SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Match

A match is a tool for starting a fire. Matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface. Wooden matches are packaged in matchboxes, paper matches are cut into rows and stapled into matchbooks; the coated end of a match, known as the match "head", consists of a bead of active ingredients and binder. There are two main types of matches: safety matches, which can be struck only against a specially prepared surface, strike-anywhere matches, for which any suitably frictional surface can be used; the term match referred to lengths of cord impregnated with chemicals, allowed to burn continuously. These were used to fire guns and cannons; such matches were characterised by their burning speed i.e. slow match. Depending on its formulation, a slow match burns at a rate of around 30 cm per hour and a quick match at 4 to 60 centimetres per minute; the modern equivalent of this sort of match is the simple fuse, still used in pyrotechnics to obtain a controlled time delay before ignition.

The original meaning of the word still persists in some pyrotechnics terms, such as black match and Bengal match. But, when friction matches became commonplace, they became the main object meant by the term; the word "match" derives from Old French "mèche" referring to the wick of a candle. A note in the text Cho Keng Lu, written in 1366, describes a sulfur match, small sticks of pinewood impregnated with sulfur, used in China by "impoverished court ladies" in AD 577 during the conquest of Northern Qi. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, a book called the Records of the Unworldly and the Strange written by Chinese author Tao Gu in about 950 stated: If there occurs an emergency at night it may take some time to make a light to light a lamp, but an ingenious man devised the system of impregnating little sticks of pinewood with sulfur and storing them ready for use. At the slightest touch of fire, they burst into flame. One gets a little flame like an ear of corn; this marvelous thing was called a "light-bringing slave", but afterward when it became an article of commerce its name was changed to'fire inch-stick'.

Another text, Wu Lin Chiu Shih, dated from 1270 AD, lists sulfur matches as something, sold in the markets of Hangzhou, around the time of Marco Polo's visit. The matches were known as fa tshui erh. Prior to the use of matches, fires were sometimes lit using a burning glass to focus the sun on tinder, a method that could only work on sunny days. Another more common method was igniting tinder with sparks produced by striking flint and steel, or by increasing air pressure in a fire piston. Early work had been done by alchemist Hennig Brand, who discovered the flammable nature of phosphorus in 1669. Others, including Robert Boyle and his assistant, Ambrose Godfrey, continued these experiments in the 1680s with phosphorus and sulfur, but their efforts did not produce practical and inexpensive methods for generating fires. A number of different ways were employed in order to light smoking tobacco: One was the use of a spill — a thin object something like a straw, rolled paper, or a thin candle, which would be lit from a nearby existing flame and used to light the pipe or cigar — most kept near the fireplace in a spill vase.

Another method saw the use of a striker, a tool that looked like scissors, but with flint on one "blade" and steel on the other. These would be rubbed together producing sparks. If neither of these two was available, one could use ember tongs to pick up a coal from a fire and light the tobacco directly; the first modern, self-igniting match was invented in 1805 by Jean Chancel, assistant to Professor Louis Jacques Thénard of Paris. The head of the match consisted of a mixture of potassium chlorate, sulfur and rubber; the match was ignited by dipping its tip in a small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid. This kind of match was quite expensive and its use was relatively dangerous, so Chancel's matches never became adopted or in commonplace use; this approach to match making was further refined in the proceeding decades, culminating with the'Promethean Match', patented by Samuel Jones of London in 1828. His match consisted of a small glass capsule containing a chemical composition of sulfuric acid colored with indigo and coated on the exterior with potassium chlorate, all of, wrapped up in rolls of paper.

The immediate ignition of this particular form of a match was achieved by crushing the capsule with a pair of pliers and releasing the ingredients in order for it to become alight. In London, similar matches meant for lighting cigars were introduced in 1849 by Heurtner who had a shop called the Lighthouse in the Strand. One version that he sold was called "Euperion", popular for kitchen use and nicknamed as "Hugh Perry", while another meant for outdoor use was called a "Vesuvian" or "flamer"; the head was large and contained niter and wood dust, had a phosphorus tip. The handle was large and made of hardwood so as to burn last for a while; some had glass stems. Both Vesuvians and Prometheans had a bulb of sulfuric acid at the tip which had to be broken to start the reaction. Samuel Jones introduced fuzees for lighting cigars and pipes in 1832. A similar invention was patented in 1839 by John Hucks Stevens in America. In 1832, William

Alonso Luján de Medina

Alonso Luján de Medina was a Spanish nobleman, who served during the Viceroyalty of Peru as alcalde notary public of Córdoba. Alonso Luján was born in the son of Diego Luján de Medina and Maria de Roa, he studied at the famous University of Alcalá, time he traveled to Lima, where was appointed Member of the Holy Office. His third wife was a Creole noblewoman, descendant of Bartolomé Jaimes. Alonso Luján de Medina, was a direct descendant of Francisco Massi, born in Flandes, Ana Lujan de Medina, born in Madrid, his father was musician in the court of Charles V. www.euskalnet.net

Life zones of Peru

When the Spanish arrived, they divided Peru into three main regions: the coastal region, bounded by the Pacific Ocean. But Javier Pulgar Vidal, a geographer who studied the biogeographic reality of the Peruvian territory for a long time, proposed the creation of eight Natural Regions. In 1941, he presented his thesis "Las Ocho Regiones Naturales del Perú" at the III General Assembly of the Pan-American Institute of Geography and History; these eight Peruvian regions are: Chala or Coast Yungas Fluvial Yunga Loma-Vegetation Quechua Suni or Jalca Puna Janca Rupa - Rupa or Highland Jungle Omagua or Lowland Jungle See Altitudinal zonation Sea level Estimated 22 - 24°C, but the cold Humboldt Current generates fog on the coast side Tierra caliente up to 2,500 ft. Crops: Cacao, Sugarcane, Sweet Potatoes, Yams. Tierra templada up to 6,000 ft The warmest month has an average temperature of below 22°C or 72°F. Crops: Coffee, Maize, Peruvian Pepper, Guave, Plum, Citrus fruits. Tierra fría below 12,000 ft The warmest month has an average temperature of below 18°C or 64°F.

Crops: Potato, Squash, Papaya, Wheat and Barley. Farming of cattle. Tierra helada above 12,000 ft The definition of treeline of Coniferae: the warmest month has an average temperature of below 10°C or 50°F ). Crops above tree line: Quinoa, Cañigua, Oca, Broad beans and Ulluco. Farming of Sheep and Alpacas. Terrestrial Biome Type 10: Montane grasslands and shrublands Tierra Nevada, above the snow line, 15,000 ft Just warmer than -1°C over rocks or just warmer than -3°C over snow, annual mean temperature); the Peruvian geographer Javier Pulgar Vidal divided Peru in 8 regions: Map from República del Perú - Instituto Geográfico Nacional Chala 0– 500 m Omagua 80– 400 m Rupa-Rupa 400– 1,000 m Yunga Loma-Vegetation 450– 600 m Fluvial Yungas 1,000- 2,300 m Quechua 2,300– 3,500 m Suni 3,500– 4,100 m Puna 4,100– 4,800 m Janca above 4,800 m, rocks and ice Biomes & Ecoregions nearby:Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Bolivian Yungas Peruvian Yungas Southwest Amazon moist forestsMontane grasslands and shrublands Central Andean dry puna Central Andean puna Central Andean wet punaDeserts and xeric shrublands Atacama Desert Sechura Desert Mouth of the Amazon River, Atlantic Ocean Belém, Brazil, 24 m, annual mean temperature 26.0°C Gurupa várzea Manaus, Brazil, 72 m, annual mean temperature 26.6°C Monte Alegre várzea Purus várzea Colombia - Peru - Brazil border Leticia, Colombia, 84 m, annual mean temperature 25.8°C Tierra Caliente or Tropical rainforest Omagua or Selva baja Iquitos, Peru, 126 m, annual mean temperature 26.2°C Rupa-Rupa or Selva alta Yunga fluvial Peruvian Yungas Quechua Tree line Tierra Helada Suni Mountain pass Puna Central Andean wet puna Central Andean puna "Andean-Alpine desert" Snow line Tierra Nevada or Janca Peak Explanations: Region, altitude.

Cuzco, Peru. Glacier Altitude: 5,900- 5,200 m, Annual mean temperature: below 0 °C, Agriculture: none High Mountain Desert, Werneria ciliolata on scree Altitude: 5,200- 5,000 m, Annual mean temperature: below 0 °C - 0 °C, Agriculture: none. Grass Zone Calamagrostis minima Steppe, Altitude: 5,000- 4,600 m, Annual mean temperature: 0- 3.5 °C, Farming: alpacas, lamas. Pycnophyllum Steppe, Altitude: 4,600- 4,300 m, Annual mean temperature: 3.5- 7.5 °C, Farming: alpacas, lamas. Aciachne Humid Grassland, Altitude: 4,300- 3,900 m, Annual mean temperature: 7.5- 10.0 °C, Farming: alpacas, pigs. Shrub Zone Satureja Shrub, Baccharis pentandii Shrub, with Berberis, Altitude: 3,900- 3,600 m, Annual mean temperature: 10.0- 11.5 °C, Farming: sheep. Mutisia Shrub, Baccharis pentlandii Shrub, with Siphocampylus, Altitude: 3,600- 2,700 m, Annual mean temperature: 11.5- 16.5 °C, Farming: sheep, cattle. Kaunia longipeti