The word pā can refer to any Māori village or defensive settlement, but refers to hillforts – fortified settlements with palisades and defensive terraces – and to fortified villages. Pā are in the North Island of New Zealand, north of Lake Taupo. Over 5000 sites have been located and examined although few have been subject to detailed analysis. No pā have been yet located from the early colonization period when early Polynesian-Māori colonizers lived in the lower South Island. Variations similar to pā are found throughout central Polynesia, in the islands of Fiji and the Marquesas Islands. In Māori culture, a great pā represented the mana and strategic ability of an iwi, as personified by a rangatira. Pā are located in various defensible locations around the territory of an iwi to protect fertile plantation sites and food supplies. All pā are found on prominent raised ground volcanic hills; the natural slope of the hill is terraced. Dormant volcanoes were used for pā in Auckland. Pā are multipurpose in function.
Pā that have been extensively studied after the New Zealand Wars and more were found to safeguard food and water storage sites or wells, food storage pits, small integrated plantations, maintained inside the pā. Recent studies have shown that in most cases, few people lived long term in a single pā, that iwi maintained several pā at once under the control of a hapū; the area in between pā were common residential and horticultural sites. A tourist attraction of authentic pā engineering is Auckland's Maungawhau / Mount Eden. Traditional pā took a variety of designs; the simplest pā, the tuwatawata consisted of a single wood palisade around the village stronghold, several elevated stage levels from which to defend and attack. A pā maioro, general construction used multiple ramparts, earthen ditches used as hiding posts for ambush, multiple rows of palisades; the most sophisticated pā was called a pā whakino, which included all the other features plus more food storage areas, water wells, more terraces, palisades, fighting stages, outpost stages, underground dug-posts, mountain or hill summit areas called "tihi", defended by more multiple wall palisades with underground communication passages, escape passages, elaborate traditionally carved entrance ways, artistically carved main posts.
An important feature of pā that set them apart from British forts was their incorporation of food storage pits. Pā locations include volcanoes, headlands, ridges and small islands, including artificial islands. Standard features included a community well for long term supply of water, designated waste areas, an outpost or an elevated stage on a summit on which a pahu would be slung on a frame that when struck would alarm the residents of an attack; the pahu was a large oblong piece of wood with a groove in the middle. A heavy piece of wood was struck from side to side of the groove to sound the alarm; the whare of the rangatira and ariki were built on the summit with a weapons storage. In the 17th and 18th centuries the taiaha was the most common weapon; the chief's stronghold on the summit could be bigger than a normal whare, some measuring 4.5 meters x 4 meters. Pā excavated in Northland have provided numerous clues to Māori tool and weapon manufacturing, including the manufacturing of obsidian and argillite basalt, pounamu chisels, adzes and ivory weapons, an abundance of various hammer tools which had accumulated over hundreds of years.
Chert, a fine-grained worked stone, familiar to Māori from its extensive use in Polynesia, was the most used stone, with thousands of pieces being found in some Northland digs. Chips or flakes of chert were used as drills for pā construction, for the making process of other industrial tools like Polynesian fish hooks. Another find in Northland pā studies was the use of what Māori call "kokowai", or red ochre, a red dye made from red iron or aluminium oxides, finely ground mixed with an oily substance like fish oil or a plant resin. Māori used the chemical compound to keep insects away in pā built in more hazardous platforms in war; the compound is still used on whare and waka, is used as a coating to prevent the wood from drying out. Pā studies showed that on lower pā terraces were semi-underground whare about 2.4m x 2m for housing kūmara. These houses or storage houses were equipped with wide racks to hold hand-woven kūmara baskets at an angle of about 20 degrees, to shed water; these storage whare had internal drains to drain water.
In many pā studies, kūmara were stored in rua. Common or lower rank Māori whare were on the lower or outer land, sometimes sunk into the ground by 300-400mm. On the lower terraces, the ngutu is situated, it had a low fence to force attackers to take an awkward high step. The entrance was overlooked by a raised stage so attackers were vulnerable. Most food was grown outside the pā, though in some higher ranked pā designs there were small terraces areas to grow food within the palisades. Guards were stationed on the summit during times of threat; the blowing of a polished shell trumpet or banging a large wooden gong signaled the alarm. In some pā in rocky terrain, boulders were used as weapons; some iwi such as Ngāi Tūhoe did not construct pā during early periods, but used forest locations for defense and refuge – called pā runanga. Leading British archaeologist, L
Hobbiton Movie Set
The Hobbiton Movie Set was a significant location used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and The Hobbit film series. It is situated on a family run farm about 8 kilometres west of Hinuera and 10 kilometres southwest of Matamata, in Waikato, New Zealand, is now a Tolkien tourism destination, offering a guided tour of the set; the underlying geology of the area is that of the Hinuera Formation, a group of alluvial silts and gravels laid down in the last glacial period. Marshland, it was transformed in the 19th century by a large-scale drainage scheme and is now fertile agricultural land, a major racehorse breeding area; the Alexander family moved to the 500-hectare property of rolling grassland where the set is located in 1978. Since it has been a livestock ranch with 13,000 sheep and 300 Angus beef cattle; the main sources of income from farming are mutton and beef. When Peter Jackson began to look for suitable locations for The Lord of the Rings film series, he first saw the Alexander Farm during an aerial search in 1998 and concluded that the area was "like a slice of ancient England".
Set Decorator Alan Lee commented that the location's hills "looked as though Hobbits had begun excavations". Part of the site has a lake with a long arm. After suitable negotiations with the owners, work commenced in transforming part of the farm into sets for Hobbiton and other parts of J. R. R. Tolkien's Shire in March 1999; the New Zealand Army brought in heavy equipment to make 1.5 kilometres of road into the site from the nearest local road and initial ground works. Further work included building the facades for 37 hobbit holes and associated gardens and hedges, a mill and double arch bridge, erecting a 26-tonne oak above Bag End, growing near Matamata and, cut down and recreated on site complete with artificial leaves. Thatch on the pub and mill roofs was made from rushes growing on the farm. Generators were installed and water and sewerage had to be considered. Catering was made available for up to 400 cast and visitors per day. Jackson wrote: "I knew Hobbiton needed to be warm and feel lived in.
By letting the weeds grow through the cracks and establishing hedges and little gardens a year before filming, we ended up with an real place, not just a film set". Lee commented that "it was satisfying to see that it had taken on something of the look of the Devonshire countryside I'd lived in for the past twenty-five years"; the original set was not built to last, the hobbit hole facades having been constructed from untreated timber and polystyrene and torn down after filming. In 2010, the set was rebuilt in a more permanent fashion for The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey, filming for which began in 2011. Ian McKellen reprised his role as Gandalf the Grey and was joined on the Hobbiton location by Martin Freeman, who remarked that the site "just looked like a place where people lived and where people worked". Guided tours of the 5.5 hectares movie set site continue to be provided daily. The two-hour excursion is popular, advance bookings are recommended. Highlights of the tour include Bagshot Row, the Party Tree, Bilbo's Bag End home.
There are now 44 hobbit holes on view although it is only possible to enter a few of them, all of which have small, earth-walled interiors.. The hobbit holes on site have been built to one of three different scales. In addition to the smallest ones built to the correct size, some are built to a larger scale to make the hobbit actors appear smaller, some have been constructed in a "dwarf" scale for scenes containing dwarves. Refreshments are available at "The Shires Rest Cafe" prior to or after tours. Breakfast and indeed "Second Breakfast" is served. In 2012 the "Green Dragon" inn was opened on the set. There is now a store selling merchandise and souvenirs adjacent to the cafe and evening events commenced in 2014; the tours have received good reviews and in 2013 the set welcomed its 500,000th guest. Ian Brodie The Lord of the Rings Location Guidebook.. HarperCollins. Auckland. Charles Rawlings-Way, Brett Atkinson, Sarah Bennett, Peter Dragicevich and Errol Hunt Lonely Planet New Zealand. Lonely Planet.
Sir Peter Robert Jackson is a New Zealand film director and film producer. He is best known as the director and producer of the Lord of the Rings trilogy and the Hobbit trilogy, both of which are adapted from the novels of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. Other films include the critically lauded drama Heavenly Creatures, the mockumentary film Forgotten Silver, the horror comedy The Frighteners, the epic monster remake film King Kong, the supernatural drama film The Lovely Bones, the World War I documentary film They Shall Not Grow Old, he produced District 9, The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn, West of Memphis, Mortal Engines. Jackson began his career with the "splatstick" horror comedy Bad Taste and the black comedy Meet the Feebles before filming the zombie comedy Braindead, he shared a nomination for Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay with his partner Fran Walsh for Heavenly Creatures, which brought him to mainstream prominence in the film industry. Jackson has been awarded three Academy Awards for The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, including the award for Best Director.
His other awards include four Saturn Awards and three BAFTAs amongst others. His production company is Wingnut Films, his most regular collaborators are co-writers and producers Walsh and Philippa Boyens. Jackson was made a Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit in 2002, he was knighted by Anand Satyanand, the Governor-General of New Zealand, at a ceremony in Wellington in April 2010. In December 2014, Jackson was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Jackson was born on 31 October 1961 in Wellington and was raised at the nearby coastal town of Pukerua Bay, his parents—Joan, a factory worker and housewife, William "Bill" Jackson, a wages clerk—were emigrants from England. As a child, Jackson was a keen film fan, growing up on Ray Harryhausen films, as well as finding inspiration in the television series Thunderbirds and Monty Python's Flying Circus. After a family friend gave the Jacksons a Super 8 cine-camera with Peter in mind, he began making short films with his friends. Jackson has long cited King Kong as his favourite film, around the age of nine he attempted to remake it using his own stop-motion models.
As a child Jackson made a WWII epic called "The Dwarf Patrol" seen on the Bad Taste bonus disc which featured his first special effect of poking pinholes in the film for gun shots, a James Bond spoof named Coldfinger. Most notable though was a 20-minute short called The Valley, which won him a special prize because of the shots he used. In school, Jackson expressed no interest in sports, his classmates remember him wearing a duffle coat with "an obsession verging on religious". He had no formal training in film-making, but learned about editing, special effects and make-up through his own trial and error; as a young adult, Jackson discovered the work of author J. R. R. Tolkien after watching The Lord of the Rings, an animated film by Ralph Bakshi, a part-adaptation of Tolkien's fantasy trilogy; when he was 16 years old, Jackson left school and began working full-time as a photo-engraver for a Wellington newspaper, The Evening Post. For the seven years he worked there, Jackson lived at home with his parents so he could save as much money as possible to spend on film equipment.
After two years of work Jackson bought a 16 mm camera, began shooting a film that became Bad Taste. Jackson has long cited several films as influences, it is well known that Jackson has a passion for King Kong citing it as his favourite film and as the film that inspired him early in his life. Jackson recalls attempting to remake King Kong when he was 12. At the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con International, while being interviewed alongside Avatar and Titanic director James Cameron, Jackson said certain films gave him a "kick", he mentioned Martin Scorsese's crime films Goodfellas and Casino, remarking on "something about those particular movies and the way Martin Scorsese just fearlessly rockets his camera around and has shot those films that I can watch those movies and feel inspired." Jackson said. Other influences include Sam Raimi. Jackson's first feature was Bad Taste, a haphazard fashion splatter comedy, which included many of Jackson's friends acting and working on it for free. Shooting was done in the weekends since Jackson was working full-time.
Bad Taste is about aliens. Jackson had two acting roles including a famous scene; the film was completed thanks to a late injection of finance from the New Zealand Film Commission, after Jim Booth, the body's executive director, became convinced of Jackson's talent. In May 1987, Bad Taste was unveiled at the Cannes Film Festival, where rights to the film sold to twelve countries. Around this time, Jackson began working on writing a number of film scripts, in varied collaborative groupings with playwright Stephen Sinclair, writer Fran Walsh and writer/actor Danny Mulheron. Walsh would become his life partner; some of the scripts from this period, including a sequel to A Nightmare on Elm Street, have never been made into movies. Jackson's next film to see release was Meet the Feebles, co-written with Sinclair and Mulheron. An ensemble musical comedy starring Muppet-styl
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Tirau is a small town in the Waikato region of the North Island of New Zealand, 50 kilometres southeast of Hamilton. The town has a population of 690. In the Māori language, "Tīrau" means "place of many cabbage trees." Tirau is a major junction in the New Zealand state-highway network. Just south of the township is the intersection of State Highway 1 and State Highway 5, where traffic from Auckland and Hamilton on State Highway 1 split to go either to Rotorua on SH 5, or continue along SH 1 to Taupo and beyond to Napier, Palmerston North and Wellington. State Highway 27 splits off State Highway 1 in the north of the town, providing a route north to the Coromandel Peninsula and an alternative route to Auckland, bypassing Hamilton. Tirau is a farming town but in recent years has begun to exploit the income that comes from being at a major road junction; the small community of Okoroire is located just north of Tirau. Attractions include hot springs surrounded by bush. Private pools can be hired from the Okoroire Hotel.
The pools are said to cure all types of aches and pains and have long been used for their health benefits. The Okoroire Hotel was built in the 1880s from native timber, it has been owned by the same family for three generations. An excellent 9-hole golf course is available. Okoroire railway station was over 4 km to the west of the hot springs, on the Kinleith Branch, opened on 8 March 1886 and closed to passengers on 31 July 1962 and to goods on 18 August 1968; the railway line remains open for freight. In the 19th century, Tirau Oxford, was planned as a large-scale city for the Waikato, however plans were changed after the entrepreneurial Rose family bought up large areas of land in the region, with the intention of making large returns when it came of high demand. Oxford became a rural service town, changed its name to Tirau in 1896. Oxford railway station opened on 8 March 1886, 133 mi 60 ch from Auckland and 30 mi 60 ch from Morrinsville, where the Kinleith Branch is crossed by Okoroire Rd The line was extended 6 mi 77 ch south to Putaruru and Lichfield on 21 June 1886.
563 passengers bought tickets in 1894, 330 in 1895 and 308 in 1896, when the main import was coal and the main exports timber and sheep. It was renamed Tirau on 8 March 1886 and closed to passengers on 12 November 1968 and to goods on 29 March 1981; the station had a goods shed and a water tower. In 1991, local business man Henry Clothier took advantage of the town's cheap real estate and high traffic volume by opening an Antique shop in the former Rose Bros. grocery store building. Many other businesses followed suit off the back of his success throughout the 1990s until today. Tirau has built a reputation as a shopping destination for antiques and other niche items. In 2005/06 the South Waikato District Council is working, on behalf of the Tirau Ward, in conjunction with the community, to develop a concept plan for Tirau's future; this project is taking the success of Tirau's transformation over the past decade and linking it with the requirements of the Local Government Act 2002 new emphasis on the four well-beings, economic and cultural.
The local Paparāmu Marae and Te Apunga meeting house are affiliated with the Ngāti Raukawa hapū of Ngāti Mōtai and Ngāti Te Apunga. The town is now a well known tourist stop-off, is characterised by many art works created out of corrugated iron; the church and many of the shops feature corrugated iron sculptures and two large buildings are made from this material. The Castle, a large toy museum on the town's southern limits which opened in 2000, can be seen when heading towards the township from Rotorua or Taupo; the Tirau dairy factory is New Zealand's only producer of lactalbumin, a key ingredient in the production of sports supplements. Tirau is governed locally by the South Waikato District Council. Nationally, Tirau is part of the Te Tai Hauāuru Māori electorate. Tirau Primary School is the sole school in Tirau, it is a contributing primary school and has 117 students as of August 2018. The nearest secondary school is Putaruru College, 8 kilometres south of Tirau, in Putaruru. Okoroire Tirau's official website
The North Island officially named Te Ika-a-Māui, is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, separated from the larger but much less populous South Island by Cook Strait. The island's area is 113,729 square kilometres, it has a population of 3,749,200. Twelve main urban areas are in the North Island. From north to south, they are Whangarei, Hamilton, Rotorua, New Plymouth, Hastings, Palmerston North, Wellington, the capital, located at the south-west extremity of the island. About 77% of New Zealand's population lives in the North Island. Although the island has been known as the North Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the South Island, the North Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island North Island or Te Ika-a-Maui in October 2013. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite articles, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Hamilton is in the North Island", "my mother lives in the North Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use North Island without the. According to Māori mythology, the North and South Islands of New Zealand arose through the actions of the demigod Māui. Māui and his brothers were fishing from their canoe when he caught a great fish and pulled it from the sea. While he was not looking his brothers fought over the fish and chopped it up; this great fish became the North Island and thus a Māori name for the North Island is Te Ika-a-Māui. The mountains and valleys are believed to have been formed as a result of Māui's brothers' hacking at the fish; until the early 20th Century, an alternative Māori name for the North Island was Aotearoa. In present usage, Aotearoa is a collective Māori name for New Zealand as a whole; the sub-national GDP of the North Island was estimated at US$102.863 billion in 2003, 79% of New Zealand's national GDP. The North Island is divided into two ecoregions within the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, the northern part being the Northland temperate kauri forest, the southern part being the North Island temperate forests.
The island has an extensive flora and bird population, with numerous National Parks and other protected areas. Nine local government regions cover the North Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters. Northland Auckland Waikato Bay of Plenty Gisborne Taranaki Manawatu-Wanganui Hawkes Bay Wellington The North Island has a larger population than the South Island, with the country's largest city and the capital, accounting for nearly half of it. There are 28 urban areas in the North Island with a population of 10,000 or more: Healthcare in the North Island is provided by fifteen District Health Boards. Organised around geographical areas of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions. Bay of Islands Bay of Plenty Hauraki Gulf Hawke Bay Ninety Mile Beach North Taranaki Bight South Taranaki Bight Lake Taupo Waikato River Whanganui River Coromandel Peninsula Northland Peninsula Cape Palliser Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Egmont National Park Tongariro National Park Waipoua Kauri Forest Whanganui National Park and many forest parks of New Zealand Mount Ruapehu Mount Taranaki Volcanic Plateau Waitomo Caves Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu List of islands of New Zealand Media related to North Island, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons North Island travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King
The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King is a 2003 epic fantasy adventure film co-produced, co-written, directed by Peter Jackson based on the second and third volumes of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, it is the last installment in The Lord of the Rings trilogy, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers, preceding The Hobbit film trilogy. Released on 17 December 2003, The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King became one of the most critically and commercially successful films of all time, is considered one of the greatest films made, it was the second film to gross $1 billion worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing film released by New Line Cinema, as well as the biggest financial success for Time Warner in general at the time. The film was the highest-grossing film of 2003 and, by the end of its theatrical run, the second highest-grossing film in history; as of February 2019, it is the twenty second highest-grossing film of all time. At the 76th Academy Awards, it won all 11 Academy Awards for which it was nominated, therefore holding the record for the highest clean sweep at the Oscars.
The wins included the award for the first time a fantasy film had done so. The film jointly holds the record for most Academy Awards won by a single film with Ben-Hur and Titanic. Two Hobbits, Sméagol and Déagol, are fishing. Sméagol is ensnared by the Ring, kills his friend for it, he retreats into the Misty Mountains as the Ring twists his body and mind, until he becomes the creature Gollum. Centuries Gandalf leads Aragorn, Legolas and King Théoden to Isengard, where they reunite with Merry and Pippin. Gandalf retrieves the defeated Saruman's palantír. Pippin looks into the seeing-stone, is telepathically attacked by Sauron. Gandalf deduces, he rides there to warn Gondor's steward Denethor, taking Pippin with him. Gollum leads Frodo Samwise Gamgee to Minas Morgul; the hobbits begin climbing a stair carved in the cliff face that will take them into Mordor via a'secret way' - unaware that Gollum plans to kill them and take the Ring. Sauron's army strikes and overwhelms Osgiliath, forcing Faramir and his garrison to retreat to Minas Tirith.
Gollum disposes of the Hobbits' food. Frodo tells Sam to go home, before Frodo and Gollum continue to the tunnel leading to Mordor, where Gollum tricks him into venturing into the lair of the giant spider Shelob. Frodo narrowly escapes and confronts Gollum, telling him that he must destroy the Ring for both their sakes. Gollum falls down a chasm. Frodo continues on, but Shelob discovers and binds him. However, Sam drives her away. Sam hides as Orcs take Frodo with them. Sam follows the Orcs into the Tower of Cirith Ungol, frees Frodo so they can continue their journey. Aragorn learns from Elrond that Arwen is dying, having refused to leave Middle Earth after seeing a vision of her son with Aragorn. Elrond gives Aragorn Andúril, Isildur's sword Narsil reforged, so he can reclaim his birthright while gaining reinforcements from the Dead Men of Dunharrow. Joined by Legolas and Gimli, Aragorn travels to the Paths of the Dead, recruiting the Army of the Dead by pledging to release them from the curse Isildur put on them.
Faramir is gravely wounded after a futile effort to retake Osgiliath. Gandalf is left to defend the city against the Orc army, led by Gothmog; as Gothmog's army forces its way into the city, Denethor attempts to kill himself and Faramir on a pyre. Pippin alerts Gandalf and they save Faramir, but a burning Denethor leaps to his death from the top of Minas Tirith just before Théoden and his nephew, Éomer, arrive with the Rohirrim. During the ensuing battle, they are overwhelmed by the Oliphaunt-riding Haradrim, while the Witch-king of Angmar mortally wounds Théoden. Though Théoden's niece Éowyn destroys the Witch-King with Merry's help, Théoden dies of his wounds. Aragorn arrives with the Army of the Dead, who win the battle. Aragorn decides to lead his army upon the Black Gate as a distraction, so Frodo and Sam can get to Mount Doom. Aragorn's army draw out Sauron's forces and empties Mordor, allowing Frodo and Sam to reach the volcano, but Gollum attacks them just as they reach Mount Doom. Frodo claims it as his own.
Gollum bites his finger off to reclaim the Ring. Frodo fights back and knocks Gollum, holding the Ring, into the volcano, destroying the Ring and killing Gollum; as Frodo and Sam escape, Sauron is destroyed and Mordor crumbles. Gandalf flies in with eagles to rescue the Hobbits, who awaken in Minas Tirith and are reunited with the surviving Fellowship members. Aragorn takes Arwen as his queen; the Hobbits return home to the Shire. A few years Frodo departs Middle Earth for the Undying Lands with his uncle Bilbo and the Elves, he leaves Sam the Red Book of Westmarch. Sam returns to the Shire, where he embraces Rosie and their children. Like the preceding films in the trilogy, The Return of the King has an ensemble cast, some of the cast and their respective characters include: Elijah Wood as Frodo Baggins: a young hobbit who continues his quest to destroy the One Ring. Ian McKellen as Gandalf: a wizard who travels to aid the Men of Gondor, acting as a general at the Siege of Gondor. Sean Astin as