Massillon is a city in Stark County in the U. S. state of Ohio 8 miles west of Canton, 20 miles south of Akron, 50 miles south of Cleveland. The population was 32,149 at the 2010 census. Massillon is the second largest incorporated area within the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census, the metropolitan area had a population of 404,422 and includes all of Stark and Carroll counties. The city's incorporated area resides in the western half of Perry Township, with portions extending north into Jackson Township, west into Tuscarawas Township, south into Bethlehem Township; the village of Navarre borders the city to the south. The original settlement of Kendal was founded in 1812 by Thomas Rotch, a Quaker of New Bedford and Hartford, Connecticut. James Duncan of New Hampshire first settled in Kendal before recording the plot for Massillon on December 6, 1826. Duncan, known as the city's founder, named the town after Jean Baptiste Massillon, a French Catholic bishop, at the request of his wife.
The town plat was established along the east bank of the Tuscarawas River, the surveyed route for the Ohio and Erie Canal being constructed to connect Lake Erie with the Ohio River. The canal section spanning from Cleveland to Massillon was completed in 1828. Massillon became a major port town along the canal route, known as the Port of Massillon, following the canal's completion in the 1832; the first telegraph lines would reach Massillon in 1847, the Ohio & Pennsylvania Railroad would extend its rails to Massillon in 1852. Massillon incorporated as a village in 1853. In 1868, Massillon incorporated as a city when the populated reached 5,000; the C. M. Russell & Company, formed in 1842 by Charles. M. Russell and his brothers, Nahum Russell and Clement Russell, manufactured threshing machines and other agricultural implements in Massillon; the company incorporated in 1864 as Russell & Company Inc.. In 1884, Russell & Company began producing its famed steam traction engines and became one of the largest producers of industrial and agricultural equipment.
A merger with the Griscom-Spencer company in 1912 created the Griscom-Russell Company. Griscom-Russell produced heat exchangers for the United States Navy during World War II; the company closed in 1962. The Massillon Iron Bridge Company was founded by Joseph Davenport in 1869 after moving to Massillon from Boston to work at the C. M. Russell & Company. Davenport invented and built the first locomotive "cowcatcher" and cab in Massillon; the company incorporated in 1887 as The Massillon Bridge Company. The Massillon Bridge Company designed and built steel truss bridges up through the mid-1900s, many of which stand today; the Massillon State Hospital for the Insane opened in 1898 on 240 acres of land given to the state of Ohio for the purpose of constructing the hospital. The hospital was established by Ohio governor William McKinley. By 1950 there were 3,100 patients in the hospital. Today it is known as Heartland Behavioral Healthcare; the Forest City Motor Company was founded in Cleveland in 1906 but relocated to Massillon that same year.
Forest City produced 1,000 of their Jewel automobiles in Massillon between 1906 and 1909. The name of the company was changed to the Jewel Motor Car Company but the company ceased production in 1909. Although steelmaking and fabrication is found throughout its history, some say Massillon's steel age didn't start until 1909, when the first sheet of steel was rolled at the Massillon Rolling Mill Company. Massillon Rolling merged into the Central Steel Company in 1914, lit its first open hearth furnace in 1915. Central Steel became known as the Central Alloy Steel Company. In April 1930, Central Alloy merged with Republic Steel, becoming the third largest steel company in the world, with its Massillon operations employing nearly one-half of the city's workforce by 1959; this included other Massillon divisions like Massillon Union Drawn Steel and its stainless steel division Enduro Stainless. In 1984 Republic Steel was purchased by LTV Steel. Enduro closed in 1985, it and other stainless plants went through several ownership changes over the following 15 years.
The main Republic facilities on the southwest side of Massillon closed by 2002. Stanley Macomber designed the open-web steel joist in 1921 while working for Massillon's Central Steel Company. Macomber left Central Steel and founded the Massillon Steel Joist Co. in 1923. His open-web steel joist, patented in 1924, was known as the Massillon Steel Joist. Macomber's invention was a revolutionary assembly of steel joists with a top slab used to support of floors and roofs; the basis of Macomber's steel joist design is still used today. Stanley Macomber was inducted into the Inventors Hall of Fame in 2011. Lincoln Highway, the first U. S. highway to run from coast to coast, was envisioned in 1913 and followed Main Street through the center of Massillon. Main Street was renamed Lincoln Way in recognition of the new highway. In 1928, the federal government renamed Lincoln Highway to U. S. 30. A controlled access freeway was constructed in 1971, bypassing U. S. 30 around to the city's most southern part. The old Lincoln Highway that runs through Massillon and Canton was reassigned as State Route 172.
Massillon was a site where one of the most tragic instances of anti-union violence in the history of the United States occurred. The Steel Workers Organizing Committee began an attempt to organize workers at Republic Steel in the spring of 1937, following the unionizing of workers at the country's two largest steel companies US Steel and Jones & Laughlin Steel. In retali
Faery: Legends of Avalon is a role-playing video game, released on the Xbox Live Arcade service on November 10, 2010, on the PlayStation Network on January 11, 2011. It was published by Focus Home Interactive. In the game, the player assumes control over a winged faery; the faery king Oberon informs the player that because humans have stopped believing in faeries, the power of magic has failed and the faery civilization and its inhabitants are being destroyed. The player's objective is to assemble a party of magical creatures and attempt to save several mythical worlds from destruction; the mythical worlds that serve as the game's setting are drawn from preexisting mythologies, include the ghost ship Flying Dutchman, the great tree Yggdrasil, the City of Mirage, built on the back of a giant beetle. There are two components to the gameplay of Faery: Legends of Avalon and exploration; the game uses a turn based combat system in combat. The attacks available to characters are in part determined by the player's choices when leveling up the characters.
Outside of combat, the player character can fly, therefore exploration takes place in three dimensions, as opposed to the more common two dimensional exploration seen in most other role playing games. The game features a large number of options for customizing the player character, including the gender and face of the character, the equipment that the character uses, what new abilities are gained when the character levels up. All of these options change the in-game appearance of the player character. Faery: Legends of Avalon received mixed to poor reviews upon its release, with a Metacritic score of 57. Critics praised the game's vivid visuals, which employ cel-shading, the bright and upbeat music, the creative depictions of several well known mythical worlds. However, they point out that the quests are tedious and repetitive, that the dialogue is bare bones and contains numerous spelling errors, that the combat is excessively easy. Kevin VanOrd of GameSpot.com summarizes the game as "disappointingly threadbare," and states that "Legends of Avalon amounts to a bunch of bland missions separated by elementary turn-based battles that inspire only a few faint yawns."
Lynne Stopkewich is a Canadian film director. She attracted attention for her feature film directorial debut Kissed. In 1987, Stopkewich obtained her Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree in film studies from Concordia University, followed in 1996 by a Master of Fine Arts Degree in film studies from the Department of Theatre and Film at the University of British Columbia, her first short films were made while at Concordia. Kissed commenced development as Stopkewich's thesis feature at the University of British Columbia, to which Stopkewich returned as a faculty member; the film stars Molly Parker as Sandra Larson, a young woman whose fixation on death leads her to study embalming at a mortuary school, where in turn she finds herself drawn toward feelings of necrophilia. Peter Outerbridge stars as Matt, a fellow student who develops romantic feelings for Sandra, so must learn to accept her sexual proclivities. Despite being allowed a substantial grant, Stopkewich went $30,000 into debt and cost her company $400,000 so she could complete shooting the film.
The film received significant attention. Roger Ebert described the film as "one of the most controversial films at the Toronto and Sundance festivals" and gave the film a three-star review, noting that it "is about a necrophiliac, but in its approach, it could be about spirituality or transcendence." The New York Times noted that "it would be easy to snicker at this Canadian film, were its subject not handled with a delicacy and lyricism that underscore the mystical rather than gruesome aspects of what Sandra coolly acknowledges is a consuming addiction." In addition to Kissed, Stopkewich has directed the feature film Suspicious River. She has directed various television episodes of Bliss, Da Vinci's Inquest, The L Word, This Is Wonderland, The Shields Stories. Stopkewich prefers to work with cast and crew with whom she has worked before, most notably, the actress Molly Parker. Stopkewich's approach to the gaze in film is in part informed by feminist film theory, thus her films have been described as being "darkly feminist."
Canadians see in her films "a strong sense of local culture" which rises "above the American appropriation of Vancouver as a backdrop for American generic culture."She is the Vancouver director on Here At Home, a 2012 National Film Board of Canada web documentary exploring the Mental Health Commission of Canada's efforts to end homelessness for people with mental illness via its At Home initiative. Lynne Stopkewich on IMDb
Leonello d'Este was Marquis of Ferrara and Duke of Modena and Reggio Emilia from 1441 to 1450. Despite the presence of legitimate children, Leonello was favoured by his father as his successor. In addition, his virtuous qualities, high level of education, popularity among the common people as well as his formal papal recognition made him the most suitable heir. Leonello had little influence over aristocracy in Ferrara. Contrary to other prior d’Este family leaders, such as Azzo VII, Niccolò III, Isabella d’Este, who had a drive for power and control, Leonello is recognized principally for his sponsorship of the arts and culture. In 1441–1450, his learned courts and developing knowledge assisted him in transforming the city of Ferrara. Under the guidance of Guarino Veronese, his humanist teacher, with the approval of the commune, Leonello began the reformation the University of Ferrara. Leonello not only elevated the humanistic cultural movements during his rule, but it influenced the political and artistic advancements of his successors.
Leonello d’Este served as the precursor of the achievements in the history of the House of Este. Leonello was one of three illegitimate sons of Stella de' Tolomei, he received a military education under the condottiero Braccio da Montone, was tutored by Guarino Veronese appointed professor at the University of Ferrara, who instructed him on the traits of a desirable ruler and how to govern. In 1425, after the execution of his elder brother Ugo Aldobrandino, he was the sole heir of Niccolò. In 1435, he married Margherita Gonzaga on 6 February and was recognized as legitimate son by Pope Martin V. Margherita, who died in 1439, gave birth to a child, Niccolò, in 1438. In late December 1441, he succeeded to his father's possessions after Niccolò's death in northern Italy. Coming from a strong academic background, Leonello brought significant unprecedented economic and cultural changes to Ferrara right after he took over from Niccolò III. In May 1444, Leonello married Mary of Aragon, at the age of 19, illegitimate daughter of King Alfonso V of Naples.
The marriage was a political one. To ensure the political stability within Ferrara, Leonello remained neutral in the political affairs between Milan and Venice. However, Leonello had a much broader picture for Ferrara, expanding its authority and power in its area. After the death of Margherita Gonzaga, Leonello saw the opportunity of forming alliances with neighboring regions through kinship to strengthen its power; the victory of Alfonso V in Naples, the father of Mary of Aragon, acted as a catalyst for such a diplomatic marriage for Leonello and an opportunity for Ferrara. Not much progress was made during the rule of Niccolò III as he focused more on political matters and economic prosperity within Ferrara. Leonello was a skilled politician and was responsible for the construction of the first hospital of Ferrara, but he distinguished himself chiefly as a man of culture. Leon Battista Alberti wrote his De Re Aedificatoria at Leonello's commission, at the Ferrarese court there worked artists such as Pisanello, Iacopo Bellini, Giovanni da Oriolo, Andrea Mantegna, Piero della Francesca and the Netherlandish Rogier van der Weyden.
His personal breviary was sold in a fragmented state in 1958 by Baron Llangattock at Christie's. It has since been known as the Llangattock breviary, it was created under the artistic direction of Giorgio d´Alemagna and painters like Matteo De Pasti and Jacopo Magnanimo contributed to it. Leaves from it are in the collections of museums such as the Louvre in Paris, the Danish National Library, several private collections. During his rule the University of Ferrara gained a European prestige. Leonello died in 1450, at 43, he was succeeded by his father's illegitimate son. Leonello d’Este's father, Niccoló d’Este III, was an illegitimate son himself. At the age of nine, Niccoló became legitimated as the successor of Alberto. However, Leonello's circumstances for securing his rights to succession differed from his father's because Niccoló was Alberto's only son while Leonello was in a competition with his younger legitimate brothers. In the presence of his legitimate sons from his marriage, Niccoló needed to prove that Leonello was qualified to be chosen as his successor.
Niccoló defended Leonello's rights to succession on three grounds: Leonello's personal attributes, popularity among his subjects, official papal recognition. Leonello was praised for exhibiting strong leadership skills and virtuous characteristics, which would make him a worthy heir and future ruler of Ferrara. In addition, Leonello was taught under esteemed humanist teachers such as Guarino da Verona, his father noted. Leonello was popular among the people and his father recognized the wide support that Leonello would receive from his subjects, who approved of Leonello being chosen as Niccoló's successor. Furthermore, the papacy recognized Leonello as a legitimate heir. Thus, by 1434, Leonello was given a great deal of authority to co-rule with his father. Leonello's succession and subsequent marriage would serve an important role in relations with neighbouring city-states; the House of Este owed a great debt to Gianfrancesco Gonzaga, the ruler of Mantua. Instead of having this debt paid monetarily, Gonzaga agreed to have his daughter Margarita marry Leonello, in exchange for Niccoló promising his daughter's line of descendants the position of lords in Ferrara.
Hence, the two rulers sought to use the marria
Spektrum Flyers was a short-lived ice hockey team from Oslo, Norway. A merger between Manglerud Star and Furuset, it played the 1994–95 and 1995–96 seasons in Eliteserien, the premier ice hockey league in Norway, with home games at Oslo Spektrum; the team relocated to Bergen after two seasons. Manglerud Star and Furuset had cooperated with the team Oslo Hockey. After it was dissolved, Manglerud Star became a farm team for Vålerenga Ishockey. Following the opening of Oslo Spektrum in 1990, Vålerenga moved their games to the venue in the heart of Oslo. After the end of the 1992–93 season, the team returned to its old venue, Jordal Amfi, Oslo Spektrum started looking for a new tenant. Oslo Spektrum's new management company, SMGManagement, encouraged Manglerud Star and Furuset to play some of their games at Oslo Spektrum. Instead, the two teams decided to merge their top-level teams to create a team that all of Oslo could support. In September 1993, Manglerud Star and SMG signed an interim agreement, which would establish the new team in the city center.
The new team received an exclusive right to play matches at Spektrum, SMG would perform marketing of the games. The condition was that at least one of the two teams succeeded at keeping their place in the premier league; the team received 1 million Norwegian krone from the two mother teams to purchase six top players, including two from Canada. The team's management stated that they were working on a cooperation with the National Hockey League side Philadelphia Flyers. In a deal in November 1993, Furuset-players Cato Tom Andersen, Christian Kjeldsberg and Jan Roar Fagerli all transferred to Manglerud Star for the 1993–94 season, which Furuset would play in First Division; the players were intended to be transferred to Spektrum Flyers. In March 1994, Ole Jacob Libæk, instrumental in the creation of the new team and had been appointed chair, stated that he wanted Vålerenga to participate, he hoped that this would create sufficient interest to generate four to five thousand spectators per match, which would be necessary to maintain a professional team.
Rolf Kirkvaag jr. was hired as the team's director. On 22 April 1994, the club announced that Serge Boisvert, a former NHL-player, would be player-coach. Rumors had it; the team received a budget of NOK 7 million for the first season. In June, the team signed Lillehammer IK-player Tommy Jakobsen, who had played for Furuset. In July, the Czech national team and HC Sparta Praha back. Other players included Vegar Barlie, Jarle Friis, Per Odvar and Knut Walbye. In June, the team was registered as a limited company. However, it was late sending in its budget to the Norwegian Ice Hockey Association, nearly lost its license to play, it received permission to play three of its matches in the opening season at Gjøvik Olympic Cavern Hall in Gjøvik. The team's first match was a friendly against Storhamar on 16 August in Gjøvik, which Flyers lost 2–5. In September, the team ended second in the friendly Panasonic Cup in Denmark. Libæk stated that he had been in contact with IMG, who wanted to create a pan-European ice hockey league, that Flyers was the prime candidate to represent Norway.
Flyers was offered NOK 70 million to play in the league, planned to have 12 teams and be named the International Hockey League. The Norwegian Ice Hockey Association stated that after an agreement between NHL and the International Ice Hockey Federation, the Flyers would be banned from playing in Eliteserien if they formally associated themselves with IHL. In the last friendly before the league started, Flyers beat Vålerenga 4–1 on 18 September. In the league debut on 25 September, the two teams met in front of 3,121 spectators at Jordal, where Vålerenga won 5–3. In its home debut on 29 September, Flyers beat Trondheim IK 5–3. With only 1770 of the 2400 spectators paying, the team management stated that it would be difficult to pay the NOK 100,000 per game which Oslo Spektrum charged; the team had been marketing the game by handing out 1,200 free tickets to school children, but required the parents who accompanied the children to pay for the tickets. At the same time, Vegard Barlie criticized the club for not wanting to sign a contract, after he had punctured a lung.
On 19 January 1996, Kirkvaag stated that the club was planning to move to Bergen, that this could happen as early as for the play-offs. The stated reasons for this were that Oslo Municipality would not give the club any subsidies, the high cost of playing at Oslo Spektrum; the team would have been renamed Bergen Flyers and play their matches in Bergenshallen. The management of Manglerud Star stated that they were opposed to the plans, that it was unrealistic to move an entire club if permission was granted; the plans were to only play the playoff matches in Bergen, the club would thereby be required to pay the transport to and overnighting in Bergen for both themselves and the opponent teams. At the time, Bergen—Norway's second-largest city—did not have a team in the premier league. An official application to move was sent to the Norwegian Ice Hockey Association on 26 January; the application was approved by the association, the club announced it would play its first play-off match in Bergenshallen on 15 February.
On 1 February, the Kirkvaag stated. Vålerenga stated that it was opposed to the play-off games being played in Bergen and that they wanted a possible local derby between the Oslo teams to be played in the city. Representatives from the Norwegian Ice Hockey Association stated that Flyers had given financial reasons for the move, but that they at the same time had rejected pl
The Kingsmead Viaduct is a raised dual-carriageway viaduct of the A10 road on the eastern outskirts of Ware, England. It carries the A10 over the New River and the Hertford East railway; the road was constructed as a trunk route by the Highways Agency as the second part of a two-phase improvement of the A10 between Ware and Cheshunt. On 29 September 2006 the road was de-trunked, the viaduct is now the responsibility of Hertfordshire County Council; the expansion joints were replaced by the Highways Agency in July 2005. Improvements to the bridge parapets to bring them up to modern standards were carried out by Hertfordshire Council from July to September 2008; the work included installing'high containment' parapets above the railway. The bridge spans the Lea Valley, crossing the River Lea, the New River and the A119 road between the Rush Green Interchange near Hertford and the Westmill interchange. Running along the valley floor is the Hertford East Branch Line, which the viaduct crosses between Ware and the Hertford East terminus