Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 4,031,485 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America. The population of the city proper was 1,625,583 in 2016. Recife was founded in 1537, during the early Portuguese colonization of Brazil, as the main harbor of the Captaincy of Pernambuco, known for its large scale production of sugar cane, it was the former capital Mauritsstad of the 17th century colony of New Holland of Dutch Brazil, established by the Dutch West India Company. The city is located at the confluence of the Beberibe and Capibaribe rivers before they flow into the South Atlantic Ocean, it is a major port on the Atlantic. Its name is an allusion to the stone reefs; the many rivers, small islands and over 50 bridges found in Recife city centre characterise its geography and led to the city being called the "Brazilian Venice". As of 2010, it is the capital city with the highest HDI in Northeast Brazil and second highest HDI in the entire North and Northeast Brazil.
The Metropolitan Region of Recife is the main industrial zone of the State of Pernambuco. With fiscal incentives by the government, many industrial companies were started in the 1970s and 1980s. Recife has a tradition of being the most important commercial hub of the North/Northeastern region of Brazil, with more than 52,500 business enterprises in Recife plus 32,500 in the Metro Area, totaling more than 85,000. A combination of a large supply of labor and significant private investments turned Recife into Brazil's second largest medical hub. Recife stands out as a major tourist attraction of the Northeast, both for its beaches and for its historic sites, dating back to both the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization of the region; the beach of Porto de Galinhas, 60 kilometers south of the city, has been awarded the title of best beach in Brazil and has drawn many tourists. The Historic Centre of Olinda, 7 kilometers north of the city, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1982, both cities' Brazilian Carnival are among the world's most famous.
The city is an education hub, home to the Federal University of Pernambuco, the largest university in Pernambuco. Several Brazilian historical figures, such as the poet and abolitionist Castro Alves, moved to Recife for their studies. Recife and Natal are the only Brazilian cities with direct flights to the islands of Fernando de Noronha, a World Heritage Site; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Recife hosted the 1950 FIFA World Cup; the city, despite having a higher crime rate than the southern region of Brazil, is considered the safest state capital in northeastern region. It has a much lower crime than other regional capitals, such as Salvador or São Luís, yet despite that crime rose 440% in 2015. Recife began as a collection of fishing shacks and warehouses on the delta between the Capibaribe and Beberibe Rivers in the captaincy of Pernambuco, sometime between 1535 and 1537 in the earliest days of Portuguese colonisation of Terra de Santa Cruz called Brazil, on the northeast coast of South America.
It was way station for Portuguese sailors and passing ships. The first documented reference to the settlement with its "arrecife dos navios" was in the royal Charter Act of March 12, 1537, establishing Olinda, 6 kilometres to the north, as a village, with its port where the Beberibe River meets the sea. Olinda had been settled in 1536 by Captain General Duarte Coelho, a Portuguese nobleman and administrator of the captaincy of Pernambuco; the city is named for the long reef recife running parallel to the shoreline which encloses its harbour. The reef is not as sometimes stated, a coral reef, but a consolidated ancient beach, now as firm and hard as stone. In 1541, Coelho returned from the Kingdom of Portugal with the machinery for an engenho, with it, his brother-in-law established the first mill named Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, in the floodplain of the Beberibe River at Recife. At that time the banks of the Capibaribe River were covered by sugar cane. Recife was capital of the 17th century New Holland established by the Dutch West India Company and was called Mauritsstad.
The Mascate War of 1710–1711 pitted merchants of Recife against those of nearby Olinda. Due to the city's proximity to the equator, Recife's weather is warm, it has a number of islands, rivers and bridges that crisscross the city and has been called "The Venice of Brazil". The city is located amidst tropical forests which are distinguished by high rainfall levels, resulting in poor soil quality as the heavy dense rainfall washes away the nutrients. There is an absence of extreme temperatures and the area enjoys a cool breeze due to the trade winds from the South Atlantic Ocean to the east. Recife has a tropical climate, more a tropical monsoon climate, with warm to hot temperatures and high relative humidity throughout the year. However, these conditions are relieved by pleasant westwardly trade winds blowing in from the ocean. January and February are the warmest months, with mean temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 22 °C, with sun. July
The Portuguese Empire known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999; the empire began in the 15th century, from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Spanish Empire; the Portuguese Empire originated at the beginning of the Age of Discovery, the power and influence of the Kingdom of Portugal would expand across the globe. In the wake of the Reconquista, Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation and maritime technology such as the caravel, with the aim of finding a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice-trade.
In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope, in 1498 Vasco da Gama reached India. In 1500, either by an accidental landfall or by the crown's secret design, Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered Brazil on the South American coast. Over the following decades, Portuguese sailors continued to explore the coasts and islands of East Asia, establishing forts and factories as they went. By 1571 a string of naval outposts connected Lisbon to Nagasaki along the coasts of Africa, the Middle East and South Asia; this commercial network and the colonial trade had a substantial positive impact on Portuguese economic growth, when it accounted for about a fifth of Portugal's per-capita income. When King Philip II of Spain inherited the Portuguese crown in 1580 there began a 60-year union between Spain and Portugal known to subsequent historiography as the Iberian Union; the realms continued to have separate administrations. As the King of Spain was King of Portugal, Portuguese colonies became the subject of attacks by three rival European powers hostile to Spain: the Dutch Republic and France.
With its smaller population, Portugal found itself unable to defend its overstretched network of trading posts, the empire began a long and gradual decline. Brazil became the most valuable colony of the second era of empire, until, as part of the wave of independence movements that swept the Americas during the early 19th century, it broke away in 1822; the third era of empire covers the final stage of Portuguese colonialism after the independence of Brazil in the 1820s. By the colonial possessions had been reduced to forts and plantations along the African coastline, Portuguese Timor, enclaves in India and China; the 1890 British Ultimatum led to the contraction of Portuguese ambitions in Africa. Under António Salazar, the Second Portuguese Republic made some ill-fated attempts to cling on to its last remaining colonies. Under the ideology of Pluricontinentalism, the regime renamed its colonies "overseas provinces" while retaining the system of forced labour, from which only a small indigenous élite was exempt.
In 1961 India annexed Goa and Dahomey annexed Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá. The Portuguese Colonial War in Africa lasted from 1961 until the final overthrow of the Estado Novo regime in 1974; the so-called Carnation Revolution of April 1974 in Lisbon led to the hasty decolonization of Portuguese Africa and to the 1975 annexation of Portuguese Timor by Indonesia. Decolonization prompted the exodus of nearly all the Portuguese colonial settlers and of many mixed-race people from the colonies. Portugal returned Macau to China in 1999; the only overseas possessions to remain under Portuguese rule, the Azores and Madeira, both had overwhelmingly Portuguese populations, Lisbon subsequently changed their constitutional status from "overseas provinces" to "autonomous regions". The origin of the Kingdom of Portugal lay in the reconquista, the gradual reconquest of the Iberian peninsula from the Moors. After establishing itself as a separate kingdom in 1139, Portugal completed its reconquest of Moorish territory by reaching Algarve in 1249, but its independence continued to be threatened by neighbouring Castile until the signing of the Treaty of Ayllón in 1411.
Free from threats to its existence and unchallenged by the wars fought by other European states, Portuguese attention turned overseas and towards a military expedition to the Muslim lands of North Africa. There were several probable motives for their first attack, on the Marinid Sultanate, it offered the opportunity to continue the Christian crusade against Islam. In 1415 an attack was made on Ceuta, a strategically located North African Muslim enclave along the Mediterranean Sea, one of the terminal ports of the trans-Saharan gold and slave trades; the conquest was a military success, marked one of the first steps in Portuguese expansion beyond the Iberian Peninsula, but it proved costly to defend against the Muslim forces that soon besieged it. The Portuguese were unable to use it as a base for further expansion into the hinterland, the trans-Saharan caravans shifted their routes to bypass Ceuta and/or used alternative Muslim ports. Although Ceuta proved to be a disappointment for the Portuguese
Philip III of Spain
Philip III was King of Spain. He was as Philip II, King of Portugal, Naples and Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death. A member of the House of Habsburg, Philip III was born in Madrid to King Philip II of Spain and his fourth wife and niece Anna, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. Philip III married his cousin Margaret of Austria, sister of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor. Although known in Spain as Philip the Pious, Philip's political reputation abroad has been negative – an'undistinguished and insignificant man,' a'miserable monarch,' whose'only virtue appeared to reside in a total absence of vice,' to quote historians C. V. Wedgwood, R. Stradling and J. H. Elliott. In particular, Philip's reliance on his corrupt chief minister, the Duke of Lerma, drew much criticism at the time and afterwards. For many, the decline of Spain can be dated to the economic difficulties that set in during the early years of his reign. Nonetheless, as the ruler of the Spanish Empire at its height and as the king who achieved a temporary peace with the Dutch and brought Spain into the Thirty Years' War through an successful campaign, Philip's reign remains a critical period in Spanish history.
After Philip III's older brother Don Carlos died insane, Philip II had concluded that one of the causes of Carlos' condition had been the influence of the warring factions at the Spanish court. He believed that Carlos' education and upbringing had been badly affected by this, resulting in his lunacy and disobedience, accordingly he set out to pay much greater attention to arrangements for his sons. Philip II appointed Juan de Zúñiga Prince Diego's governor, to continue this role for Philip, chose García de Loaysa as his tutor, they were joined by Cristóbal de Moura, a close supporter of Philip II. In combination, Philip believed, they would provide a consistent, stable upbringing for Prince Philip, ensure he avoided the same fate as Carlos. Philip's education was to follow the model for royal princes laid down by Father Juan de Mariana, focusing on the imposition of restraints and encouragement to form the personality of the individual at an early age, aiming to deliver a king, neither tyrannical nor excessively under the influence of his courtiers.
Prince Philip appears to have been liked by his contemporaries:'dynamic, good-natured and earnest,' suitably pious, having a'lively body and a peaceful disposition,' albeit with a weak constitution. The comparison with the memory of the disobedient and insane Carlos was a positive one, although some commented that Prince Philip appeared less intelligent and politically competent than his late brother. Indeed, although Philip was educated in Latin, French and astronomy, appears to have been a competent linguist, recent historians suspect that much of his tutors' focus on Philip's undeniably pleasant and respectful disposition was to avoid reporting that, languages aside, he was not in fact intelligent or academically gifted. Nonetheless, Philip does not appear to have been naive – his correspondence to his daughters shows a distinctive cautious streak in his advice on dealing with court intrigue. Philip first met the Marquis of Denia – the future Duke of Lerma – a gentleman of the King's chamber, in his early teens.
Lerma and Philip became close friends, but Lerma was considered unsuitable by the King and Philip's tutors. Lerma was dispatched to Valencia as a Viceroy in 1595, with the aim of removing Philip from his influence. By now in poor health himself, King Philip II was becoming concerned over the prince's future, he attempted to establish de Moura as a future, trusted advisor to his son, reinforcing de Loaysa's position by appointing him archbishop; the prince received a conservative Dominican confessor. The following year, Philip II died after a painful illness, leaving the Spanish Empire to his son, King Philip III. Philip married his cousin, Margaret of Austria, on 18 a year after becoming king. Margaret, the sister of the future Emperor Ferdinand II, would be one of three women at Philip's court who would apply considerable influence over the king. Margaret was considered by contemporaries to be pious – in some cases, excessively pious, too influenced by the Church –'astute and skillful' in her political dealings, although'melancholic' and unhappy over the influence of the Duke of Lerma over her husband at court.
Margaret continued to fight an ongoing battle with Lerma for influence up until her death in 1611. Philip had an'affectionate, close relationship' with Margaret, paid her additional attention after she bore him a son in 1605. Margaret, alongside Philip's grandmother/aunt, Empress Maria – the Austrian representative to the Spanish court – and Margaret of the Cross, Maria's daughter – formed a powerful, uncompromising Catholic and pro-Austrian voice within Philip's life, they were successful, for example, in convincing Philip to provide financial support to Ferdinand from 1600 onwards. Philip acquired other religious advisors. Father Juan de Santa Maria – confessor to Philip's daughter, doña Maria, was felt by contemporaries to have an excessive influence over Philip at the end of his life, both he and Luis de Aliaga, Philip's own confessor, were credited with influencing the overthrow of Lerma in 1618. Mariana de San Jose, a favoured nun of Queen Margaret's, was criticised for her influence over the King's actions.
The Spanish crown at the time ruled through a system of royal coun
São Luís, Maranhão
São Luís is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Maranhão. The city is located on Upaon-açu Island or Ilha de São Luís, in the Baía de São Marcos, an extension of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the estuary of Pindaré, Mearim and other rivers, its coordinates are 44.30 ° west. São Luís has the second largest maritime extension within Brazilian states, its maritime extension is 640 km. The city proper has a population of some 1,082,935 people; the metropolitan area totals 1,605,305, ranked as the 15th largest in Brazil. São Luís, created as Saint-Louis-de-Maragnan, is the only Brazilian state capital founded by France and it is one of the three Brazilian state capitals located on islands; the city has two major sea ports: Madeira Port and Itaqui Port, through which a substantial part of Brazil's iron ore, originating from the -Amazon region, is exported. The city's main industries are metallurgical with Alumar, VALE. São Luís is home of the Federal University of Maranhão. São Luís was the home town of famous Brazilian samba singer Alcione, Brazilian writers Aluísio Azevedo, Ferreira Gullar and Josué Montello, Belgian-naturalised soccer player Luís Oliveira, the musician João do Vale, a Música popular brasileira singer.
The town was a large village of the Tupinambá tribe. The first Europeans to settle it were the French, in 1612, who intended to make it the center of a colony named Equinoctial France, under the command of Daniel de la Touche, Seigneur de la Ravardière, Admiral François de Razilly, they built a fort named Saint-Louis de Maragnan after King Louis XIII and his Saintly ancestor Louis IX. The settlement was conquered for Portugal by Jerônimo de Albuquerque in 1615, when it was renamed São Luís. There had been little time for the French to build a city, a fact which has led to some controversy as to the actual date of the founding of the city, whether by the French or the Portuguese. In 1641, the city was invaded by the Dutch, who left in 1645. In 1677, the city was made. Only when those invasions ceased permanently did the colonial government decide to create the state of Grão-Pará e Maranhão, independent from the rest of the country. By that time, the economy was based on agriculture the exportation of sugar cane and tobacco.
Conflicts amongst. This started due the struggle between Jesuits and landowners, the first against the Indian slavery and the others against the unfair treatment given by the Portuguese authorities. After few skirmishes, the rebels were defeated and the Beckman brothers arrested and, after a brief trial, were hanged and quartered; the last words of Manuel Beckman at the gallows were "Pelo Povo do Maranhão morro contente". The phrase decorates the main hall of State Council Building. Soon after the outbreak of the American Civil War, the region started to provide cotton to Great Britain; the wealth generated by this activity was used to modernize the city. The city came to be the third most populous city in the country. By the end of the 19th century, agriculture was in decay and since the city's population has been searching for other ways to make a living. Nowadays, São Luís has the largest and best preserved heritage of colonial Portuguese architecture of all Latin America; the island is known as the "Island of Love" and as "the Brazilian Athens", due to its many poets and writers, such as Sotero dos Reis, Aluísio Azevedo, Graça Aranha, Gonçalves Dias, Josué Montello, Ferreira Gullar, among others.
The city is known as "the Brazilian Jamaica" because of the popularity of Reggae Music. The ancestral composition of São Luís, according to an autosomal DNA study, is 42% European, 39% Native American and 19% African; until the mid-nineteenth century, Maranhão's economy was one of the most prosperous in the country. However, after the Civil War in the United States of America, when it lost space in the export of cotton and the state went into decline. Only after the end of the 1960s did the state begin to receive incentives and emerge from seclusion, by way of road and rail connections with other regions. In the late eighteenth century, increased international demand for cotton to meet the English textile industry coupled with reduced production because of the Revolutionary War in the United States provided the perfect setting to stimulate cotton production in Maranhão. Shipping companies and Southampton & Company Maranha Maranha Shipping Company, shipping steam, which performed the transportation of cotton from the states of Georgia and Alabama, began operating in St. Louis shaft - London, leading to production of Caxias and Baixada Maranhão.
By the early twentieth century, St. Louis still exporting cotton to England by sea, through the lines and Booth Red Cross Line Line and company-Maranha Liverpool Shipping Company. During this golden period of the Maranhão economy, São Luís was a living cultural effervescence; the city had more in common with the European capitals than the other Brazilian cities. It was the first to receive an Italian opera and received the latest news about French literature every week. The
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Fadrique de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Villanueva de Valdueza
Fadrique de Toledo or Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo Osorio, was a Spanish noble and admiral. He was a Knight of the Order of Santiago, a Spanish Admiral, Captain General of the Spanish Navy at the age of 37, he was born in Naples as the son of Pedro de Toledo Osorio, 5th Marquis of Villafranca commander in chief of the Spanish Army in the Kingdom of Naples, Doña Elvira de Mendoza. He served in the Spanish fleet under command of his father and rose through the ranks, as did his elder brother García de Toledo Osorio, 6th Marquis of Villafranca. In 1617, he became Capitán General de la Armada de Barlovento, he gained several victories against the Dutch, in 1621 near Gibraltar and in 1623 in the English Channel, blockading the Dutch coast. In the same year he defeated a Moorish incursion near Gibraltar. In 1625 he was appointed General of Portugal, Capitán General of the Army of Brazil, he sailed towards Brazil at the head of a fleet consisting of 34 Spanish ships, 22 Portuguese ships and 12,566 men.
There he reconquered the strategically important city of Salvador da Bahia from the Dutch on April 30, 1625. This victory would prove decisively important in the Dutch-Portuguese War to oust the Dutch from Brazil over the next two decades. In 1629 he commanded a Spanish expedition that expelled the English and French colonial settlers from the islands of Saint Kitts and Nevis. For all of his victories he was awarded the title of Marques de Villanueva y Valdueza on January 17, 1634. Don Fadrique married in Madrid, on August 12, 1627 with his cousin Doña Elvira Ponce de León, daughter of Don Luis Ponce de León, VI Marqués de Zahara, Doña Victoria Álvarez de Toledo, they had three children: Doña Elvira de Toledo, married Don Juan Gaspar Enríquez de Cabrera, 6th Duke of Medina de Rioseco. Doña Victoria de Toledo, married her cousin Don Francisco Ponce de León, 5th Duke of Arcos. Don Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo y 7th Marquis de Villafranca and Grandee of Spain. Don Fadrique had two illegitimate children: Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Abbot of the Royal Monastery of Alcalá la Real, Jaén.
Íñigo de Toledo, who married Leonor de Velasco, XI Countess of Siruela. Don Fadrique de Toledo y Osorio