family compound in Gambia and Gnawa music from Morocco. Praxis featured guitarist Buckethead on Transmutation with Bootsy Collins, Bryan Mantia, Bernie Worrell, Afrika Baby Bam from the Jungle Brothers; the album blended funk heavy metal riffs with many tracks co-written by Laswell. The band spawned other releases, never with the same line-up, though consisting of the core trio of Laswell and Mantia. Funkcronomicon included released tracks by Praxis and Skopelitis and tracks with members of Parliament-Funkadelic. George Clinton, Bootsy Collins, Bernie Worrell, the last recordings of Eddie Hazel are featured prominently.
The album includes Umar Bin Hassan, Abiodun Oyewole and Torture. Laswell remixed the Axiom catalog for Axiom Ambient, blending disparate tracks, releasing some of the music for Sample Material – International Free Zone, a sample library for other musicians to use as material. Subharmonic, conceived by Laswell and ex-Celluloid A&R Robert Soares, though not owned by Laswell
Henry Cow were an English avant-rock group, founded at Cambridge University in 1968 by multi-instrumentalists Fred Frith and Tim Hodgkinson. Henry Cow's personnel fluctuated over their decade together, but drummer Chris Cutler, bassist John Greaves, bassoonist/oboist Lindsay Cooper were important long-term members alongside Frith and Hodgkinson. An inherent anti-commercial attitude kept them at arm's length from the mainstream music business, enabling them to experiment at will. Critic Myles Boisen writes, " was so mercurial and daring that they had few imitators though they inspired many on both sides of the Atlantic with a blend of spontaneity, intricate structures and humor that has endured and transcended the'progressive' tag."While it was thought that Henry Cow took their name from 20th-century American composer Henry Cowell, this has been denied by band members. According to Hodgkinson, the name "Henry Cow" was "in the air" in 1968, it seemed like a good name for the band, it had no connection to anything.
In a 1974 interview, Cutler said. What could be sillier than Henry Cow?" Fred Frith met Tim Hodgkinson, a fellow student, in a blues club at Cambridge University in May 1968. Recognising their mutual open-minded approach to music, the two began performing together, playing a variety of musical styles including "dada blues" and "neo-Hiroshima". One of Henry Cow's first concerts was supporting Pink Floyd at the Architects' Ball at Homerton College, Cambridge on 12 June 1968. In October 1968 Henry Cow expanded when they were joined by Andy Powell, David Attwooll and Rob Brooks, they performed with this line-up until December that year, when Frith and Powell split off from the rest of the group and became a trio. Powell at the time was studying music at King's College under the resident composer. Smalley was influential in Henry Cow's early development, he exposed them to a variety of new music from bands and musicians like Soft Machine, Captain Beefheart and Frank Zappa. Smalley introduced them to the idea of writing long and complex musical pieces for rock groups.
It was at this time that Henry Cow began writing music to challenge their collective ability to play using it to improve on themselves. As a trio, with Frith on bass guitar, Powell on drums and Hodgkinson playing an organ that Frith and Powell had persuaded him to learn, Henry Cow performed a number of gigs on the university calendar, including the annual Architects' Ball and the Midsummer Common Festival, as well as a performance on the roof of a 14-storey building in Cambridge. In April 1969, Powell left and the band reverted to a duo, with Frith playing violin and Hodgkinson on keyboards and reeds. In October 1969 philosopher Galen Strawson auditioned for the band. Frith and Hodgkinson persuaded bassist John Greaves to join the band, with the services of a couple of temporary drummers and Sean Jenkins, Henry Cow performed as a quartet for the next eight months. In May 1971, Martin Ditcham replaced Jenkins on drums, with this line-up they played at several events, including the Glastonbury Festival alongside Gong in June 1971.
Ditcham left in July 1971, it was not until September that year that the drummer's seat was filled again, this time by Chris Cutler. Responding to one of Cutler's adverts in Melody Maker, the band invited him to a rehearsal, it was only when Cutler joined that Henry Cow settled into a permanent core of Frith, Hodgkinson and Greaves; the band relocated to London, where they began an aggressive rehearsal schedule. After having entered John Peel's "Rockortunity Knocks" contest in 1971, Henry Cow recorded a John Peel session for BBC Radio 1 in February 1972, they went on to record another session in October that year and a further three sessions between 1973 and 1975. In April 1972, Henry Cow wrote and performed the music for Robert Walker's production of Euripides' The Bacchae; this involved an intense and demanding three-week period of concentrated work that changed the band completely. It was during this time that Henry Cow became a quintet. In July 1972, the band performed at the Edinburgh Festival, wrote and performed music for a ballet with artist Ray Smith and the Cambridge Contemporary Dance Group at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe.
Smith appeared with Henry Cow at several of their early 1970s performances, to "add a dimension to the whole experience". Smith's acts included "set up an ironing board stage left and spen the whole evening... ironing" at the Rainbow Theatre, "read out short passages of discontinuous text between each piece of music" at the Hammersmith Palais, miming with a glove puppet at the New London Theatre. Smith went on to do the "paint sock" art work for three of Henry Cow's LP covers. Back in London, they started to organise a series of concerts and events under the names Cabaret Voltaire and Explorers' Club at Kensington Town Hall with invited guests, including Derek Bailey, Lol Coxhill, Ivor Cutler, Ron Geesin, David Toop, Lady June and Smith. Improvisers Bailey and Coxhill became "enthusiastic supporters" of Henry Cow and attended many of their concerts. For the first time, Henry Cow started getting some attention from the rock press and the emerging Virgin Records label. After much negotiation and deliberation, Henry Cow signed a contract with Virgin in May 1973.
Within two weeks of signing the contract, Henry Cow began recording their debut album Legend at Virgin's Manor Studios in Oxfordshire. It took three weeks of hard work, but at the end they kn
A power trio is a rock and roll band format having a lineup of electric guitar, bass guitar and drum kit, leaving out the second rhythm guitar or keyboard instrument that are used in other rock music bands that are quartets and quintets. Larger rock bands use one or more additional rhythm section to fill out the sound with chords and harmony parts. Most power trios in hard rock and heavy metal music use the electric guitar player in two roles. While one or more band members sing while they play their instruments, power trios in hard rock and heavy metal music emphasize instrumental performance and overall sonic impact over vocals and lyrics. An example of a power trio is Motörhead, which consisted of a bassist and drummer, with Lemmy, the bass guitarist, singing lead vocals while he played bass; the rise of the power trio in the 1960s was made possible in part by developments in amplifier technology that enhanced the volume of the electric guitar and bass. The popularization of the electric bass guitar defined the bottom end and filled in the gaps.
Since the amplified bass could now be louder, the rest of the band could play at higher volumes, without fear of being unable to hear the bass. This allowed a three-person band to have the same sonic impact as a large band but left far more room for improvisation and creativity, unencumbered by the need for detailed arrangements; as with the organ trio, a 1960s-era soul jazz group centered on the amplified Hammond organ, a three-piece group could fill a large bar or club with a big sound for a much lower price than a large rock and roll band. A power trio, at least in its blues rock incarnation, is generally held to have developed out of Chicago-style blues bands such as Muddy Waters' trio. In addition to technological improvements, another impetus for the rise of the power trio was the virtuosity of guitarists such as Eric Clapton, Jimi Hendrix, Rory Gallagher, who could cover both the rhythm guitar and lead guitar roles in a live performance. In 1964, Frank Zappa played guitar in a power trio the Muthers, with Paul Woods on bass and Les Papp on drums.
In 1966, the prototypical blues-rock power trio Cream was formed, consisting of Eric Clapton on guitar/vocals, Jack Bruce on bass/vocals, Ginger Baker on drums. Other influential 1960s-era blues rock/hard rock power trio bands were the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Blue Cheer, Grand Funk Railroad, the James Gang featuring Joe Walsh, Taste. Well-known 1970s-era power trios include the Canadian progressive rock groups Rush and Triumph, the American band ZZ Top, the British heavy metal band Motörhead, Robin Trower. Emerson, Lake & Palmer, while replacing the guitarist by a keyboardist, is considered as a power trio, as Keith Emerson fulfilled the rhythm and lead playing on the keyboards that would fall on the guitarist, while bassist Greg Lake was the vocalist. In 1968, the power trio Manal was formed in Argentina, were the first group that composed blues music in Spanish. After the 1970s, the phrase "power trio" was applied to the new wave group the Police, grunge band Nirvana, post-punk band Hüsker Dü, mod revivalists the Jam, hard rock/progressive metal band King's X, progressive rock band Rush, post-grunge band Silverchair, alternative bands the Presidents of the United States of America, Goo Goo Dolls, Everclear and Eve 6, pop punk bands such as Green Day, Blink-182, Alkaline Trio and MxPx, Argentine rock bands like Soda Stereo and From Power Project.
By the 1990s, rock trios began to form around different instrumentation, from the band Morphine, featuring a baritone saxophone instead of an electric guitar, to Ben Folds Five's replacing the guitar with various keyboards, principally the piano. Organ trio: a three-person soul jazz or jam band group centred on the Hammond organ Power duo: two-piece rock band described as a power trio without the bassist
A musical ensemble known as a music group or musical group, is a group of people who perform instrumental or vocal music, with the ensemble known by a distinct name. Some music ensembles consist of instruments, such as the jazz quartet or the orchestra; some music ensembles consist of singers, such as choirs and doo wop groups. In both popular music and classical music, there are ensembles in which both instrumentalists and singers perform, such as the rock band or the Baroque chamber group for basso continuo and one or more singers. In classical music, trios or quartets either blend the sounds of musical instrument families or group together instruments from the same instrument family, such as string ensembles or wind ensembles; some ensembles blend the sounds of a variety of instrument families, such as the orchestra, which uses a string section, brass instruments and percussion instruments, or the concert band, which uses brass and percussion. In jazz ensembles or combos, the instruments include wind instruments, one or two chordal "comping" instruments, a bass instrument, a drummer or percussionist.
Jazz ensembles may be instrumental, or they may consist of a group of instruments accompanying one or more singers. In rock and pop ensembles called rock bands or pop bands, there are guitars and keyboards, one or more singers, a rhythm section made up of a bass guitar and drum kit. Music ensembles have a leader. In jazz bands and pop groups and similar ensembles, this is the band leader. In classical music, concert bands and choirs are led by a conductor. In orchestra, the concertmaster is the instrumentalist leader of the orchestra. In orchestras, the individual sections have leaders called the "principal" of the section. Conductors are used in jazz big bands and in some large rock or pop ensembles. In Western classical music, smaller ensembles are called chamber music ensembles; the terms duet, quartet, sextet, octet and dectet describe groups of two up to ten musicians, respectively. A group of eleven musicians, such as found in The Carnival of the Animals, is called either a hendectet or an undectet.
A soloist playing unaccompanied is not an ensemble. A string quartet consists of a viola and a cello. There is a vast body of music written for string quartets, as it is seen as an important genre in classical music. A woodwind quartet features a flute, an oboe, a clarinet and a bassoon. A brass quartet features a trombone and a tuba. A saxophone quartet consists of a soprano saxophone, an alto saxophone, a tenor saxophone, a baritone saxophone; the string quintet is a common type of group. It is similar to the string quartet, but with an additional viola, cello, or more the addition of a double bass. Terms such as "piano quintet" or "clarinet quintet" refer to a string quartet plus a fifth instrument. Mozart's Clarinet Quintet is a piece written for an ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, a cello and a clarinet, the last being the exceptional addition to a "normal" string quartet; some other quintets in classical music are the wind quintet consisting of flute, clarinet and horn. Classical chamber ensembles of six, seven, or eight musicians are common.
In most cases, a larger classical group is referred to as an orchestra of some type or a concert band. A small orchestra with fifteen to thirty members is called a chamber orchestra. A sinfonietta denotes a somewhat smaller orchestra. Larger orchestras are called philharmonic orchestras. A pops orchestra is an orchestra that performs light classical music and orchestral arrangements and medleys of popular jazz, music theater, or pop music songs. A string orchestra has only string instruments, i.e. violins, violas and double basses. A symphony orchestra is an ensemble comprising at least thirty musicians. A symphony orchestra is divided into families of instruments. In the string family, there are sections of violins, violas and basses; the standard woodwind section consists of flutes, soprano clarinets, bassoons. The standard brass section consists of horns, trumpets and tuba; the percussion section includes the timpani, bass drum, snare drum, a
Funny Valentine is studio album by avant-rock, experimental power trio Massacre. The line-up for this album featured Fred Frith, Bill Laswell and Charles Hayward, with Hayward having replaced Fred Maher, who played drums on their first album, Killing Time. Funny Valentine was recorded at Laswell's studio, Orange Music, in West Orange, New Jersey in January 1998. All tracks composed by Massacre. "Leaf Violence" – 4:43 "Down to Five a Day" – 4:42 "Lizard-skin Junk-mail" – 5:26 "Ladder" – 11:30 "South Orange Sunset" – 4:13 "Six-cylinder Sinister" – 5:21 "300 Days in the Vacant Lot" – 7:34 "Say Hey Willie" – 2:14 "Talk Radio" – 3:48 "Well-dressed Ripping up Wood" – 4:22 "Further Conversations With White Arc" – 6:24Source: AllMusic, Discogs. MassacreFred Frith – guitar Bill Laswell – bass guitars Charles Hayward – drums Robert Musso – engineer Allan Tucker – mastering Massacre – producer Kazunori Sugiyama – associate executive producer John Zorn – executive producer Ikue Mori – design Adolf Wölfli – artworkSource: Discogs.
Fred Frith discography
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t