"Mixed-Up Confusion" is a song written and recorded by Bob Dylan and released as his first single. The song was recorded with an electric band on November 14, 1962, during the sessions for The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan but was not used on that album, aside from "Corrina, Corrina", was acoustic. Instead the song, backed with "Corrina, Corrina", a traditional blues song, appeared as Dylan's first single, released in the United States on December 14, 1962, as Columbia 4-42656. According to legend, Dylan wrote the song in a cab on the way to the Columbia studios for the recording session. A different version of the song, recorded on November 1, 1962, with overdubbing, was released on the compilation album Masterpieces in 1978 and on the original 1985 issue of the Biograph box set. Olof Björner's website lists all the different takes of this song, recorded by Dylan in October and November 1962. Bob Dylan – vocal, harmonica George Barnes – guitar Bruce Langhorne – guitar Dick Wellstood – piano Gene Ramey – bass Herb Lovelle – drums Lyrics
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U. S. folk rock emerged from the folk music revival and the influence that the Beatles and other British Invasion bands had on members of that movement. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their preexisting folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way discouraged in the U. S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was used in the U. S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music. The commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and their debut album of the same name, along with Dylan's own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde —encouraged other folk acts, such as Simon & Garfunkel, to use electric backing on their records and new groups, such as Buffalo Springfield, to form.
Dylan's controversial appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, where he was backed by an electric band, was a pivotal moment in the development of the genre. During the late 1960s in Britain and Europe, a distinct, eclectic British folk rock style was created by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North American style of folk rock, British folk rock bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire, leading to other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of the Albion Band and Celtic rock. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term "folk rock" refers to the blending of elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the U. S. and UK in the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation, in a style influenced by the Beatles and other British Invasion bands; the term "folk rock" was coined by the U.
S. music press to describe the Byrds' music in June 1965, the month in which the band's debut album was issued. Dylan contributed to the creation of the genre, with his recordings utilizing rock instrumentation on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde. In a broader sense, folk rock encompasses inspired musical genres and movements in different regions of the world. Folk rock may lean more towards either folk or rock in instrumentation and vocal style, choice of material. While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences; the term is not associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots. There are some exceptions; the American folk-music revival began during the 1940s. In 1948, Seeger formed the Weavers, whose mainstream popularity set the stage for the folk revival of the 1950s and early 1960s and served to bridge the gap between folk, popular music, topical song.
The Weavers' sound and repertoire of traditional folk material and topical songs directly inspired the Kingston Trio, a three-piece folk group who came to prominence in 1958 with their hit recording of "Tom Dooley". The Kingston Trio provided the template for a flood of "collegiate folk" groups between 1958 and 1962. At the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Brownie McGhee, Josh White came to the fore. Many of these urban revivalists were influenced by recordings of traditional American music from the 1920s and 1930s, reissued by Folkways Records. While this urban folk revival flourished in many cities, New York City, with its burgeoning Greenwich Village coffeehouse scene and population of topical folk singers, was regarded as the centre of the movement. Out of this fertile environment came such folk-protest luminaries as Bob Dylan, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Peter and Mary, many of whom would transition into folk rock performers as the 1960s progressed.
The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material. The influence of this folk-protest movement would manifest itself in the sociopolitical lyrics and mildly anti-establishment sentiments of many folk rock songs, including hit singles such as "Eve of Destruction", "Like a Rolling Stone", "For What It's Worth", "Let's Live for Today". During the 1950s and early 1960s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival, was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Both viewed British folk music as a vehicle for leftist political concepts and an antidote to the American-dominated popular music of the time. However, it wasn't until 1956 and the advent of the skiffle craze that the British folk revival crossed over into the mainstream and connected with British youth culture. Skiffle renewed popularity of folk music forms in Britain and led directly to the progressive folk movement and the attendant B
Hard Rain (Bob Dylan album)
Hard Rain is a live album by American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan, released on September 13, 1976 by Columbia Records. The album was recorded during the second leg of the Rolling Thunder Revue; the album was recorded on May 23, 1976, during a concert at Hughes Stadium in Fort Collins, Colorado. Four tracks from the album were recorded on May 1976 in Fort Worth, Texas. Neither the album nor the television special was well received. "Although the band has been playing together longer, the charm has gone out of their exchanges," writes music critic Tim Riley. "Hard Rain...seemed to come at a time when the Rolling Thunder Revue, so joyful and electrifying in its first performances, had just plain run out of steam," wrote Janet Maslin a music critic for Rolling Stone. In his mixed review for Hard Rain, Robert Christgau criticized the Rolling Thunder Revue as "folkies whose idea of rock and roll is rock and roll clichés." A representation of the earlier 1975 portion of the Rolling Thunder Revue was released in 2002 on The Bootleg Series Vol. 5: Bob Dylan Live 1975, The Rolling Thunder Revue.
Despite heavy promotion that placed it on the cover of TV Guide, NBC's television broadcast of the May 23rd concert drew disappointing ratings. The album peaked at No. 17 in the U. S. and No. 3 in the UK. Hard Rain earned gold certification. In August 2010, a source close to Dylan told Rolling Stone that Hard Rain would be issued on DVD in the near future. All songs by Bob Dylan, except where noted. Side one"Maggie's Farm" – 5:23 "One Too Many Mornings" – 3:47 "Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again" – 6:01 "Oh, Sister" – 5:08 "Lay Lady Lay" – 4:47Side two"Shelter from the Storm" – 5:29 "You're a Big Girl Now" – 7:01 "I Threw It All Away" – 3:18 "Idiot Wind" – 10:21 Bob Dylan - vocals, production Gary Burke - drums T-Bone Burnett - guitar, piano David Mansfield - guitar Scarlet Rivera - strings Mick Ronson - guitar on "Maggie's Farm" Steven Soles - guitar, background vocals Rob Stoner - bass, background vocals Joan Baez - guitar, background vocals Howard Wyeth - drums, piano Don DeVito - production Don Meehan - recording and mixing engineering Ken Regan - cover photo Paula Scher - cover design Lou Waxman - chief of tape research
Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter and visual artist, a major figure in popular culture for six decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s, when songs such as "Blowin' in the Wind" and "The Times They Are a-Changin'" became anthems for the Civil Rights Movement and anti-war movement, his lyrics during this period incorporated a wide range of political, social and literary influences, defied pop-music conventions and appealed to the burgeoning counterculture. Following his self-titled debut album in 1962, which comprised traditional folk songs, Dylan made his breakthrough as a songwriter with the release of The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan the following year; the album featured "Blowin' in the Wind" and the thematically complex "A Hard Rain's a-Gonna Fall". For many of these songs he adapted the tunes and sometimes phraseology of older folk songs, he went on to release the politically charged The Times They Are a-Changin' and the more lyrically abstract and introspective Another Side of Bob Dylan in 1964.
In 1965 and 1966, Dylan encountered controversy when he adopted electrically amplified rock instrumentation, in the space of 15 months recorded three of the most important and influential rock albums of the 1960s: Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. The six-minute single. In July 1966, Dylan withdrew from touring after being injured in a motorcycle accident. During this period he recorded a large body of songs with members of the Band, who had backed him on tour; these recordings were released as the collaborative album The Basement Tapes, in 1975. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Dylan explored country music and rural themes in John Wesley Harding, Nashville Skyline, New Morning. In 1975, he released Blood on the Tracks. In the late 1970s, he became a born-again Christian and released a series of albums of contemporary gospel music before returning to his more familiar rock-based idiom in the early 1980s; the major works of his career include Time Out of Mind, "Love and Theft", Tempest.
His most recent recordings have comprised versions of traditional American standards songs recorded by Frank Sinatra. Backed by a changing lineup of musicians, he has toured since the late 1980s on what has been dubbed "the Never Ending Tour". Since 1994, Dylan has published eight books of drawings and paintings, his work has been exhibited in major art galleries, he has sold more than 100 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists of all time. He has received numerous awards including ten Grammy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, an Academy Award. Dylan has been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, the Songwriters Hall of Fame; the Pulitzer Prize jury in 2008 awarded him a special citation for "his profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power". In 2012, Dylan received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, in 2016, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition".
Bob Dylan was born Robert Allen Zimmerman in St. Mary's Hospital on May 24, 1941, in Duluth and raised in Hibbing, Minnesota, on the Mesabi Range west of Lake Superior, he has David. Dylan's paternal grandparents and Anna Zimmerman, emigrated from Odessa, in the Russian Empire, to the United States following the anti-Semitic pogroms of 1905, his maternal grandparents and Florence Stone, were Lithuanian Jews who arrived in the United States in 1902. In his autobiography, Chronicles: Volume One, Dylan wrote that his paternal grandmother's maiden name was Kirghiz and her family originated from the Kağızman district of Kars Province in northeastern Turkey. Dylan's father, Abram Zimmerman – an electric-appliance shop owner – and mother, Beatrice "Beatty" Stone, were part of a small, close-knit Jewish community, they lived in Duluth until Dylan was six, when his father had polio and the family returned to his mother's hometown, where they lived for the rest of Dylan's childhood. In his early years he listened to the radio—first to blues and country stations from Shreveport and when he was a teenager, to rock and roll.
Dylan formed several bands while attending Hibbing High School. In the Golden Chords, he performed covers of songs by Elvis Presley, their performance of Danny & the Juniors' "Rock and Roll Is Here to Stay" at their high school talent show was so loud that the principal cut the microphone. On January 31, 1959, three days before his death, Buddy Holly performed at the Duluth Armory. Zimmerman, 17, was in the audience. Something I didn't know what, and it gave me the chills."In 1959, Dylan's high school yearbook carried the caption "Robert Zimmerman: to join'Little Richard'." That year, as Elston Gunnn, he performed two dates with Bobby Vee, clapping. In September 1959, Zimmerman enrolled at the University of Minnesota, his focus on rock and roll gave way to American folk music. In 1985, he said: The thing about rock'n'roll is that for me anyway it wasn't enough... There were great catch-phrases and driving pulse rhythms... but the songs weren't serious or didn't reflect li
Leon Russell was an American musician and songwriter, involved with numerous bestselling pop music records during his 60-year career. His genres included pop, rock, gospel, bluegrass and blues, folk rock, blues rock, surf and Tulsa Sound, his collaborations rank as some of the most successful in music history, as a touring musician he performed with hundreds of notable artists. He recorded at least 430 songs, he wrote "Delta Lady", recorded by Joe Cocker, organized and performed with Cocker's Mad Dogs and Englishmen tour in 1970. His "A Song for You", added to the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2018, has been recorded by more than 200 artists, his "This Masquerade" by more than 75; as a pianist, he played in his early years on albums by Dick Dale and Jan and Dean. On his first album, Leon Russell, in 1970, the musicians included Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, George Harrison. One of his biggest early fans, Elton John, said Russell was a "mentor" and an "inspiration", they recorded their album The Union in 2010.
Russell produced and played in recording sessions for, among others Bob Dylan, Frank Sinatra, Ike & Tina Turner, The Rolling Stones. He wrote and recorded the hits "Tight Rope" and "Lady Blue", he performed at The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 along with Harrison and Clapton, for which he earned a Grammy Award. His recordings earned six gold records, he received two Grammy awards from seven nominations. In 2011, he was inducted into both the Roll Hall of Fame and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Russell was born in Lawton and began playing the piano at the age of four. Russell attended Will Rogers High School in Tulsa, alongside Anita Bryant, two years older, in the same 1959 class as power-pop musician David Gates. Russell and Gates recorded together as the Fencemen. Attending Will Rogers at that time was guitarist and singer-songwriter Elvin Bishop. During this time, Russell was performing at Tulsa nightclubs, he took the name Leon from a friend who lent him a fake ID to get into clubs he was too young to perform in.
After moving to Los Angeles in 1958, Russell became a session musician, working as a pianist on the recordings of many notable 1960s musical artists. By the late 1960s, he had diversified, becoming successful as an songwriter. By 1970, he had become a solo recording artist, but he never relinquished his other roles in the music industry. After performing country music under the name Hank Wilson in the 1970s and 1980s, he faded into obscurity. Russell re-emerged in 2010; the album, which included contributions from Brian Wilson and Neil Young, brought renewed popularity to Russell, who released a solo album and toured around the world. Russell was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 14, 2011, he was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in June 2011. According to his wife, Jan Bridges, Russell died in his sleep at his suburban Nashville home on the morning of November 13, 2016, at the age of 74, he had had a heart attack the previous July, followed by coronary bypass surgery, after which he postponed shows while convalescing at home.
He had hoped to return to his concert schedule in January 2017. Russell began his musical career at the age of 14 in the nightclubs of Oklahoma, he and his group, the Starlighters, which included J. J. Cale, Leo Feathers, Chuck Blackwell, Johnny Williams, were instrumental in creating the style of music known as the Tulsa Sound. After settling in Los Angeles in 1958, he studied guitar with James Burton, he was known as a session musician early in his career. As a solo artist he crossed genres to include rock and roll and gospel music, playing with artists as varied as Jan and Dean, Gary Lewis, George Harrison, Delaney Bramlett, Freddy Cannon, Ringo Starr, Doris Day, Elton John, Ray Charles, Eric Clapton, The Byrds, Barbra Streisand, The Beach Boys, The Ventures, Willie Nelson, the Tijuana Brass, Frank Sinatra, The Band, Bob Dylan, J. J. Cale, B. B. King, Dave Mason, Glen Campbell, Joe Cocker, The Rolling Stones, The Flying Burrito Brothers. In Los Angeles, Russell played as a first-call studio musician on many of the most popular songs of the 1960s, including some by The Byrds, Gary Lewis & the Playboys, Bobby Pickett, Herb Alpert.
He played piano on many Phil Spector productions, including recordings by The Ronettes, The Crystals, Darlene Love and in the 1963 A Christmas Gift for You from Phil Spector album. He can be seen in the 1964 concert film T. A. M. I. Show playing piano with The Wrecking Crew, sporting short, slicked-back hair, in contrast to his look. Soon after, he was hired as Snuff Garrett's assistant and creative developer, playing on numerous number-one singles, including "This Diamond Ring" by Gary Lewis & the Playboys. In the mid-1960s, he wrote or co-wrote songs, including two hits for Gary Lewis and the Playboys: "Everybody Loves a Clown" and "She's Just My Style". In 1964, he appeared on various TV shows, performing songs by others, he played xylophone and bells on the 1966 single "The Joker Went Wild", sung by Brian Hyland and written by Bobby Russell. He contributed to recording sessions with Dorsey Burnette and with Glen Campbell, whose 1967 album Gentle on My Mind c
CBS Records International
CBS Records International was the international arm of the Columbia Records unit of Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., formed in 1961 and launched in 1962. Columbia Records had been using other record companies to distribute Columbia recordings outside North America, such as Philips Records and its subsidiary Fontana in Europe. In 1960, CBS acquired its Australian distributor since 1956, the Australian Record Company, with it its flagship label Coronet Records. American Columbia material continued to be issued on the CBS Coronet Records label in Australia; the CBS label was launched in Australia in 1963. In 1960, CBS began negotiations with its European distributor Philips Records with the goal of the establishment of a CBS Records label in Europe. Philips' acquisition of Mercury Records paved the way for the formation of the CBS label in 1961 with Philips distributing the first batch of CBS recordings in Europe in 1962; the use of the CBS name was necessary because EMI owned another record label called Columbia, which operated in every market except North America and Japan.
In 1964, CBS acquired Oriole Records which gave CBS Records its own distribution in the UK beginning in 1965. Only American Columbia product was distributed alongside Oriole's own roster on the renamed CBS label. EMI, which had distributed American Columbia recordings on its Columbia label until the Philips deal in 1951, continued to distribute CBS's other American labels such as Epic and Okeh on that label; the distribution deal with EMI expired in 1968 at which point CBS began distributing all their labels directly. In Germany, the CBS label distributed Motown from 1963 to 1965. CBS sold the record company in 1988 to Sony for $US 2 billion. In 1991, the CBS Records company was renamed Sony Music Entertainment; the CBS Records label was renamed Columbia Records after Sony acquired the Columbia name and trade marks from EMI. Harvey Schein, 1962-1971 Walter Yetnikoff, 1971–1975 Allen A. Davis, c. 1980 Bob Summer, 1986–? Columbia Graphophone Company Columbia Records Discos CBS Epic Records Okeh Records Columbia Nashville CBS Masterworks EMI Records Odeon Records Parlophone Records Parlophon Records EMI-Odeon Apple Records London Records RCA Victor Arista Records Arista Nashville Ariola Records BMG Music Sony Music Copacabana Records Sony Music Latin Sony BMG
Eric Garth Hudson is a Canadian multi-instrumentalist. As the organist and saxophonist for Canadian-American rock group the Band, he was a principal architect of the group's unique sound. Hudson has been called "the most brilliant organist in the rock world" by Keyboard magazine; as of 2019, Hudson and fellow musician Robbie Robertson are the last original members of The Band who are still alive. A master of the Lowrey organ, Hudson's orchestral tone sense and style anticipated many of the sonic advances of the polyphonic synthesizer, his other primary instruments are piano, electronic keyboards and accordion. He has been a much-in-demand and respected session musician, performing with dozens of artists and earning the accolades of many, including Elton John, who has cited him as an early influence. Hudson was born in Windsor, Canada, his parents, Fred James Hudson and Olive Louella Pentland, were musicians. His mother sang, his father, a farm inspector who had fought as a fighter pilot in World War I, played drums, C melody saxophone, clarinet and piano.
Hudson moved with his family to London, around 1940. Classically trained in piano, music theory and counterpoint, Hudson wrote his first song at the age of eleven and first played professionally with dance bands in 1949 at the age of twelve, he attended Broughdale Public School and Medway High School before studying music at the University of Western Ontario. During this period, he grew frustrated with the rigidity of the classical repertoire, leading him to drop out after a year. In 1958, he joined a rock and roll band, he was reported to have said that he gained some performance experience from playing at his uncle's funeral parlor. In December 1961, the 24-year-old Hudson joined the Hawks, the backing band for Ronnie Hawkins, which consisted of 21-year-old Levon Helm on drums, 18-year-old Robbie Robertson on guitar, 18-year-old Rick Danko on bass and 18-year-old Richard Manuel on piano. Fearing that his parents would think he was squandering his years of music education by playing in a rock and roll band, Hudson joined the band on the condition he be given the title "music consultant" and that his bandmates each pay him $10 a week for music lessons.
Revealing a bit of the thinking behind his early fears, in The Last Waltz Hudson told interviewer-director Martin Scorsese: "There is a view that jazz is'evil' because it comes from evil people, but the greatest priests on 52nd Street and on the streets of New York City were the musicians. They were doing the greatest healing work, they knew how to punch through music that would cure and make people feel good." Hudson was one the few organ players in rock and roll and rhythm and blues to eschew the Hammond organ. Upon joining the Hawks, Hudson took the opportunity to negotiate the procurement of a new Lowrey organ as part of his compensation; the Lowrey organ offered a different mix of features, Hudson stayed with Lowrey right through Ronnie Hawkins and the Hawks, Bob Dylan and the Band, playing three different models: a Festival console, replaced by a Lincolnwood TSO-25 during 1969, still a horseshoe console H25 model, as depicted in The Last Waltz. Under the strict supervision of Hawkins, the Hawks became an accomplished band.
They split from Hawkins in 1963, recorded two singles and toured continually, playing in bars and clubs billed as Levon and the Hawks. Hudson started work as a session musician in 1965, playing on John Hammond, Jr.'s So Many Roads along with Robertson and Helm. In August 1965, they were introduced to Bob Dylan by manager Albert Grossman's assistant, Mary Martin. In October and the Hawks recorded the single "Can You Please Crawl Out Your Window?", in January 1966 they recorded material with Dylan for what would turn into the Blonde on Blonde album. Dylan recruited the band to accompany him on his controversial 1966 "electric" tour of the United States and Europe. Subsequent to Bob Dylan's motorcycle accident in July 1966, the group settled in a pink house in West Saugerties, New York, near Woodstock. Dylan was a frequent visitor, Hudson's recordings of their collaborations resulted in The Basement Tapes. By 1968, the group recorded Music from Big Pink; the album was recorded in New York. Capitol announced that the group would be called the Crackers, but when Music From Big Pink was released they were named the Band.
The album includes Hudson's organ showcase, "Chest Fever", a song that in the Band's live shows would be vastly expanded by a solo organ introduction, entitled "The Genetic Method", an improvisational work that would be played differently at each performance. An example can be heard on the live album Rock of Ages. Hudson is adept at the accordion, which he played on some of the group's recordings, such as "Rockin Chair", from The Band, his saxophone solo work can be heard on such songs as "Tears of Rage" and "Unfaithful Servant". Hudson is credited with playing all of the brass and woodwinds on the studio version of "Ophelia" from the 1975 album Northern Lights - Southern Cross; this album, the first to be recorded in the Band's Shangri-La recording studio in Malibu, California saw Hudson adding