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Mast (sailing)

The mast of a sailing vessel is a tall spar, or arrangement of spars, erected more or less vertically on the centre-line of a ship or boat. Its purposes include carrying sails and derricks, giving necessary height to a navigation light, look-out position, signal yard, control position, radio aerial or signal lamp. Large ships have several masts, with the configuration depending on the style of ship. Nearly all sailing masts are guyed; until the mid-19th century all vessels' masts were made of wood formed from a single or several pieces of timber which consisted of the trunk of a conifer tree. From the 16th century, vessels were built of a size requiring masts taller and thicker than could be made from single tree trunks. On these larger vessels, to achieve the required height, the masts were built from up to four sections, known in order of rising height above the decks as the lower, top and royal masts. Giving the lower sections sufficient thickness necessitated building them up from separate pieces of wood.

Such a section was known as a made mast, as opposed to sections formed from single pieces of timber, which were known as pole masts. Those who specialised in making masts were known as mastmakers. For square-sail carrying ship, the masts, given their standard names in bow to stern order, are: Sprit topmast: a small mast set on the end of the bowsprit. Shorter than the fore-mast. Sections: mizzen-mast lower—mizzen topmast—mizzen topgallant mastSome names given to masts in ships carrying other types of rig are: Bonaventure mizzen: the fourth mast on larger sixteenth century galleons lateen-rigged and shorter than the main mizzen. Jigger-mast: where it is the shortest, the aftmost mast on vessels with more than three masts. Sections: jigger-mast lower—jigger topmast—jigger topgallant mast Most types of vessels with two masts are supposed to have a main-mast and a smaller mizzen-mast, although both brigs and two-masted schooners carry a fore-mast and a main-mast instead. On a two-masted vessel with the main-mast forward and a much smaller second mast, such as a ketch, or a yawl, the terms mizzen and jigger are synonymous.

Although two-masted schooners may be provided with masts of identical size, the aftmost is still referred to as the main-mast, has the larger course. Schooners have been built with up to seven masts with several six-masted examples. On square-rigged vessels, each mast carries several horizontal yards from which the individual sails are rigged. Folding mast ships use a tabernacle anchor point. Definitions include: "the open socket or double post on the deck, into which a mast is fixed, with a pivot near the top so that the mast can be lowered". A two-masted merchant vessel with a sizable foresail rigged on a inclined foremast is depicted in an Etruscan tomb painting from 475–450 BC. An artemon the same size as the galley's mainsail can be found on a Corinthian krater as early as the late 6th century BC; the foremast became common on Roman galleys, inclined at an angle of 45°, it was more akin to a bowsprit, the foresail set on it, reduced in size, seems to be used rather as an aid to steering than for propulsion.

While most of the ancient evidence is iconographic, the existence of foremasts can be deduced archaeologically from slots in foremast-feets located too close to the prow for a mainsail. Artemon, along with mainsail and topsail, developed into the standard rig of seagoing vessels in imperial times, complemented by a mizzen on the largest freighters; the earliest recorded three-masters were the giant Syracusia, a prestige object commissioned by king Hiero II of Syracuse and devised by the polymath Archimedes around 240 BC, other Syracusan merchant ships of the time. The imperial grain freighters travelling the routes between Alexandria and Rome included three-masted vessels. A mosaic in Ostia depicts a freighter with a three-masted rig entering Rome's harbour. Special craft could carry many more masts: Theophrastus records how the Romans imported Corsican timber by way of a huge raft propelled by as many as fifty masts and sails. Throughout antiquity, both foresail and mizzen remained secondary in terms of canvas size, although large enough to require full running rigging.

In late antiquity, the

Miss Utah USA

The Miss Utah USA competition is the pageant who selects the representative for the state of Utah in the Miss USA pageant. From 2001 to 2007, the pageant was produced by Red Curtain Productions. Casting Crowns Productions directed the pageant from 2007 to 2018 under the directorship of former Miss Missouri USA Britt Boyse. Smoak Productions became the new director for Miss and Teen pageants in 2019 under executive director and Miss USA 1995 Shanna Moakler. Utah has been quite successful at Miss USA, with 20 placements as of 2009, their most consistent period was in the 1960s. Utah has produced one Miss USA in 1960. Miss Utah USA 1957, Charlotte Sheffield won the Miss USA 1957 crown after the original titleholder was dethroned. Utah has a strong recent record, having placed in four out of five pageants between 2005 and 2009. Three Miss Utah USAs are former Miss Utah Teen USAs who competed at Miss Teen USA. All three placed at Miss USA, they are very similar to the Miss North Carolina USA titleholders who placed at Miss USA rather than Miss Teen USA.

Rachel Slawson of Park City was crowned Miss Utah USA 2020 on January 18, 2020 at George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles Theater in Salt Lake City. She will represent Utah for the title of Miss USA 2020. Miss USA: Linda Bement 1st runners-up: Charlotte Sheffield 2nd runners-up: Susan Gasser 3rd runners-up: Janet Joy Erikson, Laura Chukanov, Marissa Powell 4th runners-up: Shauna Wood Top 5/6: Melissa Leigh Anderson, Temple Taggert Top 10/12: Tracy Kennick, Margo Flynn, Heather Anderson Top 15/16: Cheryl Brown, Sandra Puch, Janet Marie Hawley, Patricia Profaizer, Janice Sadler, Denice Blair, Marin Poole, Julia Bachison, Jamie Crandall Utah holds a record of 21 placements at Miss USA. Miss Congeniality: Peggy Moore Miss Photogenic: Marissa Powell Color key Official website

Joel Zayas

Joel Fernando Zayas is a Paraguayan football goalkeeper. In June 2007, after great performances with his club Bolívar, he was selected for the Paraguay national football team that participated in the 2007 Copa America. In the quarterfinals of the competition, Paraguay played against Mexico. In the 2nd minute, goalkeeper Aldo Bobadilla was sent off after a bad challenge over Nery Castillo and after Justo Villar got injured earlier in the tournament, giving Zayas the chance to play in the rest of the match and his first cap. Paraguay ended playing the game with 10 players, they lost 6–0, thus ending the Copa America campaign. After the Copa America tournament, Zayas was transferred to Guaraní. In 2009, he returned to Bolivia, only this time, he signed with Club Jorge Wilstermann. Joel Zayas at

Mackay Treaty

The Mackay Treaty was a sixteen article treaty signed by the governments of Great Britain and the Chinese Qing dynasty on 5 September 1902. Under the terms of the treaty, the likin system of taxation was abolished and the first moves made to abolish extraterritoriality for foreign nationals; the treaty with the British as well as those that the Qing signed with, the US and Japan, between 1902–03 arose from Article 11 of the 1901 Final Protocol for the Settlement of the Disturbances of 1900 known as the "Boxer Protocol", which stated that "The Chinese Government has agreed to negotiate the amendments deemed necessary by the foreign governments to the treaties of commerce and navigation and the other subjects concerning commercial relations, with the object of facilitating them." These were the last treaties signed by the Qing before the 1911 fall of the dynasty. The Chinese delegation comprised Lü Haihuan, president of the Board of Public Works and Sheng Xuanhuai, director general of the Chinese Railway Company, assisted by attachés A. E. Hippisley and F. E. Taylor, who were commissioners in the Chinese Maritime Customs Service.

R. E. Bredon, the CMCS deputy inspector general joined the team as an assistant delegate. On the British side, James Mackay led the delegation assisted by Shanghai merchant Charles J. Dudgeon and Beijing legation secretary Henry Cockburn. Negotiations concluded on 5 September the same year. Unlike the previous treaties of Nanking and Tientsin, the Mackay Treaty was not a document drawn up by a foreign power for rubber stamping by Qing officials. Instead, the Chinese delegation tried hard to leverage advantage for their side and were aware of the impact of foreign initiatives on both domestic and foreign taxation policies; the abolition of the likin tax system and recompense for its loss formed the main thrust of the sixteen article treaty and its three annexes. This was a primary income source for both provincial and county level governments across China and a subject of keen interest to the Foreign Ministry as well as to the Governor-general of Huguang Zhang Zhidong and Liu Kunyi, the Governor-general of Liangjiang.

Despite its importance as a source of revenue, forty years of abuse of the likin system by local powers rankled with both the Chinese and the foreign merchant community. To compensate for its loss, the Qing regime increased import duties to 12.5% ad valorem while export duties increased to 7.5%. To maintain an equitable balance, previous internal transit duties payable on foreign goods were abolished. Article IV regulated shareholdings in Western-registered companies by Chinese nationals. Article XII of the treaty dealt with the contentious issue of extraterritoriality, whereby foreigners were exempted from the jurisdiction of the Chinese legal authorities. At the instigation of Zhang Zhidong, the article, "without precedent in China's dealings with the west" affirmed: "China having expressed a strong desire to reform her judicial system and to bring it into accord with that of the Western nations, Great Britain agrees to give every assistance to such reform, she will be prepared to relinquish her extra-territorial rights when she is satisfied that the state of the Chinese laws, the arrangement for their administration, other considerations warrant her in so doing."

Indian opium was exempted from the new import duty, remaining at 110 taels per chest with the treaty stating "there was no intention of interfering with China's right to tax native opium". A meeting of the influential China Association, held in Shanghai the month following the signature, endorsed the treaty by a majority of 53 votes to 45. However, in 1905, British merchants in the city complained by telegraph to British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Lord Lansdowne that "... China ignores the Mackay treaty. China opposes the currency, mining and navigation stipulations. We beg the British Government to insist on the treaty being made operative." BibliographyBrown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar. Chinese Business Enterprise. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-14293-9. Cassel, Par Kristoffer. Grounds of Judgment: Extraterritoriality and Imperial Power in Nineteenth-Century China and Japan. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-979205-4. Lowes, Peter D.. The Genesis of International Narcotics Control. Librairie Droz.

ISBN 978-2-600-04030-3. Wang, Dong. China's Unequal Treaties: Narrating National History. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-5297-3

Winterberg bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track

The Winterberg bobsleigh and skeleton track is a bobsleigh and skeleton track located in Winterberg, Germany. It is the only track of its kind in the world with a turn that has corporate sponsorship with turn seven being sponsored by Veltins, a German brewery which has its headquarters located in neighboring Meschede. Completed in 1977, the track underwent a redesign of its start house area where the women's luge start house was moved from before turn four to near the men's luge start house prior to turn one in 2006; this was done under the auspices of the International Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Federation and the International Luge Federation and included a covered sled storage area, new changing rooms, facilities for coaches and officials. The women's singles luge start house was integrated near the men's singles luge start house during the construction; the track hosted the first two-woman bobsleigh world championships in 2000. The venue includes a maximum grade of 15% and an average grade of 9.8% Turns 4–6, 8–10 and 14 have no names listed in the track diagram.

FIBT World Championships: 1995, 2000, 2003, 2015 FIL European Luge Championships: 1982, 1992, 2000, 2006 FIL World Luge Championships: 1989, 1991, 2019 track profile FIBT track profile - Click on video to ride down the track. Men's and women's singles luge will intersect with the bobsleigh and skeleton part of the track prior to turn one while men's doubles luge will intersect with the track prior to turn four. FIL-Luge track profile Official website

Auto Trader Group

Auto Trader Group plc is an automotive classified advertising business. It specialises in new and second hand automotive sales, including cars sold by private sellers and trade dealers, it is listed on the London Stock Exchange, is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Auto Trader was founded in 1975 by John Madejski, who went on to take over Reading Football Club in 1991. John Madejski brought this idea back from the United States, set up the business with Paul Gibbons in 1977; the first Auto Trader to be established was Hurst's Thames Valley Trader in 1977. This was followed by the publication of a second title, Southern Auto Trader, which launched in 1981. European venture capitalists BC Partners bought a stake in the business from John Madejski in July 1998 for £260m. In April 2011, the business became the focus of an online petition by a group called the Motor Traders Advertising Union, proposing a mass pull out by motor dealers in the country frustrated by increases in advertising charges.

In October 2013, a subsidiary of the Auto Trader Group, was sold off to become an independent South African company. In January 2014, Apax Partners bought the business from Guardian Media Group for £600m. In March 2014, the company re branded, became known as Auto Trader, in March 2015, Auto Trader Group launched an initial public offering, with a market capitalisation of about £2bn; the magazine was published weekly in a number of regional editions. Circulation peaked at 368,000 in January 2000, dropping to an average of 87,000 copies a week in July 2012, down to 27,000 in March 2013. In June 2013, after thirty six years, the final editions of the printed magazine were published, with the company concentrating on its online business. was launched in 1996, allowing users to sell a car online. The site lets users search for other motor vehicles using their postcode. is the busiest automotive web site in the United Kingdom, which attracts some 10.3 million unique users per month.

Auto Trader has had a mobile a Wireless Application Protocol site, since 2002. In July 2008, Auto Trader launched site, in July 2009, they launched separate versions for differing handset capability levels. Auto Trader developed their mobile offering further from March 2010, when they released applications for users to search for vehicles using a Windows Mobile, iOS or Android device. Official website