A jib is a triangular staysail that sets ahead of the foremast of a sailing vessel. Its tack is fixed to the bowsprit, to the bow and spinnakers are the two main types of headsails on a modern boat. Boats may be sailed using a jib alone, more commonly jib make a direct contribution to propulsion. Generally, a jibs most crucial function is as an airfoil, increasing performance, on boats with only one jib, it is common for the clew of the jib to be further aft than the mast, meaning the jib and mainsail overlap. An overlapping jib is called a genoa jib or simply a genoa and these are efficiently used when reaching more broadly than a close reach. Alternatively, a boat may carry smaller jibs, to compensate aerodynamics when the sail is reefed. On a boat with two staysails the inner sail is called the staysail, and the outer is called the jib and this combination of two staysails is called a cutter rig and a boat with one mast rigged with two staysails and a mainsail is called a cutter. On cruising yachts, and nearly all racing sailboats, the jib needs to be worked when tacking, on these yachts, there are two sheets attached to the clew of the jib.
As the yacht comes head to wind during a tack, the sheet is released. This sheet becomes the new active sheet until the next tack, schooners typically have up to three jibs. The foremost one sets on the topmast forestay and is called the jib topsail, a second on the main forestay is called the jib. Actually, all three sails are both jibs and staysails in the generic sense, but not staysails, could be set flying, i. e. not attached to the standing rigging. A large square-rigged ship typically has four jibs, but could have as many as six, from forward to aft, these sails are called, Jib of jibs Spindle jib Flying jib Outer jib Inner jib Fore staysail. The first two were used except by clipper ships in light winds and were usually set flying. A storm jib was a small jib of heavy canvas set to a stay to help to control the ship in bad weather
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind. They are typically used as an ornament to the highest point of a building. Although partly functional, weather vanes are generally decorative, often featuring the traditional design with letters indicating the points of the compass. Other common motifs include ships and horses, not all weather vanes have pointers. The word vane comes from the Old English word fana meaning flag, below this was a frieze adorned with the eight Greek wind deities. The eight-metre-high structure featured sundials, and a clock inside. It dates from around 50 BCE, the oldest existing weather vane with the shape of a rooster is the Gallo di Ramperto, made in 820 CE and now preserved in the Museo di Santa Giulia in Brescia, Lombardy. Pope Leo IV had a cock placed on the Old St. Peters Basilica or old Constantinian basilica. As a result of this, the cock gradually began to be used as a weather vane on church steeples, the Bayeux Tapestry of the 1070s depicts a man installing a cock on Westminster Abbey.
One alternative theory about the origin of weathercocks on church steeples is that it was an emblem of the vigilance of the calling the people to prayer. Another theory says that the cock was not a Christian symbol, a few churches used weather vanes in the shape of the emblems of their patron saints. The City of London has two surviving examples, the weather vane of St Peter upon Cornhill is not in the shape of a rooster, but a key, while St Lawrence Jewrys weather vane is in the form of a gridiron. Early weather vanes had very ornamental pointers, but modern wind vanes are usually simple arrows that dispense with the directionals because the instrument is connected to a remote reading station, modern aerovanes combine the directional vane with an anemometer. Co-locating both instruments allows them to use the same axis and provides a coordinated readout, according to the Guinness World Records, the worlds largest weather vane is a Tío Pepe sherry advertisement located in Jerez, Spain. The city of Montague, Michigan claims to have the largest standard-design weather vane, being a ship and arrow which measures 48 feet tall, a challenger for the title of worlds largest weather vane is located in Whitehorse, Yukon.
The weather vane is a retired Douglas DC-3 CF-CPY atop a swiveling support, the weather vane only requires a 5 knot wind to rotate. The term weathervane is a word for a politician who has frequent changes of opinion. The National Assembly of Quebec has banned use of this term as a slur after its use by members of the legislature
A cutter is typically a small, but in some cases a medium-sized, watercraft designed for speed rather than for capacity. Traditionally a cutter sailing vessel is a small single-masted boat, fore-and-aft rigged, the cutters mast may be set farther back than on a sloop. In modern usage, a cutter can be either a small- or medium-sized vessel whose occupants exercise official authority, examples are harbor pilots cutters and cutters of the U. S. Coast Guard or UK Border Force. Cutters can be a small boat serving a one to ferry passengers or light stores between larger boats and the shore. This type of cutter may be powered by oars, sails or a motor, the cutter is one of several types of sailboats. Traditionally the sloop rig was a rig with a single mast located forward of 70% of the length of the sailplan, in this traditional definition a sloop could have multiple jibs on a fixed bowsprit. Cutters had a rig with a single mast more centrally located, which could vary from 50% to 70% of the length of the sailplan, with multiple headsails, a mast located aft of 50% would be considered a mast aft rig.
Somewhere in the 1950s or 1960s there was a shift in these definitions such that a sloop only flew one headsail, in this modern idiom, a cutter is a sailing vessel with more than one head sail and one mast. Cutters carry a staysail directly in front of the mast, set from the forestay, a traditional vessel would normally have a bowsprit to carry one or more jibs from its end via jibstay on travelers. In modern vessels the jib may be set from a permanent stay fixed to the end of a fixed bowsprit, or directly to the stem fitting of the bow itself. In these cases, that may be referred to as the forestay, and the inner one, a sloop carries only one head sail, called either the foresail or jib. These could be managed without the need for crews, winches, or complex tackles, making the cutter especially suitable for pilot, customs. For example, a pilot cutter may only have two people on board for its outward trip—the pilot to be delivered to a ship and an assistant who had to sail the cutter back to port single-handed.
The cutter sailing rig became so ubiquitous for these tasks that the modern-day motorised vessels now engaged in these duties are known as cutters, the open cutter carried aboard naval vessels in the 18th Century was rowed by pairs of men sitting side-by-side on benches. The cutter, with its transom, was broader in proportion compared to the longboat, the Watermen of London used similar boats in the 18th Century often decorated as depicted in historical prints and pictures of the River Thames in the 17th & 18th Centuries. The modern Waterman’s Cutter is based on drawings of these boats and they are 34 feet long with a beam of 4 ft 6 in They can have up to six oarsmen either rowing or sculling and can carry a cox and passengers. The organisers of the Great River Race developed the modern version in the 1980s, watermen’s Cutters compete annually in the Port of London Challenge, and the Port Admirals’ Challenge. Cutter races are to be found at various town rowing and skiffing regattas, in addition the cutters perform the role of ceremonial Livery Barges with the canopies and armorial flags flying on special occasions
A Bermuda rig, Bermudian rig, or Marconi rig is a configuration of mast and rigging for a type of sailboat and is the typical configuration for most modern sailboats. Originally developed for smaller Bermudian vessels, and ultimately adapted to the larger, ocean-going Bermuda sloop, the Bermuda rigging has largely replaced the older gaff rigged fore-and-aft sails, except notably on schooners. The traditional design as developed in Bermuda features very tall, raked masts, a long bowsprit, in some configurations such as the Bermuda Fitted Dinghy vast areas of sail are achieved with this rig. Elsewhere, the design has omitted the bowsprit, and has become less extreme. A Bermuda rigged sloop with exactly one jib is known as a Bermuda sloop, a Bermuda sloop may be a more specific type of vessel such as a small sailing ships traditional in Bermuda which may or may not be Bermuda rigged. The foot of a Bermuda sail may be attached to the boom along its length and this modern variation of a Bermuda mainsail is known as a loose-footed main.
In some early Bermudian vessels, the mainsails were attached only to the mast and deck and this is the case on two of the three masts of the newly built Spirit of Bermuda, a replica of an 1830s British Royal Navy sloop-of-war. Additional sails were often mounted on traditional Bermudian craft, when running down wind, which included a spinnaker, with a spinnaker boom. The main controls on a Bermuda sail are, The halyard used to raise the head, the outhaul used to tension the foot by hauling the clew towards the end of the boom. The sheet used to haul the boom down and towards the center of the boat, the vang or kicking strap which runs between a point partway along the boom and the base of the mast, and is used to haul the boom down when on a run. The Bermuda rig developed from leg-of-mutton sails in Bermuda during the course of the 17th and 18th cnturies, the design was very useful on the gusty Bermudian waters for the boats that were the mainstay of transport around the archipelago into the 20th century.
As Bermuda turned to an economy, after the dissolution of the Somers Isles Company in 1684, the rig was adapted to larger, ocean-going ships. The development of the rig is thought to have begun with fore-and-aft rigged boats built by a Dutch-born Bermudian in the 17th Century, the Dutch were influenced by Moorish lateen rigs introduced during Spains rule of their country. The Dutch eventually modified the design by omitting the masts, with the arms of the lateens being stepped in thwarts. By this process, the yards became raked masts, lateen sails mounted this way were known as leg-of-mutton sails in English. The Dutch called a vessel rigged in this manner a bezaanjacht, a bezaan jacht is visible in a painting of King Charles II arriving in Rotterdam in 1660. After sailing on such a vessel, Charles was so impressed that his successor, the Prince of Orange presented him with a copy of his own. The rig had been introduced to Bermuda some decades before this, Ships with somewhat similar rigs were in fact recorded in Holland during the 17th century
A fractional rig on a sailing vessel consists of a foresail, such as a jib or genoa sail, that does not reach all the way to the top of the mast. In the adjacent picture, the forestay that secures the mast at the front of the boat is attached to the mast at a lower point, the mast is farther forward on the boat than on a masthead rig and so it has a larger main sail. Masthead rigs are most common on larger boats or cruisers. A fractional rig is used on dinghy sailing boats and racing oriented keel boats. Fractional rigs were introduced on race boats in order to allow more controllability of the surface of the main sail, according to one manufacturer, a key to making fast boats easier to sail than slow boats is the fractional rig. Usually a fractional rig features a main sail and a smaller non-overlapping jib. This configuration is optimized for up-wind sailing efficiency, for downwind sailing, a larger jib is more desirable but in the case of many high-performance fractional rig sailboats, the smaller jib is substituted by a spinnaker or gennaker. A major advantage of the rig, especially the 3/4 rig, is that the jib can be taken in without the boat rounding up into the wind like a weather vane.
With the masthead sloop, both the main and the jib must be reefed, when shortening sail, to keep this from happening, fractional rigs are used on lightly built multi-hulls for this reason. Throughout the 20th century, most sloops of less than 20 feet in length have had fractional rigs, many sailing sloops from the first part of the 20th century were fractional rigged. The increased prevalence of fractional rigs on sloops in the early 20th century probably coincided roughly with the disappearance of the gaff rig and this was important because the sailcloth available in those days made it difficult to construct high-aspect sails. As sailcloth improved in the half of the 20th century. It therefore became more practical for sloops to be designed with the simpler masthead-rigged mast, most production sailboats from the 60s and 70s were masthead-rigged sloops. Masthead-rigged sloops typically carry a larger spinnaker than fractional-rigged sloops, fractional rigged sloops are starting to become popular again, especially for high-performance racing boats. A fractional rig allows the mast to bend more easily, which in turn allows more adjustment to the shape of the mainsail, many people believe that a fractional-rigged sloop is faster upwind than a similar masthead-rigged sloop, especially as the wind strength increases.
Most of the newest generation of fractional-rigged sloops fly their spinnakers from the top of the mast and these boats are said to have masthead spinnakers, and this development gives the boat very good performance both upwind and downwind in all wind strengths. An inherent problem of a rig is its inability to exert as much tension on the forestay as a similar masthead rig. The reason for this is because the attachment point of the forestay is not directly opposite to the backstay, jumper stays were common in the first part of the 20th century
Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and, its entire head by a spar called the gaff. Because of the size and shape of the sail, a gaff rig will have running backstays rather than permanent backstays, the gaff enables a fore and aft sail to be four sided, rather than triangular. A gaff rig typically carries 25 percent more sail than an equivalent bermudian rig for a hull design. A sail hoisted from a gaff is called a gaff-rigged sail, gaff rig remains the most popular fore-aft rig for schooner and barquentine mainsails and other course sails, and spanker sails on a square rigged vessel are always gaff rigged. The gaff is hoisted by two halyards, The throat halyard hoists the throat of the sail at the end of the gaff and bears the main weight of the sail. The peak halyard lifts aft end of the gaff and bears the leech tension. Small craft attach the peak halyard to the gaff with a span with eyes at both ends looped around the gaff and held in place with small wooden chocks, larger craft have more than one span.
Peak halyards pull upwards, approaching the gaff at right angles, additionally, a gaff vang may be fitted. It is an attached to the end of the gaff which prevents the gaff from sagging downwind. Gaff vangs are difficult to rig on the aft-most sail, so are only found on schooners or ketches. A triangular fore-and-aft sail called a jib-headed topsail may be carried between the gaff and the mast. Gunter-rigged boats are similar, smaller vessels on which a spar popularly but incorrectly called the gaff is raised until it is vertical, parallel to the mast. Topsails are never carried on gunter rigs, the Spritsail is another rig with a four-sided fore-aft sail. Unlike the gaff rig where the head hangs from a spar along its edge, the forward end of the sprit is attached to the mast but bisects the face of the sail, with the after end of the sprit attaching to the peak and/or the clew of the sail. For a given sail area a gaff rig has a shorter mast than a bermudian rig, because of its low aspect ratio, the gaff rig is less prone to stalling if oversheeted than something taller and narrower.
Whilst reaching, the CE being set back, will encourage a small craft to bear up into the wind. The boat builder can compensate for this at design stage, e. g. by shifting the keel slightly aft, the gaff-cutter is in fact a very popular sailplan for small craft. The helmsman can reduce weather helm significantly, simply by sheeting out the mainsail, sheeting out may appear to create an inefficient belly in the sail, but it is often a pragmatic alternative to having a heavy helm
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker