A lottery is a form of legalized government gambling that involves the drawing of numbers for a prize. Lotteries are outlawed by some governments, while others endorse it to the extent of organizing a national or state lottery. It is common to some degree of regulation of lottery by governments. This remained so well after World War II. In the 1960s casinos and lotteries began to re-appear throughout the world as a means for governments to raise revenue without raising taxes, for example, the prize can be a fixed amount of cash or goods. In this format there is risk to the organizer if insufficient tickets are sold, more commonly the prize fund will be a fixed percentage of the receipts. A popular form of this is the 50–50 draw where the promise that the prize will be 50% of the revenue. Many recent lotteries allow purchasers to select the numbers on the lottery ticket, the purchase of lottery tickets cannot be accounted for by decision models based on expected value maximization. The reason is that lottery tickets cost more than the gain, as shown by lottery mathematics.
Yet, lottery purchases can be explained by decision models based on expected utility maximization, more general models based on utility functions defined on things other than the lottery outcomes can account for lottery purchase. In addition to the prizes, the ticket may enable some purchasers to experience a thrill. If the entertainment value obtained by playing is enough for a given individual. The first recorded signs of a lottery are keno slips from the Chinese Han Dynasty between 205 and 187 BC and these lotteries are believed to have helped to finance major government projects like the Great Wall of China. From the Chinese The Book of Songs comes a reference to a game of chance as the drawing of wood, from the Celtic era, the Cornish words teulel pren translates into to throw wood and means to draw lots. The Iliad of Homer refers to lots being placed into Agamemnons helmet to determine who would fight Hector, the first known European lotteries were held during the Roman Empire, mainly as an amusement at dinner parties.
Each guest would receive a ticket, and prizes would often consist of items such as dinnerware. Every ticket holder would be assured of winning something and this type of lottery, was no more than the distribution of gifts by wealthy noblemen during the Saturnalian revelries. The earliest records of a lottery offering tickets for sale is the organized by Roman Emperor Augustus Caesar
Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator and citizen of the Republic of Genoa. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean and those voyages and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola initiated the European colonization of the New World. Western imperialism and economic competition were emerging among European kingdoms through the establishment of routes and colonies. During his first voyage in 1492, he reached the New World instead of arriving at Japan as he had intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas archipelago that he named San Salvador. Over the course of three voyages, he visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Venezuela and Central America. These voyages had, therefore, an impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. He spearheaded the transatlantic trade and has been accused by several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola natives.
Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of spreading the Christian religion, Columbus never admitted that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies for which he had set course. He called the inhabitants of the lands that he visited indios, the name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. His name in Italian is Cristoforo Colombo and, in Spanish and he was born before 31 October 1451 in the territory of the Republic of Genoa, though the exact location remains disputed. His father was Domenico Colombo, a wool weaver who worked both in Genoa and Savona and who owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked as a helper. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino, and Giacomo were his brothers, Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. He had a sister named Bianchinetta, Columbus never wrote in his native language, which is presumed to have been a Genoese variety of Ligurian.
In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of 10, in 1470, the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Christopher was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but and these competing hypotheses have generally been discounted by mainstream scholars. In 1473, Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro, later, he allegedly made a trip to Chios, an Aegean island ruled by Genoa. In May 1476, he took part in a convoy sent by Genoa to carry valuable cargo to northern Europe
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
James Byron Dean was an American actor. The other two roles that defined his stardom were loner Cal Trask in East of Eden and surly ranch hand Jett Rink in Giant, Deans premature death in a car crash cemented his legendary status. He became the first actor to receive a posthumous Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, in 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him the 18th best male movie star of Golden Age Hollywood in AFIs 100 Years.100 Stars list. James Dean was born February 8,1931, at the Seven Gables apartment on the corner of 4th Street and McClure Street in Marion and his parents were of mostly English ancestry, with smaller amounts of German, Irish and Welsh. Six years after his father had left farming to become a technician and his family moved to Santa Monica. He was enrolled at Brentwood Public School in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, the family spent several years there, and by all accounts, Dean was very close to his mother. According to Michael DeAngelis, she was the only capable of understanding him.
In 1938, she was struck with acute stomach pain. She died of cancer when Dean was nine years old. Unable to care for his son, Deans father sent him to live with Deans aunt Ortense and her husband, Marcus Winslow, on a farm in Fairmount, Deans father served in World War II and remarried. According to Billy J. Harbin, Dean had a relationship with his pastor. Their alleged sexual relationship was suggested in the 1994 book Boulevard of Broken Dreams, The Life, Times, in 2011, it was reported that Dean once confided in Elizabeth Taylor that he was sexually abused by a minister approximately two years after his mothers death. Other reports on Deans life suggest that he was sexually abused by DeWeerd as a child or had a sexual relationship with him as a late teenager. Deans overall performance in school was exceptional and he was a popular student and he played on the baseball and varsity basketball teams, studied drama, and competed in public speaking through the Indiana High School Forensic Association.
After graduating from Fairmount High School in May 1949, Dean moved back to California with his dog, Max and he enrolled in Santa Monica College and majored in pre-law. He transferred to UCLA for one semester and changed his major to drama and he pledged the Sigma Nu fraternity but was never initiated. While at UCLA, Dean was picked from a group of 350 actors to portray Malcolm in Macbeth, at that time, he began acting in James Whitmores workshop. In January 1951, he dropped out of UCLA to pursue a career as an actor
Italians are a nation and ethnic group native to Italy who share a common culture and speak the Italian language as a native tongue. The majority of Italian nationals are speakers of Standard Italian. Italians have greatly influenced and contributed to the arts and music, technology, sports, jurisprudence, Italian people are generally known for their localism and their attention to clothing and family values. The term Italian is at least 3,000 years old and has a history that goes back to pre-Roman Italy. According to one of the common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides. The Etruscan civilization reached its peak about the 7th century BC, but by 509 BC, when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan monarchs, its control in Italy was on the wane.
By 350 BC, after a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, and they managed to unite the entire Italian peninsula. This period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, in the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. Finally, in 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage completely destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. After two centuries of rule, in the 3rd century AD, Rome was threatened by internal discord and menaced by Germanic and Asian invaders. Emperor Diocletians administrative division of the empire into two parts in 285 provided only temporary relief, it became permanent in 395, in 313, Emperor Constantine accepted Christianity, and churches thereafter rose throughout the empire. However, he moved his capital from Rome to Constantinople.
The last Western emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed in 476 by a Germanic foederati general in Italy and his defeat marked the end of the western part of the Roman Empire. During most of the period from the fall of Rome until the Kingdom of Italy was established in 1861, Odoacer ruled well for 13 years after gaining control of Italy in 476. Then he was attacked and defeated by Theodoric, the king of another Germanic tribe and Odoacer ruled jointly until 493, when Theodoric murdered Odoacer. Theodoric continued to rule Italy with an army of Ostrogoths and a government that was mostly Italian, after the death of Theodoric in 526, the kingdom began to grow weak
Giuliana De Sio
Giuliana De Sio is an Italian actress and the sister of folk singer Teresa De Sio. She was born in Salerno and lived in Cava de Tirreni and she made her first public appearance when she was five years old, in a show at the Verdi theater in Salerno. She began her career in 1976 when Gianni Bongiovanni choose her for the RAI TV film Una donna. Elio Petri gave her a part in Mani sporche and Mario Monicelli choose her to star in Il malato immaginario together with the famous Italian actor Alberto Sordi. Her meeting with Massimo Troisi, who cast her in Scusate il ritardo in 1982, with Francesco Nuti she shot the celebrated Io, Chiara e lo Scuro and Casablanca Casablanca. Feu sur le candidat The Wicked Historical center For not forget Wolffs Turf The True Life of Antonio H
Pier Paolo Pasolini
Pier Paolo Pasolini was an Italian film director, poet and intellectual. Pasolini distinguished himself as an actor, philosopher, playwright and his murder prompted an outcry in some circles of Italy, with its circumstances continuing to be a matter of heated debate. Pasolini was born in Bologna, traditionally one of the most leftist politically of Italian cities and he was the son of Carlo Alberto Pasolini, a lieutenant of the Italian army, and Susanna Colussi, an elementary school teacher. His parents married in 1921, Pasolini was born in 1922 and his family moved to Conegliano in 1923 and, two years later, to Belluno, where another son, was born. In 1926, Pasolinis father was arrested for gambling debts and his mother moved with the children to her familys house in Casarsa della Delizia, in the Friuli region. That same year, his father Carlo Alberto, first detained, at any rate, Carlo Alberto was persuaded of the virtues of fascism. Pasolini began writing poems at the age of seven, inspired by the beauty of Casarsa.
One of his influences was the work of Arthur Rimbaud. In 1931, his father was transferred to Idria in the Julian March, in 1933 they moved again to Cremona in Lombardy, and to Scandiano and Reggio Emilia. Pasolini found it difficult to adapt to all moves, though in the meantime he enlarged his poetry and literature readings. In the Reggio Emilia high school, he met his first true friend, the two met again in Bologna, where Pasolini spent seven years while completing high school, here he cultivated new passions, including football. With other friends, including Ermes Parini, Franco Farolfi, Elio Meli, in 1939 Pasolini graduated and entered the Literature College of the University of Bologna, discovering new themes such as philology and aesthetics of figurative arts. He frequented the cinema club. Pasolini always showed his friends a virile and strong exterior, totally hiding his interior travail and he took part in the Fascist governments culture and sports competitions. In his poems of this period, Pasolini started to include fragments in Friulan, I learnt it as a sort of mystic act of love, a kind of félibrisme, like the Provençal poets.
After the summer in Casarsa, in 1941 Pasolini published at his own expense a collection of poems in Friulan, the work was noted and appreciated by intellectuals and critics such as Gianfranco Contini, Alfonso Gatto and Antonio Russi. His pictures had been well received, Pasolini was chief editor of the Il Setaccio magazine, but was fired after conflicts with the director, who was aligned with the Fascist regime. A trip to Germany helped him to perceive the status of Italian culture in that era
San Giorgio a Cremano
San Giorgio a Cremano is a primarily residential town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Naples, in Italy. It is located on the foothills of Mount Vesuvius to the west of the volcano, most parts of the municipality command views of Mount Vesuvius, Mount Somma and the Bay of Naples. San Giorgio a Cremano was first settled in the 10th and 11th centuries, by the 19th century San Giorgio a Cremano had been absorbed by the expanding urban conglomeration of Naples, and it is now one of the most densely populated areas in the whole of the European Union. San Giorgio a Cremano is served by the Circumvesuviana metropolitan railway which connects it with central Naples and these are a part of the Miglio dOro, an urbanistic and artistic complex which in 1997 have been included in the World Biosphere Network list of UNESCO. San Giorgio a Cremano is located on the foothills to the west of the Vesuvius. With a total area of 4.11 km2, it is a fairly small, the average height within the comune is 56 metres above sea level.
San Giorgio is surrounded by major roads on all sides. The coastal road of Corso San Giovanni follows the shoreline to the west of San Giorgio, to the east, San Giorgio a Cremano faces the Vesuvius, which dominates the view in that direction. As the commune climbs gently uphill from west to east, many houses within San Giorgio are offered views over the Bay of Naples to the west. The main centre of Naples is located 6 kilometres to the north-west of San Giorgio. The town is bordered by Barra to the north, San Giovanni a Teduccio to the north-west, the Bay of Naples to the west and Portici to the south, and San Sebastiano al Vesuvio to the east. Nearby to the south is Ercolano, which is home to the archaeological site of Herculaneum, Pompeiis neighbouring Roman town. San Giorgio a Cremano, as with the rest of Naples is located at 40°N facing the Bay of Naples on the west side of the Italian peninsula. The west coast tends to be wetter than the east coast, with the southern Sirocco wind bringing higher humidity.
The warm temperatures and moderate to low precipitation led to the popularity as a tourist resort during the Renaissance. The name San Giorgio a Cremano, is a reference to the reverence with which the residents of the area in the 10th century held for the Vesuvius. The residents believed by adopting Saint George as their patron saint he would protect them from the dragon or the eruptions of Vesuvius, the term Cremano is an ancient name for a strip of land between Portici and San Giorgio. It derives directly from the Latin word crematum which refers to the earth having been cremated by the flows of Vesuvius
Heathcliff Andrew Heath Ledger was an Australian actor and director. After performing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s and he produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director. In the film, Ledger portrayed an actor named Robbie Clark, one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylans life. Ledger died on 22 January 2008 from an accidental intoxication from prescription drugs, a few months before his death, Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight. His death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus and his untimely death cast a shadow over the subsequent promotion of the $185 million Batman production. The Sir Frank Ledger Charitable Trust is named after his great-grandfather and he had English and Scottish ancestry. Ledger attended Marys Mount Primary School in Gooseberry Hill, and Guildford Grammar School and his parents separated when he was 10 and divorced when he was 11.
After sitting for early graduation exams at age 17, Ledger left school to pursue an acting career, in 1999, he starred in the teen comedy 10 Things I Hate About You and in the acclaimed Australian crime film Two Hands, directed by Gregor Jordan. In 2001, he won a ShoWest Award as Male Star of Tomorrow, in The New York Times review of the film, critic Stephen Holden writes, Both Mr. Ledger and Mr. Gyllenhaal make this anguished love story physically palpable. Mr. Ledger magically and mysteriously disappears beneath the skin of his lean and it is a great screen performance, as good as the best of Marlon Brando and Sean Penn. In a review in Rolling Stone, Peter Travers states, Ledgers magnificent performance is an acting miracle and he seems to tear it from his insides. Ledger doesnt just know how Ennis moves and listens, to see him inhale the scent of a shirt hanging in Jacks closet is to take measure of the pain of love lost. Shortly after the release of Candy, Ledger was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts, posthumously, on 23 February 2008, he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the films ensemble cast, its director, and its casting director.
In his penultimate film performance, Ledger played the Joker in Christopher Nolans 2008 film The Dark Knight, released nearly six months after his death. At the time of his death on 22 January 2008, Ledger had completed half of the work for his final film performance as Tony in Terry Gilliams The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. In 2006, Ledger directed music videos for the track on Australian hip hop artist Nfas CD debut solo album Cause An Effect. Later that year, Ledger inaugurated a new label, Masses Music, with singer Ben Harper. After Ledgers death, his video for Black Eyed Dog was shown on the Internet
An engineer, engine driver, train driver, train operator, is a person who operates a train. The driver is in charge of, and responsible for driving the engine, as well as the operation of the train, train speed. The use of the engineer to describe this occupation in North America should not be confused with the usual meanings of engineer. For many American railroads, the following career progression is typical, assistant conductor, conductor, in the US, drivers are required to be certified and re-certified every two to three years. In American English a hostler moves engines around train yards, in India, a driver starts as a diesel assistant or electrical assistant. They get promoted on a scale, passenger, Mail/Express, in New Zealand, the United States and Canada, train drivers are historically known as locomotive engineers, or handelers. In the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Australia they are known as drivers, engine drivers, locomotive drivers. Ben Chifley, former Prime Minister of Australia Casey Jones, American engineer whose wreck on the Illinois Central Railroad on April 30,1900 was immortalized in verse, fireman Motorman Stormy Kromer cap Huibregtse, Jon R.
American Railroad Labor and the Genesis of the New Deal, 1919-1935 Licht, working for the Railroad, the organization of work in the nineteenth century Orr, John W. Set Up Running, The Life of a Pennsylvania Railroad Engineman, 1904-1949 Tuck, Joseph Hugh. Media related to Locomotive drivers at Wikimedia Commons A detailed explanation of what train driving involves, link to a site that offers an engineer experience program at a museum in California