Kirov, Kirov Oblast
Kirov, formerly known as Vyatka and Khlynov, is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, located on the Vyatka River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 473,695, Khlynov was first mentioned in 1374. It was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1489 and it was managed by Khanate of Kazan and was known as Hılın. The towns oldest surviving monument is the Assumption Cathedral, an imposing structure surmounted by five globular domes, in 1780, Catherine the Great renamed the town Vyatka and made it the seat of Vyatka Governorate. The town served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, by the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway. In December 1934, it was renamed for the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov, whilst the name Kirov has remained since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous institutions such as the university bear the former name of Vyatka. Kirov is the center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 134 rural localities, as a municipal division, the City of Kirov is incorporated as Kirov Urban Okrug.
Kirov is a transport hub and river port. It is served by Kirov Pobedilovo airport, during the 1990s this airport was closed and for several years provided only irregular service. During the 2003-2006 summer seasons there were signs of a revival in air transportation as several companies attempted to establish routes from Kirov to Moscow. Since 2006 Kirov airport has been used by a company operating flights to Moscow. The Kirov River port went bankrupt in the late 1990s and all its boats were sold to other regions. Kirov is a center of machine building, light, the trade, biochemical. Kirov Regional Museum Kirov Regional Art Museum in honor V. M. and A. M, Vasnetsov Vyatka Museum of Art, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was founded in 1910 by local artists. The idea of creation belongs to natives of Vyatka land, brothers artists Viktor Vasnetsov, at the core of the collection — works that received the most part in the 1910-1920s from the State Museum Fund, private collections and as gifts — from patrons and artists.
Today the museum has more than fifteen thousand exhibits and is located in four buildings in Kirov downtown, Aviation & Space Vyatka cabinet of curiosities Kirov diorama House-Museum of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Museum of A. Green House-Museum of N. According to a report, the city is home to a concentration of red-haired individuals
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman. He was the eighth and final leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991 and he was the countrys head of state from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. Gorbachev was born in Stavropol Krai into a peasant Ukrainian–Russian family and he graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law. While he was at the university, he joined the Communist Party, in 1970, he was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee, First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet in 1974, and appointed a member of the Politburo in 1979. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief interregna of Andropov and Chernenko, before he reached the post, he had occasionally been mentioned in Western newspapers as a likely next leader and a man of the younger generation at the top level. Gorbachevs policies of glasnost and perestroika and his reorientation of Soviet strategic aims contributed to the end of the Cold War.
He was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in 1989, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1990 and this was Gorbachevs third attempt to establish a political party, having started the Social Democratic Party of Russia in 2001 and the Union of Social Democrats in 2007. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, into a mixed Russian-Ukrainian family of migrants from Voronezh, as a child, Gorbachev experienced the Soviet famine of 1932–1933. He recalled in a memoir that In that terrible year nearly half the population of my village, starved to death. Both of his grandfathers were arrested on charges in the 1930s. His father was a combine harvester operator and World War II veteran and his mother, Maria Panteleyevna Gorbacheva, was a kolkhoz worker. He was brought up mainly by his Ukrainian maternal grandparents, in his teens, he operated combine harvesters on collective farms. He graduated from Moscow State University in 1955 with a degree in law, in 1967 he qualified as an agricultural economist via a correspondence masters degree at the Stavropol Institute of Agriculture.
While at the university, he joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and soon very active within the party. Gorbachev met his wife, Raisa Titarenko, daughter of a Ukrainian railway engineer. They married in September 1953 and moved to Stavropol upon graduation and she gave birth to their only child, daughter Irina Mikhailovna Virganskaya, in 1957. Raisa Gorbacheva died of leukemia in 1999, Gorbachev has two granddaughters and one great granddaughter. Gorbachev attended the important twenty-second Party Congress in October 1961, where Nikita Khrushchev announced a plan to surpass the U. S. in per capita production within twenty years, Gorbachev rose in the Communist League hierarchy and worked his way up through territorial leagues of the party
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician. Putin is the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012 and he was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, President from 2000 to 2008, and again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling United Russia Party, born in Leningrad, Putin studied German in high school and speaks the language fluently. He studied Law at the Saint Petersburg State University, graduating in 1975, Putin was a KGB Foreign Intelligence Officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before retiring in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsins administration, rising quickly through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. Putin won the subsequent 2000 Presidential election by a 53% to 30% margin, thus avoiding a runoff with his Communist Party of the Russian Federation opponent and he was re-elected President in 2004 with 72% of the vote.
During Putins first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, high oil prices, and prudent economic and fiscal policies. Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third presidential term in 2008. The 2008 Presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin Prime Minister, in September 2011, after presidential terms were extended from four to six years, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 Presidential election with 64% of the vote, under Putins leadership, Russia has scored poorly on both the Democracy index and the Corruption index. Putin has enjoyed high approval ratings during his career. In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year, in 2015, he was #1 on the Times Most Influential People List. Forbes ranked him the Worlds Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina.
His birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s, Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad. Putins mother was a worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy. Early in World War II, his father served in the battalion of the NKVD. Later, he was transferred to the army and was severely wounded in 1942. On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No.193 at Baskov Lane and he was one of a few in the class of approximately 45 pupils who was not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization
The Daruma doll, known as a Dharma doll, is a hollow, Japanese traditional doll modeled after Bodhidharma, the founder of the Zen sect of Buddhism. These dolls, though red and depicting a bearded man, vary greatly in color and design depending on region. Though considered an omocha, meaning toy, by some, Daruma has a design that is rich in symbolism and is regarded more as a talisman of luck to the Japanese. Daruma dolls are seen as a symbol of perseverance and good luck, the doll has been commercialized by many Buddhist temples to use alongside goal setting. When purchased, the eyes are white so a person can decide on a goal or wish, once the goal is achieved, the second eye is filled in. Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who lived during the 5th/6th century AD and he is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan to China. Little contemporary biographical information on Bodhidharma is extant, and subsequent accounts became layered with legend, according to one tradition, Bodhidharma gained a reputation for, among other things, his practice of wall-gazing.
Legend claims that he sat facing a wall in meditation for a period of nine years without moving, another popular legend is that after falling asleep during his nine-year meditation he became angry with himself and cut off his eyelids to avoid ever falling asleep again. The current popular symbolism associated with Daruma as a luck charm in part originated with the Daruma-dera in the city of Takasaki. Josef Kyburz, author of Omocha, Things to Play with, the parishioners would keep these charms to bring happiness and prosperity and ward off accidents and misfortune. It is believed that the Daruma figurine originated from this region when the ninth priest, the charms were always given with an effectiveness of one year, so the people required new ones every year. He solved this by entrusting them with the making of their own Daruma charms near the beginning of the Meiwa period, the temple made wooden block molds for the people to use. The peasants used these molds to make three-dimensional papier-mâché charms, Kyburz notes that though it is unknown when the Daruma figurine combined with the tumbler doll, the two were well recognized as synonymous by the mid-19th century.
The doll quickly grew in popularity, becoming a mascot of the region and this was due greatly in part to fact that the majority of the families were silk farmers, a crop which requires a great deal of luck for success. There is an annual Daruma Doll Festival held by the city of Takasaki in celebration of being the birthplace of the Daruma doll. The celebration is held at the Shorinzan, the name of Takasakis Daruma-Dera, according to the Takasaki city website, Over 400,000 people from all over the Kanto Plain come to buy new good-luck dolls for the year. Takasaki produces 80% of Japans Daruma dolls, the festival features a 24-hour reading of sutras by the Shorinzan monks for world peace. Daruma’s design, particularly the shape, color and facial hair, each have its own history and symbolic meaning
A doll is a model of a human being, often used as a toy for children. The earliest documented dolls go back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, the use of dolls as toys was documented in Greece around 100 AD. They have been made as crude, rudimentary playthings as well as elaborate art, modern doll manufacturing has its roots in Germany, going back to the 15th century. With industrialization and new materials such as porcelain and plastic, dolls were increasingly mass-produced, during the 20th century, dolls became increasingly popular as collectibles. The earliest dolls were made from materials such as clay, wood, ivory, leather. Archaeological evidence places dolls as the foremost candidate for the oldest known toy, wooden paddle dolls have been found in Egyptian tombs dating to as early as the 21st century BC. Dolls with movable limbs and removable clothing date back to at least 200 BC, Greek dolls were made of clay and articulated at the hips and shoulders. There are stories from ancient Greece around 100 AD that show that dolls were used by girls as playthings.
In Rome, dolls were made of clay, wood or ivory, Dolls have been found in the graves of Roman children. Like children today, the members of Roman civilization would have dressed their dolls according to the latest fashions. When Greek and Roman girls got married they would dedicate their doll to a goddess, rag dolls are traditionally home-made from spare scraps of cloth material. Roman rag dolls have been found dating back to 300 BC, traditional dolls are sometimes used as childrens playthings, but they may have spiritual and ritual value. There is no defined line between spiritual dolls and toys, in some cultures dolls that had been used in rituals were given to children. They were used in education and as carriers of cultural heritage. In other cultures dolls were considered too laden with magical powers to allow children to play with them, African dolls are used to teach and entertain, they are supernatural intermediaries, and they are manipulated for ritual purposes. Their shape and costume vary according to region and custom, Dolls are frequently handed down from mother to daughter.
Akuaba are wooden ritual fertility dolls from Ghana and nearby areas, the best known akuaba are those of the Ashanti people, whose akuaba have large, disc-like heads. Other tribes in the region have their own style of akuaba
Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening.
Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia.
He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha
Later in 1982, he became General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, a position he held until his death fifteen months later. Andropov was born in Nagutskaya, Stavropol Region, Russian Empire, Andropov was educated at the Rybinsk Water Transport Technical College and graduated in 1936. Both of his parents died early, leaving Yuri an orphan at the age of thirteen, as a teenager he worked as a loader, a telegraph clerk, and a sailor for the Volga steamship line. At 16, Yuri Andropov, a member of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League, was a worker in the town of Mozdok in the North Ossetian ASSR, during World War II, Andropov took part in partisan guerrilla activities in Finland. From 1944 onwards, he left Komsomol for Communist Party work, between 1946 and 1951, he studied at the university of Petrozavodsk. In 1947, he was elected Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Karelo-Finnish SSR, in 1951 Andropov was transferred, by the decision of the CPSU Central Committee, to its staff.
He was appointed an inspector and the head of a subdepartment of the Committee, in July 1954 he was appointed Soviet Ambassador to Hungary and held this position during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution. Andropov played a key role in crushing the Hungarian uprising and he convinced a reluctant Nikita Khrushchev that military intervention was necessary. He is known as ‘The Butcher of Budapest’ for his ruthless suppression of the Hungarian uprising, the Hungarian leaders were arrested and Imre Nagy and others executed. Andropov remained haunted for the rest of his life by the speed with which an apparently all-powerful Communist one-party state had begun to topple. In 1957 Andropov returned to Moscow from Budapest in order to head the Department for Liaison with Communist and Workers Parties in Socialist Countries, in 1961, he was elected full member of the CPSU Central Committee and was promoted to the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee in 1962. He gained additional powers in 1973, when he was promoted to member of the Politburo.
During the Prague Spring events of 1968 in Czechoslovakia, Andropov was the proponent of the extreme measures. The KGB whipped up the fear that Czechoslovakia could fall victim to NATO aggression or to a coup, however his message was destroyed because it contradicted the conspiracy theory fabricated by Andropov. Andropov ordered a number of measures, collectively known as operation PROGRESS. After the assassination attempt against Brezhnev in January 1969, Andropov led the interrogation of the captured gunman, Ilyin was pronounced insane and sent to Kazan Psychiatric Hospital. On 3 July 1967, he made a proposal to establish for dealing with the opposition the KGBs Fifth Directorate. At the end of July, the directorate was established and entered in its files cases of all Soviet dissidents including Andrei Sakharov, the proposal by Andropov to use psychiatry for struggle against dissidents was implemented
Exposition Universelle (1900)
The style that was universally present in the Exposition was Art Nouveau. The staging of the first International Exhibition in 1855 was motivated by a desire to re-establish pride, the succession of exhibitions followed the same theme, the regeneration of nationality after war. Eight years before the launch of the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle, countries from around the world were invited by France to showcase their achievements and lifestyles, the Exposition Universelle was a uniting and learning experience. It presented the opportunity for foreigners to realize the similarities between nations as well as their unique differences, new cultures were experienced and an overall better understanding of the values each country had to offer was gained. The learning atmosphere aided in attempts to increase cultural tolerance, deemed necessary after a period of war, the early announcement and the massively positive response disenchanted the interest that had been circling around the first German International Exposition.
It is suspected that the Exposition Universelle did not do as well financially as expected because the public did not have the funds to participate in the fair. The 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle was so expensive to organize and run that the cost per visitor ended up being about six hundred more than the price of admission. The exhibition lost a total of 82,000 francs after six months in operation. Many Parisians had invested money in shares sold to raise money for the event, with a much larger expected turnout the exhibit sites had gone up in value. Continuing to pay rent for the sites became increasingly hard for concessionaires as they were receiving fewer customers than anticipated, the concessionaires went on strike, which ultimately resulted in the closure of a large part of the exposition. To resolve the matter, the concessionaires were given a refund of the rent they had paid. The financial consequences of the 1900 Exposition Universelle were devastating for many Parisians, the Exposition Universelle was where talking films and escalators were first publicized, and where Campbells Soup was awarded a gold medal.
At the exposition Rudolf Diesel exhibited his engine, running on peanut oil. Brief films of excerpts from opera and ballet were apparently the first films exhibited publicly with projection of both image and recorded sound, the exposition featured many panoramic paintings and extensions of the panorama technique, such as the Cinéorama and Trans-Siberian Railway Panorama. The centrepiece of the Palais de lOptique was the 1. 25-metre-diameter Great Exposition Refractor and this telescope was the largest refracting telescope at that time. The optical tube assembly was 60 meters long and 1.5 meters in diameter, light from the sky was sent into the tube by a movable 2-meter mirror. Partly organized by Booker Washington and W. E. B, du Bois, this exhibition aimed at showing African Americans positive contributions to American society. Many of the buildings constructed for the Exposition Universelle were demolished after the conclusion of the exposition, many of the buildings were built on a framework of wood, and covered with staff, which was formed into columns, walls, etc
Sergey Vasilyevich Malyutin was a Russian painter of fine crafts, designer and architect, initially associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement. Most of his oil paintings are portraits, outside of Russia, he is perhaps best known for designing the first set of Matryoshka dolls, created by Vasily Zvyozdochkin in 1890. Malyutin was born in Moscow to a family of merchants in 1859 and was raised in Voronezh where, in 1870, from 1883 to 1886, he attended the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture, where he studied with Illarion Pryanishnikov and Vladimir Makovsky. Upon graduating, he was awarded a silver medal, in 1890, he was named a Free Artist. From 1891 to 1893, he was an instructor at the Elizabethan Institute, during this time, he created illustrations for the works of Pushkin and some Russian folk tales. While there, he designed a building for the school library and his designs for a church were realized by the architect Vladimir Suslov. Later, he would work with Nikolai Zhukov to create the Pertsov House in Moscow and his architectural designs were basically part of the Russian Revival movement, but were embellished with fantastic folk motifs.
From 1903 to 1917, he taught at the MSPSA, during that time, he joined the Peredvizhniki and was named an Academician by the Imperial Academy of Arts. After the 1917 Revolution, he worked as an instructor at the Higher Artistic and Technical Workshops, from 1918 to 1921, he participated in the creation of the propaganda posters known as Rosta Windows. In 1922, he was one of the co-founders of the Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia, which held its first meeting at his home and he died in Moscow in 1937. Alina Abramova, Жизнь художника Сергея Малютина, Изобраз, искусство,1978 Galina Vladimirovna Golinets, Сергей Васильевич Малютин, Selected Works of Soviet Artists series, Советский художник,1987 Arcadja Auctions, More works by Malyutin
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, Khrushchevs party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovka in 1894, close to the border between Russia and Ukraine. He was employed as a metalworker in his youth, and during the Russian Civil War was a political commissar, with the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. He supported Joseph Stalins purges, and approved thousands of arrests, in 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, and he continued the purges there. During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalins close advisers, in the power struggle triggered by Stalins death in 1953, after several years, emerged victorious.
On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the Secret Speech, denouncing Stalins purges and his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were often ineffective, especially in agriculture. Hoping eventually to rely on missiles for defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchevs rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, flaws in Khrushchevs policies eroded his popularity and emboldened potential opponents, who quietly rose in strength and deposed the premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the fate of previous losers of Soviet power struggles, and was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow. His lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970, Khrushchev died in 1971 of heart disease. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russias Kursk Oblast and his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Ksenia Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, and had a daughter two years Nikitas junior, Irina.
Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, and laboring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Kalinovka was a peasant village, Khrushchevs teacher, Lydia Shevchenko, stated that she had never seen a village as poor as Kalinovka had been. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age and he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenkos tutelage in Kalinovkas state school. She urged Nikita to seek education, but family finances did not permit this. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka, fourteen-year-old Nikita followed that year, while Ksenia Khrushcheva and her daughter came after
Semyonov, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Semyonov is a town in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, notable for being a major center for traditional handcrafts such as Khokhloma wood painting and matryoshka dolls. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 24,473, the town is situated in an area of lowland bogs and forests, about 100 kilometers northeast of Nizhny Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. The Kerzhenets River flows through the town, the surrounding area includes most of the Kerzhenets Nature Reserve, a federal-level strict ecological reserve, established for the protection and scientific study of the local ecology of the region. It was established in the beginning of the 17th century as a settlement of Old Believers, the first documented mention of Semyonov was in 1644, it was referred to as Semyonovs hamlet, as Semyonovo village, and from 1779 as the uyezd town of Semyonov. From the beginning of the 19th to the early 20th century, it was a center for Old Believers movement, as a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Semyonov is incorporated as Semyonovsky Urban Okrug.
Since 1918 Khokhloma wood painting became a craft in Semyonov. In 1960, Semyonov was organized as a factory named Khokhlomskaya rospis and this factory specialized in the production of hand-painted wooden items with unique style, and matryoshka dolls, marketed as souvenir items. The factory offers tours around the stages of production and visitors can see craftspeople making and painting the items in traditional Russian styles. Semyonov is located on the Nizhny Novgorod-Kotelnich railway, which is part of one of the routes used by trains traveling from Moscow to the Urals. The town is served by commuter trains, connecting it to Nizhny Novgorod in just over an hour. Закон №184-З от16 ноября2005 г, «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Нижегородской области», в ред. Закона №58-З от5 мая2016 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Нижегородской области Об административно-территориальном устройстве Нижегородской области», Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №218,23 ноября2005 г, Закон №211-З от22 декабря2010 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований Семёновского муниципального района Нижегородской области», в ред, Закона №150-З от7 декабря2012 г. Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования, Опубликован, Нижегородские новости, №234,23 декабря2010 г.
Official website of Semyonovsky Urban Okrug Mojgorod. ru