Morey Stanley Mosk was an Associate Justice of the California Supreme Court for 37 years, holds the record for the longest-serving justice on that court. Before sitting on the Supreme Court, he served as Attorney General of California and as a trial court judge, among other governmental positions. Mosk was the last Justice of the California Supreme Court to have served in non-judicial elected office before his appointment to the bench; the Los Angeles County Courthouse is named after him. Mosk was born in Texas, his parents moved when he was three years old, he grew up in Rockford, Illinois. His parents and Minna, were Reform Jews who did not believe in strict religious observances. Since Rockford sits next to the Wisconsin border, Mosk's parents followed Wisconsin politics and were strong supporters of Progressive Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette Sr. Mosk graduated from the University of Chicago in 1933 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy. Mosk's life was affected by the Great Depression.
Because his father's business in Rockford was floundering, his parents and brother relocated to Los Angeles, Mosk followed them after graduating from college, as they could not afford to support him in further studies in Chicago. At the time, it was possible to use the last year of a bachelor's degree as the first year of a three-year law degree program, so while living with his parents, Mosk was able to obtain a law degree in two years, he earned a LL. B was admitted to the bar that same year. Thanks to the Depression, no major Los Angeles firms were hiring. Mosk opened his solo practice, shared an office with four other solos, each maintaining separate practices. During those difficult years, Mosk was a general practitioner. While practicing law, Mosk assisted the Democratic politician Culbert Olson with campaigning, in 1939 was given the job of executive secretary to Olson, the first Democrat elected Governor of California in the 20th-century. During Olson's last days in office, after his defeat for re-election by Republican Earl Warren, he appointed Mosk a Los Angeles County Superior Court judge at the age of 31, the youngest in the state.
Mosk prevailed. In March 1945, Mosk left the Superior Court to volunteer for service in the U. S. Army during World War II as a private, but spent most of the war in a transportation unit in New Orleans and never went abroad. After honorable discharge in September 1945, he returned to California and resumed his judicial career. On October 18, 1945, actress Ava Gardner married bandleader Artie Shaw at Mosk's house. In 1947, as a Superior Court judge, he declared the enforcement of racial restrictive covenants unconstitutional before the Supreme Court of the United States did so in Shelley v. Kraemer, he presided over many reported cases. In 1958, he was elected Attorney General of California by the largest margin of any contested election in the country that year, was the first person of Jewish descent to serve as a statewide executive branch officer in California. In 1962, he was re-elected by a large margin, he served as the California National Committeeman to the Democratic National Committee and was an early supporter of John F. Kennedy for President.
He remained close to the Kennedy family. As attorney general for nearly six years, he issued two thousand written opinions, handled a series of landmark cases, on January 8, 1962, appeared before the U. S. Supreme Court in Arizona v. California. Mosk established the Attorney General's Civil Rights Division and fought to force the Professional Golfers' Association of America to amend its bylaws denying access to minority golfers, he established Consumer Rights, Constitutional Rights, Antitrust divisions. As California's chief law enforcement officer, he sponsored legislation creating the California Commission on Peace Officers' Standards and Training. Mosk commissioned a study of the resurgence of right-wing extremism in California, which famously characterized the secretive John Birch Society as a "cadre" of "wealthy businessmen, retired military officers and little old ladies in tennis shoes." While an early favorite to be elected to the United States Senate after the death of incumbent Clair Engle, Mosk was appointed to the California Supreme Court in September 1964 by Governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown to succeed the elevated Roger J. Traynor.
Mosk was retained by the electorate in 1964, to three full twelve-year terms from 1974. Although Mosk was a self-described liberal, he displayed an independent streak that sometimes surprised his admirers and critics alike. For example, in Bakke v. Regents of the University of California, Mosk ruled that the minority admissions program at the University of California, Davis violated the equal protection clause of the U. S. Constitution; this decision was affirmed by the U. S. Supreme Court in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 438 U. S. 265, unlike Mosk's opinion, held that race could be factored in admissions to promote ethnic diversity. The U. S. Supreme Court agreed with Mosk in rejecting racial quotas, he voted to uphold the constitutionality of a parental consent for abortion law—a law struck down by a majority of the court. Although opposed to the death penalty, Mosk voted to uphold death penalty convictions on a number of occasions, he believed he was obligated to enforce laws properly enacted by the people of the state of California though he did not approve of such la
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
Needles is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. It lies on the western banks of the Colorado River in the Mohave Valley subregion of the Mojave Desert, near the borders of Arizona and Nevada and 110 miles from the Las Vegas Strip, it is the easternmost city of the San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area. Needles is geographically isolated from other cities in the county. Barstow, the nearest city within the county, is separated from Needles by over 140 miles of desert and 2 mountain ranges; the city is accessible via Interstate 40 and U. S. Route 95; the population was 4,844 at the 2010 census, up from 4,830 at the 2000 census. Needles was named after "The Needles", a group of pinnacles in the Mohave Mountains on the Arizona side of the river to the south of the city; the large Mohave Native American community shares the nearby Fort Mojave Indian Reservation and the town. Needles is a gateway to the Mojave National Preserve; the Mohave, one of the traditional Colorado River Indian Tribes, are Native Americans that have been living in the Mojave Valley area for thousands of years prior to the European exploration of the area.
In the Mohave language, they call themselves the ʼAha Makhav. Their name comes from two words: ʼaha, meaning "river", makhav, meaning "along" or "beside", to them it means "people who live along the river"; these people traded with the tribes of coastal Southern California following the Mohave Trail. The Franciscan missionary Francisco Garcés, was the first European to visit the Mohave people and travel on the trail and report on the route in 1776. From 1829 to 1848, part of this trail became a part of the route of the Old Spanish Trail between New Mexico and Southern California; the historic Mojave Road, now goes through the Mojave National Preserve following the route of the Mohave Trail. Along it, in 1859, Fort Mohave was built and the road established to protect new pioneer immigrants to California from New Mexico and other travelers from the Mohave during the Mohave War; the city was founded in May 1883 as a result of the construction of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which crossed the Colorado River at Eastbridge, Arizona three miles southeast of modern downtown Needles.
The name was derived from the Needles, pointed mountain peaks at the south end of the valley with wind-blown holes in them, visible only by boat from the Colorado River. This point on the Colorado River was a poor site for such a bridge, lacking firm banks and a solid bottom. Additionally, the bridge was not of the best quality, which led to criticism that it was a "flimsy looking structure", was an obstruction to navigation, since it lacked a draw to allow boat traffic; the flooding and meandering of the Colorado River destroyed the bridge in 1884, 1886 and 1888. The railroad surrendered to nature and built the Red Rock Bridge, a high cantilever bridge, at a much narrower point with solid rock footings ten miles downstream near modern Topock; the bridge was completed in May 1890. A tent town for railroad construction crews, the railroad company built a hotel, car sheds, shops and a roundhouse. Within a month the town boasted a Chinese wash-house, a newsstand, a restaurant, a couple of general stores, nine or ten saloons.
The town became the largest port on the river above Arizona. The railway and the Fred Harvey Company built the elegant Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts style El Garces Hotel and Santa Fe Station in 1908, considered the "crown jewel" of the entire Fred Harvey chain; the landmark building is being restored. Needles was a major stop on the historic U. S. Route 66 highway from the 1920s through the 1960s. For immigrants from the Midwest Dust Bowl in the 1930s, it was the first town that marked their arrival in California; the city is lined with other shops from that era. The "Carty's Camp", which appears in The Grapes of Wrath as the Joad family enters California from Arizona, is now a ghost tourist court, its remains located behind the 1940s-era 66 Motel. In 1949, the United States Bureau of Reclamation began an extensive project to dredge a new channel for the Colorado River that would straighten out a river bend, causing serious silt problems since the Hoover Dam was completed. Needles is a tradition going back many decades.
The city is the eastern gateway to a scenic desert area. The city has a desert climate with a subtropical temperature range, with a mean annual temperature of 74.2 °F.. Needles, like Death Valley to the northwest, is known for extreme heat during the summer; the Needles weather station is reported by the United States government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the site of the highest daily temperature recorded in the U. S. during the desert summers. Needles sets national or world daily temperature records, along with other related records associated with extreme desert heat. For instance, on July 22, 2006, Needles experienced a record high low temperature of 100 °F at 6:00 AM with a high temperature exceeding 120 °F, making it one of the few locations on Earth that have recorded a triple-digit overnight low temperature. On August 13, 2012, Needles experienced a thunderstorm that deposited rain at a temperature of 115 °F starting at 3:56 PM, setting a new record for the hottest rain in world history.
The air temperature was 118 °F. Since the humidity was only 11%, the rain evaporated so that "only a trace of precipitation was recorded in the rain gauge". Weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera reported that this was the lowest
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936, it responded to needs for relief and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Social Security Administration, they provided support for farmers, the unemployed and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt; the programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in liberal ideas, the South, traditional Democrats, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions and ethnic minorities. The Republicans were split, with conservatives opposing the entire New Deal as hostile to business and economic growth and liberals in support; the realignment crystallized into the New Deal coalition that dominated presidential elections into the 1960s while the opposing conservative coalition controlled Congress in domestic affairs from 1937 to 1964. By 1936, the term "liberal" was used for supporters of the New Deal and "conservative" for its opponents. From 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavors by a "pro-spender" majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm election and his liberal supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the second one more liberal and more controversial.
The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934; the Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash. The controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal; the Second New Deal in 1935–1938 included the Wagner Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program, the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers. The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; the FSA was one of the oversight authorities of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, which administered relief efforts to Puerto Rican citizens affected by the Great Depression.
The economic downturn of 1937–1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal conservative coalition. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940–1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and upheld. Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal intact expanding it in some areas. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon retained. However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support.
The New Deal regulation of banking lasted. Several New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority; the largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economists call the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20 %. Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. Additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate 50% of the nation's human work-power was going unused. Before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks; when thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.
Relief for the poor was the respons
California courts of appeal
The California courts of appeal are the state intermediate appellate courts in the U. S. state of California. The state is geographically divided into six appellate districts; the courts of appeal form the largest state-level intermediate appellate court system in the United States, with 105 justices. The decisions of the courts of appeal are binding on the California superior courts, both the courts of appeal and the superior courts are bound by the decisions of the Supreme Court of California. Notably, all published; this is distinct from the practice in the federal courts and in other state court systems in which trial courts are bound only by the appellate decisions from the particular circuit in which it sits, as well as the Supreme Court of the United States or the state supreme court. In contrast, "there is no horizontal stare decisis in the California Court of Appeal". Thus, all superior courts are bound by the decision of a court of appeal if it is the only published California precedent that articulates a point of law relevant to a particular set of facts if the superior court would have decided differently if writing on a fresh slate.
However, another court of appeal division or district may rule differently on that point of law after a litigant seeks relief from an adverse trial court ruling that faithfully applied existing precedent. In that instance, all superior courts are free to pick and choose which precedent they wish to follow until the state supreme court settles the issue for the entire state, although a superior court confronted with such a conflict will follow the view of its own court of appeal, it is customary in federal courts and other state courts to indicate in case citations the particular circuit or district of an intermediate appellate court that issued the decision cited. But because the decisions of all six California appellate districts are binding upon all trial courts, district numbers are traditionally omitted in California citation style unless an actual interdistrict conflict is at issue. All California appellate courts are required by the California Constitution to decide criminal cases in writing with reasons stated.
Such procedure is not mandated for civil cases, but for certain types of civil cases where a liberty interest is implicated, the courts of appeal may, but are not required to, follow a similar procedure. Most Court of Appeal opinions have no precedential value. In addition, West Publishing traditionally included Court of Appeal opinions in its unofficial reporter, the Pacific Reporter. In 1959, West began publishing both Supreme Court and Court of Appeal opinions in West's California Reporter, no longer included Court of Appeal opinions in the Pacific Reporter. Due to their huge caseloads and volume of output, the courts of appeal in turn see the largest number of decisions appealed to the state supreme court and the Supreme Court of the United States. A few famous U. S. Supreme Court cases, such as Burnham v. Superior Court of California, came to the high court on writ of certiorari to one of the courts of appeal after the state supreme court had denied review. Many Court of Appeal opinions have become nationally prominent in their own right, such as the 1959 opinion that carved out the first judge-made exception to the at-will employment doctrine, the 1980 opinion that authorized a cause of action for wrongful life, the 1984 opinion that created the right to Cumis counsel.
The California Constitution made the Supreme Court the only appellate court for the whole state. As the state's population skyrocketed during the 19th century, the Supreme Court was expanded from three to seven justices, the Court began hearing the majority of appeals in three-justice panels; the Court became so overloaded that it issued summary dispositions in minor cases, meaning that it was saying "affirmed" or "reversed" without saying why. The state's second Constitution, enacted in 1879, halted that practice by expressly requiring the Court to issue every dispositive decision in writing "with reasons stated." In 1889, the Legislature authorized the Supreme Court to appoint five commissioners to help with its work. Despite implementing all these measures, the Supreme Court was no longer able to keep up with the state's growing appellate caseload by the end of the 19th century. Accordingly, in 1903, the Legislature proposed a constitutional amendment to create what were called the district courts of appeal.
On November 8, 1904, the electorate adopted the amendment. The district courts of appeal consisted of three appellate districts, headquartered in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Sacramento, with three justices each; these first nine justices were appointed by the Governor. Each district was assigned an ordinal number. In 1966, the word "district" was dropped from the official names of the courts of appeal by another constitutional amendment which extensively revised the sections governing the state judiciary; this left Florida as the sole state in the United States with "District Courts of Appeal." Since each of the courts of appeal has been named as "the Court of Appeal of the State of California" for a particular numb