The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their
Gulf of Zula
The Gulf of Zula known as Annesley Bay, Baia di Arafali or Zula Bahir Selat’ē, is a body of water on the Eritrean coastline on the Red Sea. The Gulf lies 15 km to the east of Massawa, near the midpoint of the Eritrean coast, it is located between the Foro Subregion and the Buri Peninsula of the Ghela'elo Subregion, both in the country's Northern Red Sea region. On the west side of the gulf are two large mountains, Jebel Gedem 925 m and Mount Arbalu 2,404 m. Between the two, the Aligede River flows, with the village of Zula on its right bank; the coast of the gulf is fringed with mangroves on either side of the mouth of the river. The egyptologist Henry Salt identified Zula as the ancient archaeological site of Adulis. Near the head of the gulf is the village of Arafali, beside the extinct Dola Volcano 161 m. From here, several roads radiate into the surrounding areas. To the east of the gulf lies the Buri Peninsula; this low-lying, undulating area is composed of lava flows at the southern end and granite at the north.
Fringing reefs border much of this coast. About 20 km beyond Arafali is Dolphin Cove, with a low, flat beach, backed by a steep rise to Mount Abdur 245 m behind. 14 km further on is the narrow Melita Bay with the village of Macanille at its head. Here there are mangrove swamps; the Gulf of Zula is a deep water bay, formed as part of the complex rifting system that occurred in these parts where three tectonic plates meet. The rift continues inland to a sandy plain lying 120 m below sea level; the gulf marks the territorial division between the Saho people and the Afar people
Mosque of the Companions, Massawa
The Mosque of the Companions is a mosque in the city of Massawa, Eritrea. Dating to the early 7th century CE, it is believed to be the first mosque on the African continent, it was built by companions of the Islamic Nabī Muhammad who came here to flee persecution by people in the Hejazi city of Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia. The current structure is of much construction as some features like mehrab and minaret did not develop until late in Islamic Architecture. Great Mosque of Asmara Islam in Africa Migration to Abyssinia Second migration to Abyssinia Quba Mosque, Medina
Sultanate of Dahlak
The Sultanate of Dahlak was a small Medieval kingdom covering the Dahlak Archipelago and parts of the African Red Sea coast in what is now Eritrea. First attested in 1093, it profited from its location between Abyssinia and Yemen as well as Egypt and India. After the mid 13th century Dahlak subsequently started to decline. Both the Ethiopian empire and Yemen tried to enforce their authority over the sultanate, it was annexed by the Ottomans in 1557, who made it part of their Abyssinian province. After the Umayyads seized Dahlak in 702, they made it a prison and place of forced exile, as did the early Abbasids who succeeded them. By the 9th century the Dahlak islands had come under the rule of the king of Abyssinia. Around 900 he concluded a treaty of friendship with the Ziyadid sultan of Zabid in Yemen, by the mid 10th century it is recorded that Dahlak was forced to pay tribute to Sultan Ishaq ibn Ibrahim. A century Dahlak was involved in a power struggle between the Ziyadids and the Najahids, as the latter had fled to there in 1061.
Battles were fought until 1086. The first sultan, attestable by a funerary stele is Sultan Mubarak, who died in 1093, his dynasty lasted until 1230/1249. It was during this period, the 11th–mid 13th century, that the Sultanate enjoyed its greatest prosperity; this prosperity was based on the monopoly of the external trade of the Ethiopian interior, but involvement in the transit trade between Egypt and India. It was through Dahlak that Ethiopia maintained diplomatic relations with Yemen. In the mid 13th century, the Zagwe kings began to make use of a new trading route in the south, with the port town Zeila as its final destination, thus Dahlak lost its trading monopoly. Around the same time, Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi records that the Dahlak sultans struggled to stay independent from the Rasulids. From the 12th century the sultans of Dahlak controlled the important trading town of Massawa on the African Red Sea coast, governed by a deputy titled the Nai'b. Other coastal settlements on the African continent might have been controlled by the Dahlak sultans as well, at least temporarily.
To the Ethiopians, the sultan of Dahlak was known as Seyuma Bahr, in contrast to the Bahr Negash of Medri Bahri. It was shortly after the death of Sultan Mubarak that the Dahlak sultanate began to mint coins, which were used to pay for imported goods such as Egyptian textiles and storax balsam; the Muslims of Dahlak were not successful in proselytizing northern Abyssinia. The Ethiopian Church had been well-established for centuries. Muslims were tolerated only as traders. By the 15th century, the economy of the sultanate was not only in decline, but it was forced to pay tribute to the emperors of Ethiopia. In 1464–1465, Massawa and the Dahlak archipelago were pillaged by emperor Zara Yaqob. By 1513 Dahlak had become a vassal of the Tahirids. In 1517 and 1520 it came into conflict with the Portuguese empire. By 1526 the Dahalik sultan, had been degraded to a tributary. There was a short revival of the sultanate during the Abyssinian-Adal war, where the sultanate of Adal waged a temporarily successful jihad against the Ethiopian Empire.
Sultan Ahmad joined Adal and was rewarded with the port town of Arkiko, which before the war had belonged to Medri Bahri. However, in 1541, one year after the death of sultan Ahmad, the Portuguese returned and destroyed Dahlak yet again. Sixteen years the islands were occupied by the Ottoman Empire, who made them part of the Habesh Eyalet. Under the rule of the Ottomans, the Dahlak islands lost their significance. Dahlak Kebir, a site on the same-named Dahlak Kebir Island, contains material dating to the era of the sultanate. Nearly 300 tombstones have been discovered, they attest the presence of a cosmopolitan population originating from all over the Islamic world. Several, now deteriorating, qubbas have been noted; the settlement itself consisted of well-built stone houses made of coral. The site contains several settlement mounds; the medieval population used sophisticated cisterns to ensure a continuous supply of freshwater. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Brill.
ISBN 9789004153882. Connel, Dan. Historical Dictionary of Eritrea; the Scarecrow. ISBN 9780810859524. Insoll, Timothy. "An Archaeological Reconnaissance made to Dahlak Kebir, the Dahlak Islands, Eritrea: Preliminary Observations". Ethiopia in Broader Perspective: Papers of the 13th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. Volume 1. Pp. 382–388. ISBN 4879749761. Margariti, Roxolani Eleni. "Thieves of Sultans? Dahlak and the Rulers and Merchants of Indian Ocean Port Cities, 11th-13th Centuries AD". Connected Hinterlands. Proceedings of Red Sea Project IV. pp. 155–163. ISBN 9781407306315. Pankhurst, Richard; the Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. ISBN 9780932415189. Tamrat, Tadesse. "Ethiopia, the Red Sea and the Horn". In Roland Oliver; the Cambridge History of Africa. 3. Cambridge University. Pp. 89–182. ISBN 0521209811. Van Donzel, Emeri. "Dahlak islands. History of the Dahlak islands until 1945". Encyclopedia Aethiopica. D-Ha. Harrassowitz. Pp. 64–69.
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
Battle of Massawa (1990)
The Second Battle of Massawa took place in 1990 in and around the coastal city of Massawa in Eritrea. The offensive was conducted by both land and sea units of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front against the Ethiopian Army. Beginning on February 8, 1990 the EPLF forces began the offensive by cutting of the critical supply route from the Asmara garrison; the surprise attack stunned the Ethiopian military and by the following afternoon the EPLF forces were in the suburbs of Massawa. On the third day of the offensive, February 11, 1990, the Eritrean forces captured the Ethiopian naval base near the town; the only remaining portion of the city to rid of Ethiopian troops were the islands. To achieve this the Eritrean forces used their nascent naval forces to attack from by sea during an artillery barrage. Using this artillery fire the Eritrean armor moved onto the causeways that connected the islands with the mainland; the first of these tanks were destroyed by the Ethiopian garrison, they were overcome by the EPLF.
After this defeat the remainder of the Ethiopian forces retreated to Ghinda. This battle was. After the loss of Massawa, the Ethiopians continued their aerial bombardment of the city; the civilian population was hardest hit as the EPLF forces had followed the Ethiopian troops to Ghinda. Notable of this bombardment was that cluster bombs were used; the battle was commemorated by a memorial of three tanks in War Memory Square near the Massawa city centre on Tualud Island by the entrance to the causeway to the mainland. In 2004 on the fourteenth anniversary of the battle, Eritrea issued a set of two stamps and a three-stamp minisheet honoring the "Liberation of Massawa". Pictured on the 40c was the tank memorial with fountain, on the 50c. Battle of Massawa Eritrean War of Independence "Eritrea's Operation Fenkil: Final Assault on Massawa with Speed Boats 1990" Google video
Asmara or Asmera is the capital and most populous city of Eritrea, in the country's Central Region. It sits at an elevation of 2,325 metres, making it the sixth highest capital in the world by altitude; the city is located at the tip of an escarpment, both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean highlands and the Great Rift Valley in neighbouring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved modernist architecture. Asmara was first settled in 800 BC with a population ranging from 100 to 1000; the city was founded in the 12th century CE after four separate villages unified to live together peacefully after long periods of conflict. According to Eritrean Tigrinya oral traditional history, there were four clans living in the Asmara area on the Kebessa Plateau: the Gheza Gurtom, the Gheza Shelele, the Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae; these towns were attacked by clans from the low land and from the rulers of "seger mereb melash", until the women of each clan decided that to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace the four clans must unite.
The men accepted, hence the name "Arbate Asmera". Arbate Asmara means, in the Tigrinya language, "the four made them unite". Arbate was dropped and it has been called Asmara which means "they made them unite". There is still a district called Arbaete Asmara in the Administrations of Asmara, it is now called the Italianized version of the word Asmara. The westernized version of the name is used by a majority of non-Eritreans, while the multilingual inhabitants of Eritrea and neighboring peoples remain loyal to the original pronunciation, Asmera; the missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmara in 1751, described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit priests 130 years before was still intact. Asmara, a small village in the nineteenth century, started to grow when it was occupied by Italy in 1889. Governor Ferdinando Martini made it the capital city of Italian Eritrea in 1897, in preference to the Red Sea port of Massawa, since the city experienced a continuous growth. In the early 20th century, the Eritrean Railway was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna.
In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes. A large Italian community developed. According to the 1939 census, Asmara had a population of 98,000. Only 75,000 Italians lived in all of Eritrea; the capital acquired an Italian architectural look. Europeans used Asmara "to experiment with radical new designs". By the late 1930s, Asmara was called Piccola Roma. Nowadays more than 400 buildings are of Italian origin, many shops still have Italian names; the Kingdom of Italy invested in the industrial development of Asmara, but the beginning of World War II stopped this. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation made Asmara a World Heritage Site in July 2017, saying “It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context”. In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule. During the Federation, Asmara was no longer the capital city; the capital was now Addis Ababa, over 1,000 kilometres to the south.
The national language of the city was therefore replaced from Tigrinya language to the Ethiopian Amharic language. In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I ended the "federal" arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire. Ethiopia's biggest ally was the United States; the city was home to the US Army's Kagnew Station installation from 1943 until 1977. The Eritrean War of Independence began in 1961 and ended in 1991, resulting in the independence of Eritrea. Asmara was left undamaged throughout the war, as were the majority of highland regions. After independence, Asmara again became the capital of Eritrea. Four big landmarks of the city are the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary and the Kidane Mehret Cathedral of the Catholic faith, the Enda Mariam Cathedral of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Al Khulafa Al Rashiudin Mosque of the Islamic faith. Christians and Muslims have lived peacefully together in Asmara for centuries; the religious majority in Asmara are Orthodox Christians.
The population in the Central Region is 5 percent Muslim. The city lies at an elevation of 2,325 metres above sea level, it lies on north-south trending highlands known as the Eritrean Highlands, an extension of the Ethiopian Highlands. The temperate central portion, where Asmara lies, is situated on a rocky highland plateau, which separates the western lowlands from the eastern coastal plains; the lands that surround Asmara are fertile those to the south towards the Debub Region of Eritrea. The highlands that Asmara is located in fall away to reveal the eastern lowlands, characterized by the searing heat and humidity of the Eritrean salt pans, lapped by the Red Sea. To the west of the plateau stretches a vast semi-arid hilly terrain continuing all the way towards the border with Sudan through the Gash-Barka Region. Asmara features a somewhat rare version of a steppe climate, with warm, but not hot summ