Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
An easement is a non-possessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it. It is best typified in the right of way which one landowner, A, may enjoy over the land of another and it is similar to real covenants and equitable servitudes, in the United States, the Restatement of Property takes steps to merge these concepts as servitudes. An easement is considered as a property right in itself at common law and is treated as a type of property in most jurisdictions. The rights of an easement holder vary substantially among jurisdictions, for example, an affirmative easement might allow land owner A to drive their cattle over the land of B. A has an easement from B. Conversely, a negative easement might restrict A from blocking Bs mountain view by putting up a wall of trees, a has a negative easement from B. As defined by Evershed MR in Re Ellenborough Park Ch 131, the party gaining the benefit of the easement is the dominant estate, while the party granting the benefit or suffering the burden is the servient estate.
For example, the owner of parcel A holds an easement to use a driveway on parcel B to gain access to As house. Here, parcel A is the dominant estate, receiving the benefit, a private easement is held by private individuals or entities. A public easement grants an easement for a use, for example. Conversely, an easement in gross benefits an individual or a legal entity, the easement can be for a personal use or a commercial use. Historically, an easement in gross was neither assignable nor inheritable and they are divisible, but must be exclusive and all holders of the easement must agree to divide. If subdivided, each subdivided parcel enjoys the easement, a floating easement exists when there is no fixed location, method, or limit to the right of way. For example, a right of way may cross a field, without any visible path, a floating easement may be public or private, appurtenant or in gross. One case defined it as, easement defined in general terms, furthermore, a floating easement becomes fixed after construction and cannot thereafter be changed.
Some legal scholars classify structural encroachments as a type of easement, similar to a license or profit-à-prendre, Wayleave is normally a temporary arrangement and does not automatically transfer to a new owner or occupier. More generally, an agreement can be used for any service provider. In the United States, an easement in gross is used for such needs, easements are most often created by express language in binding documents
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers. Pitch can be natural or manufactured, derived from petroleum, coal tar or plants, various forms of pitch may be called tar, bitumen or asphalt. Pitch produced from plants is known as resin. Some products made from plant resin are known as rosin, Pitch was traditionally used to help caulk the seams of wooden sailing vessels. Pitch may be used to waterproof wooden containers and in the making of torches, petroleum-derived pitch is black in colour, hence the adjectival phrase, pitch-black. Naturally occurring asphalt/bitumen, a type of pitch, is a viscoelastic polymer and this means that even though it seems to be solid at room temperature and can be shattered with a hard impact, it is actually fluid and will flow over time, but extremely slowly. The pitch drop experiment taking place at University of Queensland is an experiment which demonstrates the flow of a piece of pitch over many years. For the experiment, pitch was put in a glass funnel, since the pitch was allowed to start dripping in 1930, only nine drops have fallen.
It was calculated in the 1980s that the pitch in the experiment has a viscosity approximately 230 billion times that of water, the eighth drop fell on 28 November 2000, and the ninth drop fell on 17 April 2014. Another experiment was begun by a colleague of Nobel Prize winner Ernest Walton in the department of Trinity College in Ireland in 1944. Over the years, the pitch had produced several drops, on Thursday, July 11,2013 scientists at Trinity College caught pitch dripping from a funnel on camera for the first time. The viscoelastic properties of pitch make it the vehicle of choice for polishing high-quality optical lenses, in use the pitch is formed into a lap or polishing surface, which is charged with iron oxide or cerium oxide. The surface to be polished is pressed into the pitch, rubbed against the surface so formed, the ability of pitch to flow, albeit slowly, keeps it in constant uniform contact with the optical surface. The heating of wood tar and pitch to drip away from the wood.
Birchbark is used to make birch-tar, a particularly fine tar, the terms tar and pitch are often used interchangeably. However, pitch is considered solid, while tar is more liquid. Traditionally, pitch that was used for waterproofing buckets, barrels and it is used to make Cutlers resin. Asphaltene Tar The Pitch Drop Experiment Pine Tar Production Primitive tar and charcoal production
They occupied three of the Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel, the smaller island of Anacapa was likely inhabited seasonally due to the lack of a consistent water source. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area, the Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources, the tribe lived in an area of three environments, the interior, the coast, and the Northern Channel Islands. These provided an array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the plains, rivers. The coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory.
All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the ocean winds. The mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy, during the cold months, what villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land covered by trees and animals. Abundant resources and a winter rarely harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory, such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources, due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a source of nutrition, relatively easy to find.
Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones, shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring, their proximity to shore made collection easier. Some of the species included mussels, and a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested this species along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era, the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish and this feat, difficult even for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe
California Gold Rush
The California Gold Rush began on January 24,1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutters Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States, the Gold Rush initiated the California Genocide, with 100,000 Native Californians dying between 1848 and 1868. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory to the state of the first nominee for the Republican Party. The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial, whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called forty-niners. The first to hear confirmed information of the rush were the people in Oregon, the Sandwich Islands, and Latin America. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the Gold Rush attracted tens of thousands from Latin America, Australia and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852.
Roads, churches and other towns were built throughout California, in 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by vote, and the future states interim first governor. In September,1850, California became a state, at the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of staking claims was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service, by 1869 railroads were built across the country from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, Gold worth tens of billions of todays dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few. However, many returned home with more than they had started with.
The Mexican–American War ended on February 3,1848, although California was firmly in American hands before that, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided for, among other things, the formal transfer of Upper California to the United States. The California Gold Rush began at Sutters Mill, near Coloma, on January 24,1848, James W. Marshall, a foreman working for Sacramento pioneer John Sutter, found shiny metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill Marshall was building for Sutter on the American River. Marshall brought what he found to John Sutter, and the two tested the metal. However, rumors started to spread and were confirmed in March 1848 by San Francisco newspaper publisher
Matilija Creek is a major stream in Ventura County in the U. S. state of California. It joins with North Fork Matilija Creek to form the Ventura River, many tributaries feed the mostly free flowing,17. 3-mile creek, which is largely contained in the Matilija Wilderness. Matilija was one of the Chumash rancherias under the jurisdiction of Mission San Buenaventura, the meaning of the Chumash name is unknown. From its headwaters south of Sespe Creek in the Matilija Wilderness in Santa Barbara County, below Matilija Falls it turns east and receives the Upper North Fork from the left, and almost immediately below that the West Fork from the right. Below the dam the creek flows southeast, through Matilija Hot Springs, the smaller North Fork Matilija Creek flows west and south from its headwaters near Rose Valley. The North Fork runs southwest, along Forest Route 6N31, and receives Cannon Creek from the right and it cascades through the narrow Wheeler Gorge and through the community of Wheeler Springs.
It flows briefly east and joins Matilija Creek shortly downstream, highway 33 largely parallels the North Fork, from the top of Dry Lakes Ridge to the mouth. Fed by some springs, despite its location in arid terrain, the creek flows year round. The name of the Matilija poppy is taken from the Matilija creek canyon, historically 5,000 steelhead trout used the upper Matilija basin. The Robles Diversion Dam on the Ventura River downstream posed a barrier to trout migration until a $6 million fish ladder was constructed in 2006, recent genetic analysis of the steelhead in Matilija Creek has shown them to be of native and not hatchery stocks. The creek has one dam on it, Matilija Dam, built in 1947 to provide water supply for agricultural, when completed, the dam was 190 feet high and could impound more than 7,000 acre feet of water. The reservoir has now almost completely filled with sediment, rendering it nearly useless, the dam was notched to reduce its height twice in the late 20th century, in order to allow some of the accumulated sediment to flow downstream.
It is currently slated for removal, rindge Dam, which Malibu Creek filled with sediment like Matilija Dam Riparian zone restoration Matilija Dam. org
Dick Smith Wilderness
The Dick Smith Wilderness is a wilderness area in the mountains of eastern Santa Barbara County, United States, with a portion in Ventura County. It is completely contained within the Los Padres National Forest, and is northeast of the city of Santa Barbara and it is most easily accessible from two trailheads off State Route 33, which runs north from Ojai. It is adjacent to the large San Rafael Wilderness on the west, across Highway 33 to the east, and in the Los Padres National Forest, is the large Sespe Wilderness. The wilderness is named after Santa Barbaran Dick Smith, who was a reporter, historian, Smith spent more times in these remote regions of Santa Barbara County than anyone, covering the area on horseback and accompanied by his dog. The wilderness is in the Transverse Ranges, east of the junction of the San Rafael Mountains and Sierra Madre Mountains at Big Pine Mountain. Madulce Peak, at 6,541 feet, is the highest mountain completely within the wilderness, the wilderness contains the divide between two watersheds, the Cuyama River to the north, and the Santa Ynez River to the south.
The major streams carrying runoff to those two rivers are Santa Barbara Creek and Mono Creek, the Pine Mountain Fault splits off from the Big Pine, it is visible along the southern slope of nearby Reyes Peak. Most rocks in the wilderness are Eocene marine sediments, with some scattered outcrops of Pliocene, the climate of the wilderness is Mediterranean, but modified by distance from the ocean. Since much of the wilderness is separated from the ocean by a mountain divide, summers at lower elevations are hot and dry, rain is extremely rare between April and October, and dry lightning from the occasional thunderstorms can start fires. Streams contain riparian vegetation, and there are stands of oak trees. Wildlife that may be encountered in the wilderness includes coyotes, black bears, the region has been continuously inhabited by humans for over 10,000 years. Rock art by the resident Chumash Indians is scattered across the region, almost all of the wilderness was burned in 2007 by the Zaca Fire.
Gagnon, Dennis R. Hiking the Santa Barbara Backcountry, the Ward Ritchie Press, California,1974. ISBN 0-378-03542-8 Charles W. Jennings and Rudolph G. Strand, geologic Map of California, Los Angeles Sheet. State of California, Division of Mines and Geology, wildernesses within the Los Padres National Forest Description at Wilderness. net
Geographic Names Information System
It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names, the database is part of a system that includes topographic map names and bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited, variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded. Each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier, the database never removes an entry, except in cases of obvious duplication. The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features, the general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals. The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail.
In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer, Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways, A Journey Into America, standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice, Vol.73, No. 170, page 51276 Report, Principles and Procedures, Domestic Geographic Names, U. S. Postal Service Publication 28, November 2000. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes
The wilderness area is primarily located within in the Ojai and Mt. Pinos ranger districts of the LPNF. The wilderness area was established in 1992 by the Los Padres Condor Range, the Sespe Condor Sanctuary is within the Sespe Wilderness. It was established to promote the propagation and growth of the California condor, the Sespe Wilderness is primarily chaparral-covered terrain, with areas of California oak woodland and riparian habitats. A section of Sespe Creek flows through it, there are hiking trails and seasonal creeks, hot springs, rock formations, and designated campsites in the wilderness area. Nearby wilderness areas of the southern Los Padres National Forest include the Matilija Wilderness, the Dick Smith Wilderness is further to the northwest. Los Padres National Forest topics Protected areas of Ventura County, California
The California condor is a New World vulture, the largest North American land bird. Although other fossil members are known, it is the surviving member of the genus Gymnogyps. The species is listed as endangered by the IUCN. The plumage is black with patches of white on the underside of the wings, the head is largely bald, with skin color ranging from gray on young birds to yellow and bright orange on breeding adults. Its huge 3.0 m wingspan is the widest of any North American bird, and its weight of up to 12 kg nearly equals that of the trumpeter swan, the condor is a scavenger and eats large amounts of carrion. It is one of the worlds longest-living birds, with a lifespan of up to 60 years, Condor numbers dramatically declined in the 20th century due to poaching, lead poisoning, and habitat destruction. A conservation plan was put in place by the United States government that led to the capture of all the remaining wild condors which was completed in 1987 and these surviving birds were bred at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park and the Los Angeles Zoo.
Numbers rose through captive breeding and, beginning in 1991, condors were reintroduced into the wild, the California condor is one of the worlds rarest bird species, as of December 2015 there are 435 condors living wild or in captivity. The condor is a significant bird to many Californian Native American groups, the California condor was described by English naturalist George Shaw in 1797 as Vultur californianus. The generic name Gymnogyps is derived from the Greek gymnos/γυμνος naked or bare, the word condor itself is derived from the Quechua word kuntur. The exact taxonomic placement of the California condor and the six species of New World vultures remains unclear. Though similar in appearance and ecological roles to Old World vultures, just how different the two are is currently under debate, with some earlier authorities suggesting that the New World vultures are more closely related to storks. More recent authorities maintain their position in the order Falconiformes along with the Old World vultures or place them in their own order.
As of the 51st Supplement of the American Ornithologists Union, the California Condor is in the Cathartiformes order, the genus Gymnogyps is an example of a relict distribution. During the Pleistocene epoch, this genus was widespread across the Americas, from fossils, the Floridan Gymnogyps kofordi from the Early Pleistocene and the Peruvian Gymnogyps howardae from the Late Pleistocene have been described. A condor found in Late Pleistocene deposits on Cuba was initially described as Antillovultur varonai and it may even have derived from a founder population of California condors. Todays California condor is the surviving member of Gymnogyps and has no accepted subspecies. However, there is a Late Pleistocene form that is regarded as a palaeosubspecies