1.
18th Street NW (Washington, D.C.)
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18th Street Northwest is a prominent north–south street thoroughfare in the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D. C. The 18th Street roadway was part of the 1791 LEnfant Plan for Washington by Pierre Charles LEnfant, in the present day 18th Street also travels through downtown Washington and the Dupont Circle and Mount Pleasant neighborhoods. It is also one of the streets in the Adams Morgan neighborhood. It passes through the Strivers Section Historic District in the Dupont Circle neighborhood, many bars, nightclubs, and restaurants are located on 18th Street in Adams Morgan, and on weekends it is frequently congested with cars and pedestrians, especially at last call
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Washington, D.C.
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Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, However, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, Maryland, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
3.
Mathematics
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Mathematics is the study of topics such as quantity, structure, space, and change. There is a range of views among mathematicians and philosophers as to the exact scope, Mathematicians seek out patterns and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof, when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry, rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclids Elements. Galileo Galilei said, The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and it is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth, carl Friedrich Gauss referred to mathematics as the Queen of the Sciences. Benjamin Peirce called mathematics the science that draws necessary conclusions, David Hilbert said of mathematics, We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules, rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise. Albert Einstein stated that as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain, Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics, Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns, in Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have many and diverse. Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a study of mathematics in its own right with Greek mathematics. Mathematics has since been extended, and there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to the benefit of both. Mathematical discoveries continue to be made today, the overwhelming majority of works in this ocean contain new mathematical theorems and their proofs. The word máthēma is derived from μανθάνω, while the modern Greek equivalent is μαθαίνω, in Greece, the word for mathematics came to have the narrower and more technical meaning mathematical study even in Classical times
4.
University
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A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education, the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means community of teachers and scholars. Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages, the original Latin word universitas refers in general to a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members, an important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university, the University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of academic freedom and this is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988,430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bolognas foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, the university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and it is possible, however, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries, the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford. The students had all the power … and dominated the masters, princes and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. The rediscovery of Aristotles works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated–fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotles works a turning point in the history of Western thought and this became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures, disputations and examinations. Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, while Hippocrates, Galen, outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter
5.
College
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College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the educational context - nowadays the most common use of college - there are various other meanings also derived from the original Latin term. In the United States, college can be a synonym for university, in Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the sixth form college as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called colleges or have college as part of their title, in Australia the term college is applied to any private or independent primary and, especially, secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School, Sydney and The Kings School, there has also been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as colleges. In the state of Victoria, some high schools are referred to as secondary colleges. Interestingly, the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School, in Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, college is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, and also some older ones. In New South Wales, some schools, especially multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as secondary colleges. In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, college refers to the final two years of high school, and the institutions which provide this. In this context, college is an independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a version of matriculation college. This is because these schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational, subjects. Some private secondary schools choose to use the college in their names nevertheless. Some secondary schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the school system. In New Zealand the word normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17
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Secondary school
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A secondary school is both an organization that delivers level 2 junior secondary education or level 3 secondary education phases of the ISCED scale, and the building where this takes place. Level 2 junior secondary education is considered to be the second, Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 11 and 16, the systems and terminology remain unique to each country. School building design does not happen in isolation, schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the roll of the school. A general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55m2, or more generously 62m2, a general art room for 30 students needs to be 83m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2, examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of, The students, the teachers, the support staff, the adminstrators. It has to should meet health requirements, minimal functional requirements- such as classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity, textbooks, Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establish building costs. Future plans are audited to ensure that standards are not exceeded. The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014 and it said the floor area should be 1050m² +6. 3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m², a secondary school, locally may be called high school, junior high school, senior high school. Sweden, gymnasium Switzerland, gymnasium, secondary school, collège or lycée Taiwan, Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, in Nigeria, secondary school starts from JSS1 until SSS3. Most students start at the age of 10 or 11 and finish at 16 or 17, Students are required to sit for the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. To progress to university students must obtain at least a credit in Maths, English, in Somalia, secondary school starts from 9th grade until 12th. Students start it when they are around 14 to 15 years of age, Students are required to study Somali and Arabic, with the option of either English or Italian depending on the type of school. Religion, chemistry, physics, biology, physical education, textile, art, design, when secondary school has been completed, students are sent to national training camp before going to either college, or military training. In South Africa, high school begins at grade 8, Students study for five years, at the end of which they write a Matriculation examination
7.
Mathematician
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A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, one of the earliest known mathematicians was Thales of Miletus, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, the number of known mathematicians grew when Pythagoras of Samos established the Pythagorean School, whose doctrine it was that mathematics ruled the universe and whose motto was All is number. It was the Pythagoreans who coined the term mathematics, and with whom the study of mathematics for its own sake begins, the first woman mathematician recorded by history was Hypatia of Alexandria. She succeeded her father as Librarian at the Great Library and wrote works on applied mathematics. Because of a dispute, the Christian community in Alexandria punished her, presuming she was involved, by stripping her naked. Science and mathematics in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages followed various models and it was extensive patronage and strong intellectual policies implemented by specific rulers that allowed scientific knowledge to develop in many areas. As these sciences received wider attention from the elite, more scholars were invited and funded to study particular sciences, an example of a translator and mathematician who benefited from this type of support was al-Khawarizmi. A notable feature of many working under Muslim rule in medieval times is that they were often polymaths. Examples include the work on optics, maths and astronomy of Ibn al-Haytham, the Renaissance brought an increased emphasis on mathematics and science to Europe. As time passed, many gravitated towards universities. Moving into the 19th century, the objective of universities all across Europe evolved from teaching the “regurgitation of knowledge” to “encourag productive thinking. ”Thus, seminars, overall, science became the focus of universities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Students could conduct research in seminars or laboratories and began to produce doctoral theses with more scientific content. According to Humboldt, the mission of the University of Berlin was to pursue scientific knowledge. ”Mathematicians usually cover a breadth of topics within mathematics in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of an understanding of mathematics, the students, who pass, are permitted to work on a doctoral dissertation. Mathematicians involved with solving problems with applications in life are called applied mathematicians. Applied mathematicians are mathematical scientists who, with their knowledge and professional methodology. With professional focus on a variety of problems, theoretical systems
8.
Statistician
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A statistician is someone who works with theoretical or applied statistics. The profession exists in both the private and public sectors and it is common to combine statistical knowledge with expertise in other subjects, and statisticians may work as employees or as statistical consultants. According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of 2014,26,970 jobs were classified as statistician in the United States, of these people, approximately 30 percent worked for governments. Statisticians are included with the professions in various national and international occupational classifications, in the United States most employment in the field requires either a masters degree in statistics or a related field or a PhD. List of statisticians Statistician entry, Occupational Outlook Handbook, U. S
9.
Dupont Circle
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Dupont Circle is a traffic circle, park, neighborhood, and historic district in Northwest Washington, D. C. The traffic circle is located at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue NW, Connecticut Avenue NW, New Hampshire Avenue NW, P Street NW, and 19th Street NW. The Dupont Circle neighborhood is bounded approximately by 16th Street NW to the east, 22nd Street NW to the west, M Street NW to the south, the local government Advisory Neighborhood Commission and the Dupont Circle Historic District have slightly different boundaries. The circle is named for Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont, the area that now constitutes Dupont Circle was once home to a brickyard and slaughterhouse. Improvements made in the 1870s by a board of public works headed by Alexander Boss Shepherd transformed the area into a residential neighborhood. In 1871, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers began construction of the circle, then called Pacific Circle. On February 25,1882, Congress renamed it Dupont Circle, unveiled on December 20,1884, the statue was sculpted by Launt Thompson, and the circle was landscaped with exotic flowers and ornamental trees. In 1920, the current double-tiered white marble fountain replaced the statue, during the 1870s and 1880s, mansions were built along Massachusetts Avenue, one of Washingtons grand avenues, and townhouses were built throughout the neighborhood. In 1872, the British built a new embassy on Connecticut Avenue, stewarts Castle was built in 1873 on the north side of the circle. By the 1920s, Connecticut Avenue was more commercial in character, some residences, including Senator Philetus Sawyers mansion at Connecticut and R Street, were demolished to make way for office buildings and shops. The Patterson House, at 15 Dupont Circle, served as a residence for President Calvin Coolidge while the actual White House was being repaired in 1927. In 1933, the National Park Service took over administering the circle, Connecticut Avenue was widened in the late 1920s, and increased traffic in the neighborhood caused a great deal of congestion in the circle, making it difficult for pedestrians to get around. Medians were installed in 1948, in the circle, to separate the traffic on Massachusetts Avenue from the local traffic. In 1949 traffic tunnels and a streetcar station were built under the circle as part of the now-defunct Capital Transit project. The tunnels allowed trams and vehicles traveling along Connecticut Avenue to pass more quickly past the circle, when streetcar service ended in 1962, the entrances to the underground station were filled in and paved over, leaving only the traffic tunnel. The neighborhood declined after World War II and particularly after the 1968 riots, the neighborhood took on a bohemian feel and became popular among the gay and lesbian community. D. C. s first gay bookstore, Lambda Rising, opened in 1974, in 1975, the store ran the worlds first gay-oriented television commercial. Gentrification accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, and the area is now a mainstream and trendy location with coffeehouses, restaurants, bars
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American Mathematical Monthly
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The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894. It is published ten times each year by the Mathematical Association of America, the American Mathematical Monthly is an expository journal intended for a wide audience of mathematicians, from undergraduate students to research professionals. Articles are chosen on the basis of their broad interest and reviewed and edited for quality of exposition as well as content, in this the American Mathematical Monthly fulfills a different role from that of typical mathematical research journals. The American Mathematical Monthly is the most widely read journal in the world according to records on JSTOR. Since 1997, the journal has been available online at the Mathematical Association of Americas website, the MAA gives the Lester R. Ford Awards annually to authors of articles of expository excellence published in the American Mathematical Monthly
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JSTOR
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JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now also includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites. Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project, Bowen and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service. This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and then request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
12.
American Mathematical Society
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The society is one of the four parts of the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics and a member of the Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences. It was founded in 1888 as the New York Mathematical Society, the brainchild of Thomas Fiske, john Howard Van Amringe was the first president and Fiske became secretary. The society soon decided to publish a journal, but ran into some resistance, the result was the Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Society, with Fiske as editor-in-chief. The de facto journal, as intended, was influential in increasing membership, the popularity of the Bulletin soon led to Transactions of the American Mathematical Society and Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, which were also de facto journals. In 1891 Charlotte Scott became the first woman to join the society, the society reorganized under its present name and became a national society in 1894, and that year Scott served as the first woman on the first Council of the American Mathematical Society. In 1951, the headquarters moved from New York City to Providence. The society later added an office in Ann Arbor, Michigan in 1984, in 1954 the society called for the creation of a new teaching degree, a Doctor of Arts in Mathematics, similar to a PhD but without a research thesis. Mary W. Gray challenged that situation by sitting in on the Council meeting in Atlantic City, when she was told she had to leave, she refused saying she would wait until the police came. After that time, Council meetings were open to observers and the process of democratization of the Society had begun, julia Robinson was the first female president of the American Mathematical Society but was unable to complete her term as she was suffering from leukemia. In 1988 the Journal of the American Mathematical Society was created, the 2013 Joint Mathematics Meeting in San Diego drew over 6,600 attendees. Each of the four sections of the AMS hold meetings in the spring. The society also co-sponsors meetings with other mathematical societies. The AMS selects a class of Fellows who have made outstanding contributions to the advancement of mathematics. The AMS publishes Mathematical Reviews, a database of reviews of mathematical publications, various journals, in 1997 the AMS acquired the Chelsea Publishing Company, which it continues to use as an imprint. Blogs, Blog on Blogs e-Mentoring Network in the Mathematical Sciences AMS Graduate Student Blog PhD + Epsilon On the Market Some prizes are awarded jointly with other mathematical organizations. The AMS is led by the President, who is elected for a two-year term, morrey, Jr. Oscar Zariski Nathan Jacobson Saunders Mac Lane Lipman Bers R. H. Andrews Eric M. Friedlander David Vogan Robert L
13.
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
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This meeting led to the organization of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The membership of SIAM has grown from a few hundred in the early 1950s to more than 14,000 as of 2013, SIAM retains its North American influence, but it also has East Asian, Argentinian, Bulgarian, and UK & Ireland sections. SIAM is one of the four parts of the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics, membership is open to both individuals and organizations. The focus for the society is applied, computational and industrial mathematics, and it is composed of people from a wide variety of vocations. Members include engineers, scientists, industrial mathematicians, and academic mathematicians, the society is active in promoting the use of analysis and modeling in all settings. The society also strives to support and provide guidance to institutions wishing to promote applied mathematics. The society includes a number of activity groups to allow for more focused group discussions and collaborations, SIAM publishes books, scholarly journals, and SIAM News, a newsletter focused on the applied math and computational science community. SIAM organizes conferences and meetings throughout the year focused on topics in applied math. The chief elected officer of SIAM is the president, elected for a single two-year term, the following persons have been presidents of the society, SIAM recognizes applied mathematician and computational scientists for their contributions to the fields. Prizes include, Germund Dahlquist Prize, Awarded to a young scientist for original contributions to fields associated with Germund Dahlquist, W. T. and Idalia Reid Prize, Awarded for research in and contributions to areas of differential equations and control theory. Theodore von Kármán Prize, Awarded for notable application of mathematics to mechanics and/or the engineering sciences made during the five to ten years preceding the award
14.
Taylor & Francis
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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals. It is a division of Informa plc, a United Kingdom-based publisher, the company was founded in 1852 when William Francis joined Richard Taylor in his publishing business. Taylor initially founded his company in 1798 and their subjects covered include agriculture, chemistry, education, engineering, geography, law, mathematics, medicine, and social sciences. From 1917 to 1930 Francis son, Richard Taunton Francis was sole partner in the firm, in 1965 Taylor & Francis launched Wykeham Publications and began book publishing. In 1988 it acquired Hemisphere Publishing and the company was renamed Taylor & Francis Group to reflect the number of imprints. In 1990 Taylor & Francis exited from the business to concentrate on publishing. In 1998 Taylor & Francis Group went public on the London Stock Exchange, acquisitions of other publishers has remained a core part of the group’s business strategy. Taylor & Francis merged with Informa in 2004 to create a new company called T&F Informa, following the merger, T&F closed the historic Routledge books office in New Fetter Lane, London and relocated to its current headquarters in Milton Park, Oxfordshire. Taylor & Francis Group is now the publishing arm of Informa. Taylor & Francis publishes more than 2,500 journals, and approximately 6,500 new books each year, with a backlist of over 130,000 titles available in print and digital formats. Although generally considered the smallest of the Big Four STEM publishers, its Routledge imprint is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities, the journals and e-books have been delivered through the Taylor & Francis Online website since June 2011. Prior to that they were provided through the Informaworld website, Taylor & Francis operates a number of Web services for its digital content including Routledge Handbooks Online, the Routledge Performance Archive, Secret Intelligence Files and CRC Netbase. Taylor & Francis offers Open Access publishing options in both its books and journals divisions and through its Cogent Open Access journals imprint, the group has approximately 1,800 employees located in at least 18 offices worldwide. The old Taylor and Francis logo depicts a hand pouring oil into a lit lamp, the modern logo is a stylised oil lamp in a circle. In 2013, the board of the Journal of Library Administration resigned in a dispute over author licensing agreements. Category, Taylor & Francis academic journals Munroe, Mary H. Taylor & Francis, the Academic Publishing Industry, A Story of Merger and Acquisition. The Lamp Of Learning, Taylor & Francis And Two Centuries Of Publishing, official website Taylor & Francis online journals and reference works Taylor & Francis eBooks Informa Divisions - Academic Publishing
15.
Math Horizons
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Math Horizons is a magazine aimed at undergraduates interested in mathematics, published by the Mathematical Association of America. It publishes expository articles about beautiful mathematics as well as articles about the culture of mathematics covering mathematical people, institutions, humor, games, cartoons, and book reviews. The MAA gives the Trevor Evans Awards annually to authors of articles that are accessible to undergraduates that are published in Math Horizons. The Edge of the Universe, Celebrating Ten Years of Math Horizons
16.
MAA FOCUS
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MAA FOCUS is the newsmagazine of the Mathematical Association of America. It carries news items and short articles of interest to the organizations members, the magazine was first published in March 1981, the first editor was Marcia P. Sward, who held that position until September 1985. Beginning in 2009 the magazine is published six times a year, the magazine is printed on glossy paper with a final trim size of 8-1/4 inches wide by 10-5/8 inches high. Circulation in 2008 was 22,400 copies
17.
International Mathematics Olympiad
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The International Mathematical Olympiad is an annual six-problem mathematical olympiad for pre-college students, and is the oldest of the International Science Olympiads. The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959 and it has since been held annually, except in 1980. About 100 countries send teams of up to six students, plus one team leader, one deputy leader, the selection process differs by country, but it often consists of a series of tests which admit fewer students at each progressing test. Awards are given to approximately the top-scoring 50% of the individual contestants, teams are not officially recognized—all scores are given only to individual contestants, but team scoring is unofficially compared more than individual scores. Contestants must be under the age of 20 and must not be registered at any tertiary institution, subject to these conditions, an individual may participate any number of times in the IMO. The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959, since then it has been held every year except in 1980. That year, it was cancelled due to strife in Mongolia. It was initially founded for eastern European member countries of the Warsaw Pact, under the Soviet bloc of influence, because of this eastern origin, the IMOs were first hosted only in eastern European countries, and gradually spread to other nations. Sources differ about the cities hosting some of the early IMOs, the exact dates cited may also differ, because of leaders arriving before the students, and at more recent IMOs the IMO Advisory Board arriving before the leaders. Several students, such as Zhuoqun Alex Song, Teodor von Burg, Lisa Sauermann, several former participants have won awards such as the Fields Medal. In January 2011, Google gave €1 million to the International Mathematical Olympiad organization, the donation helped the organization cover the costs of the next five global events. The examination consists of six problems, each problem is worth seven points, so the maximum total score is 42 points. The examination is held two consecutive days, each day the contestants have four-and-a-half hours to solve three problems. The problems chosen are from areas of secondary school mathematics, broadly classifiable as geometry, number theory, algebra. They require no knowledge of mathematics such as calculus and analysis. However, they are usually disguised so as to make the solutions difficult, prominently featured are algebraic inequalities, complex numbers, and construction-oriented geometrical problems, though in recent years the latter has not been as popular as before. The Jury aims to order the problems so that the order in increasing difficulty is Q1, Q4, Q2, Q5, Q3, as the leaders know the problems in advance of the contestants, they are kept strictly separated and observed. The selection process for the IMO varies greatly by country, in some countries, especially those in east Asia, the selection process involves several tests of a difficulty comparable to the IMO itself
18.
Mathematical Association of America
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The Mathematical Association of America is a professional society that focuses on mathematics accessible at the undergraduate level. The MAA was founded in 1915 and is headquartered at 1529 18th Street, Northwest in the Dupont Circle neighborhood of Washington, the organization publishes mathematics journals and books, including the American Mathematical Monthly, the most widely read mathematics journal in the world according to records on JSTOR. The MAA sponsors the annual summer MathFest and cosponsors with the American Mathematical Society the Joint Mathematics Meeting, on occasion the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics joins in these meetings. Twenty-nine regional sections also hold regular meetings, the association publishes multiple journals, The American Mathematical Monthly is expository, aimed at a broad audience from undergraduate students to research mathematicians. Mathematics Magazine is expository, aimed at teachers of undergraduate mathematics, the College Mathematics Journal is expository, aimed at teachers of undergraduate mathematics, especially at the freshman-sophomore level. Math Horizons is expository, aimed at undergraduate students, MAA FOCUS is the association member newsletter. The Association publishes an online resource, Mathematical Sciences Digital Library, the service launched in 2001 with the online-only Journal of Online Mathematics and its Applications and a set of classroom tools, Digital Classroom Resources. These were followed in 2004 by Convergence, a history magazine, and in 2005 by MAA Reviews, an online book review service, and Classroom Capsules and Notes. Ultimately, six high school students are chosen to represent the U. S. at the International Mathematics Olympiad. Allendoerfer Award, Trevor Evans Award, Lester R. Ford Award, George Pólya Award, Merten M. Hasse Award, Henry L. Alder Award, a detailed history of the first fifty years of the MAA appears in May. A report on activities prior to World War II appears in Bennet, further details of its history can be found in Case. In addition numerous regional sections of the MAA have published accounts of their local history, the MAA has for a long time followed a strict policy of inclusiveness and non-discrimination. In previous periods it was subject to the problems of discrimination that were widespread across the United States. M. Holloway came to the meeting and were able to attend the scientific sessions, however, the organizer for the closing banquet refused to honor the reservations of these four mathematicians. Lorch and his colleagues wrote to the bodies of the AMS. Bylaws were not changed, but non-discriminatory policies were established and have been observed since then. The Associations first woman president was Dorothy Lewis Bernstein, the Carriage House that belonged to the residents at 1529 18th Street, N. W. dates to around 1900. It is older than the 5-story townhouse where the MAA Headquarters is currently located, charles Evans Hughes occupied the house while he was Secretary of State and a Supreme Court Justice
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World War II
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World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
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Nashville, Tennessee
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Nashville is the capital of the U. S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in the central part of the state. The city is a center for the music, healthcare, publishing, banking and transportation industries and it is known as a center of the country music industry, earning it the nickname Music City, U. S. A. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government which includes six municipalities in a two-tier system. Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council, thirty-five of the members are elected from single-member districts, five are elected at-large. Reflecting the citys position in government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Courts courthouse for Middle Tennessee. According to 2015 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the balance population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Nashville, was 654,610. The 2015 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,830,345, the 2015 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 1,951,644. The town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and it was named for Francis Nash, the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville quickly grew because of its location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 African American slaves and 14 free blacks, in 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee, by 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city. The citys significance as a port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops, the state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war. Within a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton, meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base. The post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and these healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area. Circa 1950 the state approved a new city charter that provided for the election of city council members from single-member districts. This change was supported because at-large voting diluted the minority populations political power in the city and they could seldom gain a majority of the population to support a candidate of their choice
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Dorothy Lewis Bernstein
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Dorothy Lewis Bernstein was an American mathematician known for her work in applied mathematics, statistics, computer programming, and her research on the Laplace transform. She was the first woman to be elected president of the Mathematics Association of America, Dorothy Bernstein was born in Chicago, the daughter of Jewish Russian immigrants Jacob and Tille Lewis Bernstein. In 1930 she attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison and where she held a University Scholarship and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, in 1934 she graduated with both a B. A degree, summa cum laude, and a M. A. Degree in Mathematics. She did her masters thesis research on finding complex roots of polynomials by an extension of Newtons method, in 1935 she attended Brown University, where she became a member of the scientific society Sigma Xi. She received her Ph. D. in mathematics from Brown in 1939 and her dissertation was entitled The Double Laplace Integral and was published in the Duke Mathematical Journal. From 1943–1959 Bernstein taught at the University of Rochester, where she worked on existence theorems for partial differential equations and her work was motivated by non-linear problems that were just being tackled by high-speed digital computers. In 1950, Princeton University Press published her book, Existence Theorems in Partial Differential Equations and she spent 1959–1979 as a professor of mathematics at Goucher College, where she was chairman of the mathematics department for most of that time. She professed that she was particularly interested combining pure and applied mathematics in the undergraduate curriculum and she also developed an internship program for Goucher mathematics students to obtain meaningful employment experience. In 1972 Bernstein cofounded the Maryland Association for Educational Uses of Computers, Bernstein was very active in the Mathematical Association of America, where she was on the board of governors from 1965 to 1968. She served as the president in 1972–73, and later became the first female president of the MAA in 1979–80. She noted that attitudes and opportunities for women changed drastically after World War II, Dorothy Lewis Bernstein, in Grinstein, Louise S. Campbell, Paul J. Women of Mathematics, A Bio-Bibliographic Sourcebook, New York, Greenwood Press, pp. 17–20, Dorothy Lewis Bernstein, Biographies of Women Mathematicians, Agnes Scott College Preface of Existence Theorems in Partial Differential Equations Bernstein, Dorothy Lewis. This article incorporates material from Dorothy Bernstein on PlanetMath, which is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License
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Charles Evans Hughes
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Charles Evans Hughes, Sr. was an American statesman, lawyer, and Republican politician from New York. He was the Republican nominee in the 1916 U. S, Presidential election, losing narrowly to incumbent President Woodrow Wilson. Historian Clinton Rossiter has hailed him as a leading American conservative, Charles Evans Hughes was born in Glens Falls, New York, the son of a Welsh immigrant minister Rev. David C. Hughes and Mary C. Hughes, a sister of State Senator Henry C and he was active in the Northern Baptist church, a Mainline Protestant denomination. Hughes early education included attending Lafayette School in Newark, NJ, at the age of 14, he enrolled at Madison University, where he became a member of Delta Upsilon fraternity. He then transferred to Brown University, continuing as a member of Delta Upsilon and he graduated third in his class at the age of 19, having been elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year. He read law and entered Columbia Law School in 1882, where he graduated in 1884 with highest honors, in 1885, Hughes met Antoinette Carter, the daughter of a senior partner of the law firm where he worked, and they were married in 1888. They had one son, Charles Evans Hughes Jr. and three daughters and their youngest child, Elizabeth Hughes Gossett, was one of the first humans injected with insulin, and later served as president of the Supreme Court Historical Society. Hughes was the grandfather of Charles Evans Hughes III and H. Stuart Hughes, after graduating Hughes began working for Chamberlain, Carter & Hornblower where he met his future wife. In 1888, shortly after he was married, he became a partner in the firm, later the name was changed to Hughes, Hubbard & Reed. In 1891, Hughes left the practice of law to become a professor at Cornell Law School, in 1893, he returned to his old law firm in New York City to continue practicing until he ran for governor in 1906. He continued his association with Cornell as a lecturer at the Law School from 1893 to 1895. He was also a lecturer for New York University Law School. At that time, in addition to practicing law, Hughes taught at New York Law School with Woodrow Wilson, in 1905, he was appointed as counsel to the New York state legislative Stevens Gas Commission, a committee investigating utility rates. His uncovering of corruption led to lower gas rates in New York City, in 1905, he was appointed to the Armstrong Insurance Commission to investigate the insurance industry in New York as a special assistant to U. S. Attorney General. Hughes served as the Governor of New York from 1907 to 1910 and he defeated William Randolph Hearst in the 1906 election, and was the only Republican statewide candidate to win office. As a supporter of progressive policies, Hughes was able to play on the popularity of Theodore Roosevelt, in 1908, he was offered the vice-presidential nomination by William Howard Taft, but he declined it to run again for Governor. Theodore Roosevelt became an important supporter of Hughes and he pushed the passage of the Moreland Act, which enabled the governor to oversee city and county officials as well as officials in semi-autonomous state bureaucracies
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Florian Cajori
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Florian Cajori was a Swiss-American historian of mathematics. Florian Cajori immigrated to the United States at the age of sixteen and he received both his bachelors and masters degrees from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He taught for a few years at Tulane University, before being appointed as professor of applied mathematics there in 1887 and he was then driven north by tuberculosis. While in Colorado, he received his doctorate from Tulane in 1894, cajoris A History of Mathematics was the first popular presentation of the history of mathematics in the United States. He remained in Berkeley, California until his death in 1930, Cajori did no original mathematical research unrelated to the history of mathematics. In addition to his numerous books, he also contributed highly recognized and his last work was a revision of Andrew Mottes 1729 translation of Newtons Principia, vol.1 The Motion of Bodies, but he died before it was completed. The work was finished by R. T. Crawford of Berkeley,1893, A History of Mathematics, Macmillan & Company. 1898, A History of Elementary Mathematics, Macmillan,1909, A History of the Logarithmic Slide Rule and Allied Instruments The Engineering News Publishing Company. 1919, A History of the Conceptions of Limits and Fluxions in Great Britain, from Newton to Woodhouse,1920, On the History of Gunters Scale and the Slide Rule during the Seventeenth Century Vol.1, University of California Press. 1928, A History of Mathematical Notations The Open Court Company,1934, Sir Isaac Newtons Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy and His System of the World tr. Andrew Motte, rev. 1923, The History of Notations of the Calculus, Florian Cajori at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Florian Cajori. A History of the Conceptions of Limits and Fluxions in Great Britain, from Newton to Woodhouse
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David Eugene Smith
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David Eugene Smith was an American mathematician, educator, and editor. David Eugene Smith is considered one of the founders of the field of mathematics education, Smith was born in Cortland, New York, to Abram P. Smith, attorney and surrogate judge, and Mary Elizabeth Bronson, who taught her young son Latin and Greek. He attended Syracuse University, graduating in 1881 and he studied to be a lawyer concentrating in arts and humanities, but accepted an instructorship in mathematics at the Cortland Normal School in 1884 where he attended as a young man. Smith became president of the Mathematical Association of America in 1920 and he also wrote a large number of publications of various types. He edited Augustus De Morgans A Budget of Paradoxes and wrote books on Mathematics which are listed below. Michigan Historical Math Collection History of Mathematics,2 Volumes